Fiume as described in Historic Encyclopedias



Brockhaus 1834-1838, Pierer 1857-1865, Meyer 1885-1892, Meyer 1902-1909





Brockhaus Damen-Conversations-Lexikon 1834-1838, Article : Fiume
City in the Kingdom of Croatia on Quarnero Bay of the Adriatic Sea, a free port with 7800 inhabitants, conducts in vivid trade, is seat of a governor, has a gymnasium, sugar, obacco and liquor factories. The rosoglio of Fiume is widely appreciated and the object of considerable trade.
source in German, posted by Retro Bibliohek

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Fiume
(2) in German : Sankt Veit am Flaum, in Illyrian Reka or Rika, capital of the Croatian district of Fiume, on the Fiumara and the Bay of Quarnero, consists of the old town (on a hill) and of the new ciy (on the seafront), is seat of district authorities, of a bishop, a mercantile and exchange court, a loan office, an insurance company, has a casino, theatre, naval school, gymnasium, school, Benedictine nuns' convent with school for girls, a music school, hospital, contumaz house, produces linen, cloth, leather, rosoglio, paper, tobacco, sugar, wax lights, ropes, anchors, further it has a bell foundry, beer breweries, wax bleecheries, shipping and trade, 14,000 inhabitants. Fiume has a free port, which makes it one of Austria's most important ports. In Fiume (Lat. Fanum St. Viti) respectively in the nearby Capuchin monastery in 1618 peace was concluded between Austria and Venice. On June 2nd 1717 the city was elevated a free port by Charles VI.
source in German, posted by Retro Bibliohek

Meyers Conversations-Lexikon 1885-1892, Article : Pomaken
Fiume (Fanum St. Viti ad Flumen, in German St. Veit am Flaum, Slav. Reka), Royal Hungarian free city and free port, and final station of the southern railroad St. Peter - Fiume and of the state railroad line Agram - Fiume,on the mouth of the Fiumara into the Quarnero. Consists of an old and a new city, the latter located on the seafront, is partially beautifully constructed. To be mentioned are the streets Deak Corso, Via del Corso, Via della Riva, Via de Molo, the places Piazza Urmenyi, Piazza Adamich, Giardino Elisabeta and among the buildings cathedral Mary's Ascension, with frontispiece of the kind of the Roman Pantheon, the St. Vitus church modeled after the church della Salute in Venice; the casino, theatre, governor's residence, the building of the former seminary, city hall, the palace of admiralty, the savings bank etc. Fiume has several moles, a lighthouse, along the sea a beautiful quay with beautiful vista at the Istrian coast. Fiume (with territory) in 1881 had 20,981 inhabitants (Italians, Croats, Hungarians and Germans). The extended industry consists of a paper factory established in 1827 (500 workers), which exports its products even to England, Greece, Turkey, Egypt, India and Brazil, a torpedo factory, a grandiose machine factory (stabilimento technico Fiumano), a royal tobacco factory (more than 2,000 workers), a chemical factory, a steam-powered mill, a petrol refinery (400 workers who process 72 million liters petrol annually), a rice peeling mill (grinding 400,000 metr. ctrw. annually), a rice starch factory (annual production 30,000 metr. ctrw.). Further Fiume has metal foundries, candle, bisquit, canned food, liquor, wax, sail cloth, leaher, rope production and large American grain mills. Of great importance has always been shipbuilding. In 1833-1872, 734 ships with 254,680 tons were built, for which there also was a market abroad. With the decline of sailboat shipping, shipbuilding here also declined, and since the construction of the port, has completely stopped. Fishery in the Quarnero, namely for tuna, is vibrant. In 1717 Charles VI. declared the port of Fiume a free port. As the main sea port for the Hungarian hinterland it long was one of the most important ports of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Since the Hungarian government in 1872-1884 has invested 12 million Florin in the cionsruction of port facilities (Maria Theresia Molo, the outer seawall; the Szapary Riva connecting to the Molo Adamich, the Sanita Riva, the Molo Zichy with 4 magazines, the Stephanie Riva with 3 gigantic magazines, the Molo Rudolf with a new timber deposit, the new port for boats and the new petrol port, Fiume has grown into an important trade emporium, the importance of which for European export in increasing more and more. The rapid increase of Fiuman sea trade is indicated by he following figures : 1870 1,167,000 metric ctrw. at a value of 13.4 million Florin, in 1880 2,857,000 metric ctrw. / 27 million Fl., in 1884 6,314,000 metr. ctrw. / 68 million Fl. In 1884 7656 ships visited, with 1,275,762 tons. The import was 2,085,000 metr. ctrw. (petrol, rice etc.), the export 4,229,000 metr. ctrw. (timber : 39 million barrel staves, 1.5 million logs, flour etc.). Among scientific and other institutions Fiume has a naval academy, a nautical school, an upper gymnasium, a real schiool, a hospital, several charitable organizations, a branch office of the Austro-Hungarian bank, several financial institutes, of insurance agencies etc. Fiume is the seat of a governor, of the royal admiralty, a garrison, port authority, sanitary authority, sea court, court, directory of finances, main customs office, of a chamber of commerce and industry, and of a German consulate. On the alluvial field of the Fiumara vegetable gardens are found, with the promenade alley "Scoglietto". Nearby are the spa Abbazia, the old mountain castle Tersato (original seat of the Frangipani family) with frequented pilgrimage church and excellent view at the Quarnero, the islands Veglia and Cherso, Fiume and the coast. To the territory of the city belong three villages : Cosale, Plasse, Drenova.
Fiume and territory (the Hungarian Litorale, to which also the villages of Cosale, Drenova and Plase belong) has 19.57 square km (0.34 square miles). Since the Hungaro-Croatian Compromise of 1870 it forms an autonomous territory incorporated in the Kingdom of Hungary and it is administrated by a royal governor immediately placed under the Budapest cabinet.
At the time of the Romans the region of Fiume belonged to Liburnia. At the partition of the Roman Empire it fell to the Eastern Empire, from whom it was taken by Charlemagne, who had it governed by its own dukes, of whom Chresimir around 900 called himself king. His line maintained the claim for more than a century. Later, as a fief of the Patriarch of Aquileia, Fiume was held by the von Walsee (Valsa) family. In 1471 Emperor Friedrich III. purchased the city. In Fiume, more precisely in the nearby Capuchin monastery, in 1618 peace between Austria and Venice was concluded. Since the 18th century the city lived through a boom, because of the improvement of the port, which attracted a part of the Oriental trade.
See : Littrow, Fiume und seine Umgebungen, Fiume 1884;

