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Calicut Travancore
First posted on June 13th 2011, last revised on December 25th 2011






Political History . The Empire of Vijayanagar (Vijayanagara, Vijnayagar; in many old sources called Bisnagar) lasted from 1343 to 1646. At its greatest extent it covered most of the modern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Hinduism was the dominant religion, but within its borders communities of Muslims, Christians, Jains, Buddhists and Jews thrived. The Empire was multilingual, with Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Konkani, Kannada the major languages; temporarily it exerted control over Sri Lanka, Pegu and Tenasserim.
It was a feudal empire, with many kings as vassalls. Disintegration began in 1565; increasingly, vassalls refused to accept the suzerainty of the Emperor of Vijayanagar, regarded themselves independent. Among them were the Zamorin of Calicut, the Nayaks of Madurai, Tanjore and Gingee. The Empire was terminated by an invasion of the Sultans of Bijapur and Golconda in 1646. Part of Vijayanagar territory was annexed by the invaders; the former vassalls of Tanjore, Madurai and Mysore became independent, as did the smaller states of Malabar.

The name lived on . P. d'Avity 1620 refers to the Vijayanagar Empire as the Royaume du Narsinge. A Kingdom of Bisnagar continues to feature in historical sources of the late 17th and 18th century.






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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article Vijayanagara Empire, from Wikipedia
Historical
Links Category : Vijayanagara Empire, from Wikipedia
Organizations Database of Organizations Libraries and Archives in South Asia Wiki
on Asia or India Asiatic Society Mumbai; Asiatic Society Kolkata; Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Archaeological Survey of India
Numismatic Society of India; Oriental Numismatic Society
International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts
on Vijayanagar Kerala Council for Historical Research, Tamil Nadu Council of Historical Research
Libraries and Archives in South Asia Wiki : Karnataka Historical Research Society (Dharwad, India), Andhra Historical Research Society (Rajahmundry, India)
International Institute of Tamil Studies
Department of Archaeology, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Centre for Deccan Studies, Hyderabad
Portals Vijayanagara Research Project
India Digital Heritage Research Project : Indian Digital Hampi
Hampi Online
Vijayanagara Mapping Project
South Dakota State Univ., Project South Asia
Timelines
Accounts of History Current Vijayanagara Empire, from Classical Kannada
History, from Vijayanagara Coins
History, from Hampi Online
Historical G.P. Maffei, Le istorie dell' Indie Orientali, edition of 1589, edition of 1749, in Italian, GB
F. Guerreiro, Indianische relation was sich in den Königreichen Pegu, Bengala, Bissnaga und etlich andern Ländern der gegen Auffgang gelegenen Indien von 1604 und etlich folgenden Jahren .. zugetragen, 1611, German trsl. of the Portuguese, GB
R. Sewell, A Forgotten Empire, Vijayanagar: A Contribution to the History of India 1900, GB
B.S. Row, A history of Vijayanagar: the never to be forgotten empire, 1905, GB
Specific Periods Article : Origin of Vijayanagara Empire, from Wikipedia
H. Heras, The Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagara, vol.1, 2005, IA
Military Wars, Battles R. Rikhye, Wars & Campaigns of Krishnadevaraya, Emperor of Vijaynagar, 1509-1529 2005
Articles Battle of Raichur, Battle of Talikota, from Wikipedia
Forts P.S. Harish, Significance of Forts during the Vijayanagara Period, 2007
Article : Vellore Fort, Chitradurga Fort, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances
