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Punjab (India) Sindh
First posted on January 4th 2007, last revised on June 4th 2010






Punjab, in Greek Pentapotamia, an inland delta of 5 converging rivers, has always been one of the most important historical regions of South Asia. Part of the Indus River Civilization, crossed by most invaders who tried to conquer the Indian subcontinent. Connection through the Khyber Pass with Afghanistan and, in the east, through Delhi with the Jumna-Ganges Valley historically had greater importance than connection downriver with Sindh.
Punjab had been an important province of the Mughal Empire. In the 18th century the Punjab slipped out of Mughal control, and Sikh polities emerged, unified into one state under Ranjit Singh. The E.I.C. annexed the Punjab in 1849 and organized it as Punjab Province, nominally under Bengal Presidency.
In 1937 Punjab received its own assembly and prime minister. Upon the release of British India into independence in 1947, the Punjab split into Western Punjab, which joined Pakistan, and Eastern Punjab (at that time including Haryana and Himachal Pradesh), which joined India. In 1947-1948 population exchange on a major scale took place, Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs moving out of Western Punjab into India, Indian Muslims moving in the other direction.
At first the capital of Pakistan was located in Karachi (Sindh). In 1958 it was moved to Rawalpindi (Punjab), soon after to Islamabad (Punjab).

Punjab 1977-1988 . Pakistan
Punjab 1970-1977 . Pakistan
Punjab 1955-1970 . Pakistan
Punjab 1947-1955 . Pakistan

see Bahawalpur

Timeline : Punjab

Historical Atlas, Punjab , Pakistan , South Asia Pages




E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current from Wikipedia
Links General Category : Punjab (Pakistan)
Organizations Culture, Archaeology & Museum Department, from Government of Punjab
National Fund for Cultural Heritage, Pakistan
UKPHA
Historical Dictionary Jatland Wiki
Encyclopedia of Sikhism; The Sikh Encyclopedia; Sikhi Wiki
Timelines see here
Accounts of History Current from Wikipedia; from Punjab Online
Specific Periods The Rise of Sikh Power, from Brainy Encyclopedia
Punjab and the Ghazni and Ghur Invasions, from South Asian History
Politics Provincial Assembly of Punjab (Pakistan), official, has history
City Government Lahore
Military 14th Punjab Regiment, 16th Punjab Regiment, from Wikipedia
11/1 Punjab Regiment, 15/1 Punjab Regiment, from Orders of Battle
Economy & Finances Pakistan : Punjab Economic Report, from ADB
Social History
Ethnography Articles Seraiki People, Punjabi Language, Hindko Language, from Wikipedia
Religion Category : Mosques in Punjab (Pakistan), from Wikipedia
History of Regions History of Bahawalpur, at WHKMLA
Article Seraikistan, fromWikipedia
Local History Lahore History, from Alephinc, from Government of Lahore
A Museum or British Lahore, from History Today 1997
History of Rawalpindi, from Pindiplus
Islamabad History, from Alephinc
Institutions History of Medical Colleges of Punjab
History, from University of the Punjab
Culture
Biographies
Others

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Pakistan Provinces : Punjab, from World Statesmen
Population Figures Historical Population Figures : Pakistan, Provinces, from Population Statistics
Current population of towns and cities in Punjab, Pakistan, from World Gazetteer
Documents Historical Newspapers
Modern Newspapers
Image Databanks
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK)
Search Janus
Constitutions, Laws Punjab Laws Online, Chronological Index, 53 laws pre-1947
Treaties
Document Collections
Historical Maps see WHMKLA Historical Atlas, Punjab Page
Map of Punjab, from Punjab Online; of West Punjab, East Punjab (Constable 1893) posted by Ian Poyntz; from Imperial Gazetteer of India, posted by DSAL (1908)
Map of Lahore (Constable 1893) posted by Ian Poyntz
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives Archives in Pakistan, from E-Lis
Plight of the Punjab Archives, from Punjab Heritage News
Musea Museums and Galleries in Pakistan, scroll down for Punjab
Monuments F.M.A. Rehman, History and Architecture of Mughhal Monuments Lahore, 2002 thesis
Libraries National Library of Pakistan
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Punjab Books on Punjab, Punjabi History and Culture, from Maboli
D. Ludden, Bibliography on South Asian Agrarian History (c.1990)
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
International Boundary Studies
Gallica
Search DBNG
on Pakistan Pakistan Research Repository
Panjab Digital Library
Online Journals
Online Yearbooks
General Accounts Sahdev Vohra, Punjab then and now, 1846-1999, Delhi : Indian Publishers Distributors 2000 [G]
Mushirul Hasan (ed.), The Partition Omnibus, Oxford : UP 2002, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.03 P132p