source in German, posted by Retro Bibliohek

Meyers Grosses Conversations-Lexikon 1902-1909, Article : Fiume
Fiume (Tersattica Vitopolis of the Romans, in the Middle Ages Fanum St. Viti ad Flumen, in German St. Veit am Flaum, Slav. Reka), Royal Hungarian free city and free port, and final station of the southern railroad St. Peter - Fiume and of the state railroad line Budapest - Agram - Fiume, on the rocky western slope of the Croatian karst and on the mouth of the Fiumara into the Quarnero, opposite the islands Cherso and Veglia, pictoresquely located, in the north leaning on the extensions of the karst. Consists of an old city which rises amphitheatrically, which densely attached inconspicious houses and narrow, crooked streetlets, and the new Fiume speading at the foot of the mountain along the shore, with wide quays, presentable streets and places and with many public and private magnificent buildings (city hall, casino, theatre, governor's residence, the villa of Archduke Joseph, the building of the Adria Navigation Society and of the admiralty, naval academy, nautical school (1903), two market halls, savings bank, the enlarged railway station (which still does not suffice) etc. Among the churches are remarkable the cathedral built in 1377, with frontispiece of the kind of the Roman Pantheon, the St. Vitus church modeled after the church della Salute in Venice; of monuments only the Roman triumphal arch (Arco Romano) is to be mentioned. Fiume, which had in 1901 38,955 inhabitants, most of them Roman Catholics (17,354 Italians, 5,136 Illyrians, 7,497 Croats, 2,842 Magyars, 2,251 Wends, 1,945 Germans), is of importance as Hungary's only larger port. It has large factories, among them a petrol refinery (wih a separate petrol port and storage facilities for 176,000 barrels); the refinery processes over 1000 barrels daily, 1/2 million metr. ctrw. annually. Further a rice peeling and starch producing factory which processes 800,000 metric tons of rice annually, a famous torpedo factory (Whitehead), a royal tobacco factory (with more than 2100 workers), a large paper factory (Smith & Meynier), a factory producing artificial fertilizer, an ice factory, cocoa and liquor production, leather processing an important factory producing barrel staves and barrels. On the other hand, the mill industry is declining. Shipbuilding, once important, has ended (in 1902 the Howaldt Shipyard has closed). Fishery in the Quarnero, namely for tuna, is vibrant. The seaport constructed by the Hungarian government since 1872, protected by a 1000 m long seawall, has a quay area of 3000 m with an area of 36 ha, and in addition to the old Molo Adamics three new piers (Molo Zichy, Molo Rudolf, Molo Marie Valerie), on which connect the petrol port and the river port on the Fiumara. Presently from the last pier a 360 m long quay is being constructed, and the Maria-Theresia Seawall is being extended. The storage halls with an area of 68,560 square m and a huge grain elevator have a storage capacity of 6,000 waggons. The port of Fiume, which used to be a free port from 1717 to 1891, from 1880 to 1901 shows, in import and export, an increase in sea trade by 237 respectively 211 %. But since 1901 the figures decline. In 1900 imports from the sea were 378,900 tons at a value of 90.7 million Krones; exports 798,900 tons at a value of 165 million Krones. Imports consisted of wine (20 million Kr.), rice, jute, coffee, coal, exports of grain, flour (29.6 million Kr.), sugar, barrel staves, logs, torpedos, horses. By railroad in 1900, 865,000 tons were imported, 280,403 tons exported. From Fiume steamers connect sea trade with western Europe, sailships that with Italy and Dalmatia. With the coasts of the eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea connect ships of the Austro-Hungarian Lloyd, with the west (England) the Hungarian Adria Navigation Society, subventioned by the state (fleet : 35 ships). The also subventioned Hungaro-Croatian Navigation Society connecs with Isria, Ancona, Venice and Dalmatia (1903 : 25 steamers). The Hungarian company Oriente imports rice from India, China and Japan; since the fall of 1903 the Cunard Line maintains a regular connection with New York, in order to direct the stream of emigrants