Social History Article : Society of Vijayanagara Empire, from Wikipedia
Reddy caste and its significance and sub-sects, from We donate blood
Article : Kamma (caste), from Wikipedia
Ethnography
Religion Hinduism Article : Persecution of Hindus : During Islamic Rule of the Indian Subcontinent, from Wikipedia
S. Nayyar, Basavanna & Vir Shaivism Lingayat Movement 2001
Civil Service India : Virasaiva or Lingayat Saivism
Jainism Jainism in South India, from JainWorld, by T.K. Tukol
R. Ayyangar, Studies in South Indian Jainism 1922, IA
History of Digambar Jains, from JainDharmOnline
Article : Tamil Jain, Jainism in Kerala, from Wikipedia
P.M. Joseph, History of Jainism in Andhra Pradesh Part 1, Part 2
Article : Jainism in Karnataka, from Wikipedia
N. Sridhar, History : Jainism in Karnataka
Jainism in Karnataka, from Classical Kannada
by Region Modern States Andhra Pradesh History : Middle Ages, from AP Online
Article : History of Andhra Pradesh : Mughal Era, from Wikipedia
Karnataka Article : Political History of Medieval Karnataka, from Wikipedia
Kerala
Tamil Nadu Article : History of Tamil Nadu : Vijayanagar and Nayak Period, from Wikipedia
Predecessors Hoysala Empire 1026-1343 Articles : Hoysala Empire, Hoysala administration, from Wikipedia
Articles : Economy of the Hoysala Empire, Hoysala architecture, Hoysala literature, from Wikipedia
Hoysala Dynasty, from Classical Kannada
S. Settar, Hoysala Heritage 2008
Hoysala Coins, from Coin India (commercial site); Western Gangas and Hoysalas, from Oriental Coins Database
Hoysalas Gold Fanam, from Lakdiva
South Indian Inscriptions (vol.9, n.d.) : Miscellaneous Inscriptions in Kannada : Hoysalas, from What is India
Kampili (-1336) Article : Kampili, from Wikipedia
Pandyan Dynasty
c.300 BCE-1345
Article : Pandyan Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Medieval History of India : Pandya Dynasty, Pandya Dynasty of Madura, from IndiaNetZone
Pandyas of Madura, from Oriental Coins Database
South Indian Inscriptions (vol.14, 1986) : Pandya Inscriptions, from What is India
Reddy Dynasty 1325-1448 Article : Reddy Dynasty, from Wikipedia
South Indian Inscriptions (vol.10) : Reddy Dynasties, from What is India
Warangal 1082-1323 Article : Warangal, from Wikipedia
Article : Kakatiya Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Yadava 850-1334 Article : Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, from Wikipedia
Yadavas of Devagiri, from Oriental Coins Database
South Indian Inscriptions (vol.9, n.d.) : Miscellaneous Inscriptions in Kannada : Yadavas, from What is India
Successors Madurai Article : Madurai Nayak Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Feudatories and successors of Vijayanagar, from Oriental Coins Database
Malabar Coast Note : the statelets of Kochi (Cochin), Kolathiri (Cannanore), Samoothiri (Calicut), Venad (Travancore) and smaller units are dealt with in the chapter on the Malabar Coast)
Mysore Article : Kingdom of Mysore, from Wikipedia
Tanjore Article : Thanjavur Nayak Kingdom, from Wikipedia
Feudatories and successors of Vijayanagar, from Oriental Coins Database
Local History Article : Ancient City of Vijayanagara, from Wikipedia
An Account of the Cities of Calicut and Bijanagur in the 15th century, translated from the Persic of Khondemir, pp.226-227 in vol.2 of The Asiatic Annual Register or a View of the History of Hindustan, 1801, GB
Institutions
Culture Article : Vijayanagara Architecture, from Wikipedia
Biographies
Others C.P. Brown, Carnatic chronology: the Hindu and Mahomedan methods of reckoning time explained; with essays on the systems, symbols used for numerals, a new titular method of memory, historical records, and other subjects , 1863, Gb
V.K. Joshi, Environment : Vijayanagara, the Empire that Vanished

