1803-1815 History of Italy 1830-1848

Switzerland 1815-1830

In 1817 Switzerland joined the Holy Alliance, while otherwise pursuing a foreign policy of strict neutrality.
The events of 1813 to 1815 had brought a partial return of the old constitution, especially on cantonal level (Bern, Fribourg, Solothurn and Luzern). In these cantons, the main cities dominated the surrounding countryside in the representative councils. Restoration in Switzerland was particularly far-reaching; even Torture was reintroduced; guild membership was enforced. Those who voiced their protest, such as professors Karl L. von Haller and Troxler risked losing their jobs; liberal teachers were fired. In reaction to liberal pamphlets calling for change, in 1823 the diet decided to impose regulations severely restricting the freedom of the press.
The Jesuits reestablished themselves in Switzerland in 1818, in Fribourg, targeting the followers of Pestalozzi. They were joined in their efforts by the papal nuntio. The Catholic church in Switzerland came under the influence of what critics called Ultramontanism.
Artists and poets kept the spirit of Swiss nationalism alive. J. Rudolf Wyss wrote Rufst du, mein Vaterland (When you call, my fatherland) which for a number of decades was to serve as the Swiss national anthem. Monuments commemorating patriotic events and heroes were erected. Societies were founded promoting progress in science and technology. In 1824 the Society of Sempach was founded, which organized annual shooting contests; gymnastic and choral societies were founded, often with a political (liberal and/or patriotic).

In 1829/1830 restauration policy was repeatedly and sharply criticized and the need for a constitutional, far-reaching reform expressed by men such as Zschokke and Dr. Schinz, and printed in the country's growing number of newspapers. On cantonal level, change began in 1829, with the toppling of the aristocracy in Luzern and the abolition of censorship in Zü:rich. In 1830 Ticino adopted a new constitution.

Population in 1823 1,714,000.

Switzerland was a favourite exile site for retired monarchs; Hortense, wife of King Louis of Holland, with her son Louis Napoleon (later Napoleon III.) chose to live here as well as Gustav IV. Adolf, who had abdicated as King of Sweden in 1809.

The Collapse of the Old Confederation in 1798 and the Long March to the New Federal State of 1848, from Swiss Genealogy on the Web
Biography of Ignaz Paul Vital Troxler, from Troxlerforum
The story of the Swiss national anthem, from Confoederatio Helvetica
Die Verfassung (des Kantons Fribourg) vom 4. bis 10. Mai 1814, in : Die Verfassung von 1857 - ein geschichtlicher Abriss, in German, scroll down
DOCUMENTS Documents from Hertslet vol.1 (see Table of Contents
Mar. 20th 1815 : Declaration of the 8 Powers, on the Swiss Confederation, pp.64 ff.
Mar. 29th 1815Protocol of Conference between the 8 Powers. Sardinian Cessions to Canton of Geneva. (Vienna.) pp.70ff
May 20th 1815 Territorial Treaty between Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Sardinia. Union of Genoa to Sardinia. Sardinian Cessions to Geneva. (Vienna.) pp.155ff
May 27th 1815 Act of Acceptance by Switzerland of the Declaration of the 8 Powers of 20th March, 1815. (Zurich.) pp.170ff
Nov. 3rd 1815 Protocol between the 4 Powers. Territorial Arrangements. Defence of the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, &c. pp.326ff
Nov. 20th 1815 Act. Great Britain, Austria, &c. Neutrality of Switzerland and Parts of Savoy. (Paris.) pp.370ff
Mar. 16th 1816 Treaty between Sardinia, Switzerland and Geneva. Neutrality of Savoy, &c. (Turin.) pp.421ff
Dec. 24th 1820 Convention between Baden and Switzerland. Nellenburg. (Carlsruhe.) pp.662ff
Nov. 4th 1824 Proces Verbal between France, Switzerland, and Neufchatel. Frontier between France and Neufchatel. (Neufchatel.) pp.718ff
Le Pacte federal du 7 aout 1815 et le Valais canton suisse, from cliotexte
La garantie de la neutralite de la Suisse (20 novembre 1815), from cliotexte, in French
Suisse au XIXe siecle (de 1815 a 1848), from cliotexte, 3 documents 1832, 1833, 1848, in French
W. Gracie, General Gazetteer 1823 : Switzerland
Statesmen representing the Helvetic Republic, from World Statesmen : Switzerland by Ben Cahoon
Documents on Swiss Constitutional History : Restauration, 1815-1830, posted by Univ. Bern, Institute for Public Law, 5 documents, in German language
REFERENCE Charles Dandliker, History of Switzerland, The History of Nations Volume XIII. NY : Colliers (1907) 1916, pp.327-594, revised by Elbert J. Benton

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on February 9th 2002, last revised on February 14th 2006

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