away from Hamburg. In 1900 10,739 ships with 1,681,151 tons entered the port of Fiume, while 10,733 ships with 1,684,329 tons departed. In 1899 the tunnel connecting Buccari with the storage place Braidica (for the transport of timber) was opened for traffic. A telephone connection with Budapest has been established. Further the construction of the canal Budapest - Karlstadt - Kulpa - Fiume is planned. The Hungarian merchant fleet counts 79 steamers and 120 sailships. Fiume has a naval academy, a nautical school, a Hungarian state gymnasium, a commercial academy, a vocational schiool, several financial institutes (commercial bank, timber exploitation association), a commodity exchange, and it is the seat of a governor, of many offices (admiralty, port authority, sanitary authority, local military command, sea court, court, directory of finances, main customs office etc.), of a chamber of commerce and industry, and of 16 consulates, among them a German consulate. Since 1898 it has an electric tram (4.4 km), beautiful promenades and parks (Scogiletto, Giardino pubblico). Beyond the Fiumara is located the Croatian suburb Susak (with a Croat gymnasium), and on the top of the mountain the village Tersato with pilgrimage chapel and the mountain castle of the Frangipan family, from where one enjoys a marvellous vista on the Quarnero and the Croat mountains. From Fiume tourists head on to the Istrian spas Abbazia, Volosca and Lovrana.
Fiume and territory (the Hungarian Litorale, to which also the villages of Cosale, Drenova and Plase belong) has 19.57 square km and already under Maria Theresia was allocated to Hungary. From 1809 to 1814 it was under French rule, and in 1849 it was allocated to Croatia. The Hungaro-Croatian Compromise of 1870 defines the Hungarian Litorale as an autonomous territory incorporated in the Kingdom of Hungary. Fiume sends one delegate into the Hungarian house of deputees, two deputees into the Croatian diet.
In regard to the historic Comitat Fiume, see Modrus-Fiume.
At the time of the Romans the region of Fiume, Tersatto etc. belonged to Liburnia. The Romans constructed the castle Tersattica and fortified the area (28 A.D.). At the partition of the Roman Empire (395) Tersattica fell to the Eastern Empire, but soon fell to Visigothic king Alaric. After the withdrawal of the Goths it fell back to the East Romans, from whom it was taken by Charlemagne. (According o tradition, Charlemagne shall have destroyed Tersattica). Already earlier, southern Slavic peoples (Croats, Serbs) settled in the area and terminated Roman culture there; but the area remained in Frankish possession. The name Fiume (Vinodo) in the Middle Ages is first mentioned in a document of Bela IV. in 1260. As a Frankish, then German fief, Fiume belonged first o he Patriarch of Aquileia, then (since 1300) in turns to the Counts of Duino and to the Frangipani. Hugo of Duino accepted Fiume as a fief from Duke Albrecht III. of Austria. In 1399, Robert von Walsee (Valsa) acquired the city, from the granson of whom, Wolfgang, Emperor Friedrich III. purchased the city. In Fiume, more precisely in the nearby Capuchin monastery, in 1618 peace between Austria and Venice was concluded. In 1723, Charles VI. declared Fiume a free port. In 1779, Fiume as Corps Separatum was united with the Crown of St. Stephen [i.e. Hungary] by Maria Theresia, in 1809 annexed by France, in 1813 occupied by the British, in 1814 returned to Austria, in 1822 returned to Hungary. Since 1849 it belongs to the Hungarian crownland of Croatia, since 1868 again as Corpus Separatum united with the Crown of St. Stephen (Hungary). Since the 18th century the city lived through a boom, because of the improvement of the port, which attracted a part of the Oriental trade.
See : Littrow, Fiume und seine Umgebungen, Fiume 1884; Brehmer, Führer durch Fiume etc., Fiume 1883, Fiume und seine Umgebung, Darmstadt 1903, Jahrbuch der ungarischen Seebeh&oum;rde von Fiume, Fiume und das ungarische Küstenland (in Hungarian, Budapest 1900) and numerous essays by Aladar Fest in Hungarian language.

source in German, posted by Zeno




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First posted on March 5th 2009

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