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Article Vijayanagara Empire, from Wikipedia; has a list of rulers
Documents Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws
Chronicles D. Lopes (ed.), Chronica dos reis de Bisnaga, manuscrito inedito do seculo XVI, 1897, SBB
Treaties
Document Collections S.K. Aiyangar, Sources of Vijayanagar history, 1919, IA; K.A.N. Sastry, Further Sources Of Vijayanagara History, 1946, IA
South Indian Inscriptions (vol.9, n.d.) : Miscellaneous Inscriptions in Kannada : Dynasties of Vijayanagara, from What is India
South Indian Inscriptions (vol.16, 1988) : Telugu Inscriptions of the Vijayanagara Dynasty, from What is India
Survey of Manuscripts in India, see Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
Individual Documents Bisnagar Conquest, and rule of Carnataca Lords, pp.205- in vol.1 of W. Taylor, Oriental historical Manuscripts in the Tamil Language translated, 1835, GB
Historical Maps Map Collections
Overview, modern Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Map : Vijayanagara Empire, from Wikipedia
Map : Pandya Territories 1251/1283, from Wikipedia
Overview, contemporary
Detail, modern
Detail, contemporary
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Bisnagar, p.250 in vol.3 pt.1 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1797, GB
Article : Bisnagar, p.634 in vol.3 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1834, GB
Religious
Economic Regno di Bisnagar, p.112 in vol.3 of Il mentore perfetto de negozianti, ovvero guida sicura de' medesimi, ed istruzione, per rendere ad essi piu agevoli, e meno incerte le loro speculazioni, 1794, in Italian, GB
Political Discours du Roy de Narsinge, pp.925- in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1613, in French, GB
Discours du Roy de Narsinge, pp.923- in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1614, in French, GB
Discours du Roi de Narsinge, pp.191- in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires royaumes, seigneuries, duchez, et principautez du monde, 1621, in French, GB
Discours de l'estat du Roy de Narsinge, pp.925-933 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1628, in French, GB
Discours du Roy de Narcinge, pp.659- in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires et principautez du monde representez par la description des pays et moeurs des habitans, richesses des provinces, les forces, le gouvernement, la religion, et les princes qui ont gouverne chacun estat , 1630, in French, GB
Estats du Roy de Bisnagar, pp.544-569 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties... , 1643, in French, GB
Discours du Roy de Narsinge, pp.808-812 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires, royaumes et principautez du monde , 1659, in French, GB
Discours de l'estat du Roy de Narsynge, pp.1140-1146 in P. d'Avity, Nouveau theatre du monde: contenant les estats, empires, royaumes, et principautez, representez par l'ordre et veritable description des pays, moeurs des peuples, forces, 1661, in French, GB
Discours du Roy de Narsinge, pp.808- in P. d'Avity, Les estats, empires, royaumes et principautez du monde, 1665, in French, GB
Geographical The Kingdom of Bisnagar, pp.140-141 in L. Echard, A most compleat compendium of geography general and special discribing all the empires kingdom and dominions in the whole world 1691, GB
Kingdom of Bisnagar, p.105 in E. Wells, A treatise of ancient and present geography, 1706, GB
Royaume de Bisnagar pp.282-284 in C. Noblot, Geographie universelle, historique et chronologique, ancienne et moderne, 1725, in French, GB
Le Pays de Bisnagar, p.647 in A. du Bois, La Geographie moderne, naturelle historique & politique, 1736, in French, GB
Bisnagar, p.157 in Expilly, La polychrographie en six parties 1756, in French, GB
Historical Die Königreiche Narsinga, p.142 in G. Marcel, Conspectus historiae universalis 1696, in German, GB
Bisnagar, p.507 in vol.1 of J.C. Iselin, Neu-vermehrtes historisch- und geographisches allgemeines Lexicon, 1726, in German, GB
Bisnagar, p.262 in vol.1 of L. Moreri, Le grand dictionnaire historique , 1731, in French, GB
Royaume de Bisnagar, ou Carnate p.550 in S. von Pufendorf, Introduction a l'histoire moderne, generale et politique de l'univers, 1759, in French, GB
Empire de Bisnagar, pp.5-10 in vol.19 of Histoire universelle: depuis le commencement du monde, 1762, in French, GB
Empire of Bisnagar, pp.3-8 in vol.6 of The Modern Part of a Universal History, 1781, GB
Canarinen, pp.115-116 in vol.1 of C.F. Koeppen, Universal-Lexikon der Völker- und Ländergeschichte, 1806, in German, GB
Book Reviews
Tour Guides, Travelogues Hampi Online : Chroniclers
Article : Niccolo de Conti, from Wikipedia; Nicolo de Conti's account of Hampi (1420/1421), from Hampi Online
Athanasius Nikitin (1469/1472), from Hampi Online; Brief Extract from the Travels of Athanasius Nikitin, a Native of Twer 1857, IA
Abd er Razzak, Journey to Hindoostan, pp.13- in R.H. Major (ed.), India in the fifteenth Century, 1857, GB
Institutions Archives Kerala State Archives
Department of Archives and Historical Research, Tamil Nadu
Karnataka State Archives Department
Musea Pazhassiraja Museum and Art Gallery, Kozhikode
District Archaeological & Heritage Museum, Nizamabad
Government Museum, Chennai
Monuments Group of Monuments at Hampi, from UNESCO World Heritage Centre
Libraries State Central Library, Kerala
Article : Anna Centenary Library, from Wikipedia
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Vijayanagara Coins
Kerala Department of Archaeology, scroll down for Koyikkal Palace, Numismatic Museum
Coins of Kerala, from Karsha
Vijayanagar Coins, from Government Museum Chennai
Medieval Indian Coinage : Vijayanagar Empire, from RBI
South of India, pp.735-751 in vol.2 of W. Marsden, Numismata orientalia illustrata, 1825, GB

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Vijayanagara Vijayanagara Research Project : Bibliography
Vijayanagara Mapping Project : References
Kerala History Bibliography
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Gallica
Center for Research Libraries (CRL)
on India Digital Library of India
Indcat, Online Union Catalogue of Indian Universities, from INFLIBNET, click Union Database
Digitial Library of Indian History Books, from Indic Studies
Online Journals
General Accounts Burton Stein, Vijayanagara (The New Cambridge History of India), Cambridge : UP 1993 [G]
Specific Topics
Historical Atlasses C. Collin Davies, An Historical Atlas of the Indian Peninsula, Oxford : UP, 2nd edition, 1959 [G]
Historical and Cultural Maps, National Atlas of India Vol.8, published by National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation, Calcutta 1983, edited by G.K . Dutt, S.K. Biswas [G]
J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia, Chicago : UP 1978 [G]