1969-1990 History of Italy

Italy in the 1990es

Foreign Policy . Italy remained member of UN, NATO, EC/EU. In 2003, Italian forces joined in the Coalition of the Willing (occupation of Iraq).

Domestic Policy . The collapse of communism made Italy's peculiar democratic system - the PCI an opposition party by definition, the DC the main government party by definition, obsolete. The Maastricht Treaty (1992) establishing economic conditions to be met for member nations to join the Euro Zone provided an incentive for Italy to pass deepgoing reforms; Italy was widely regarded not capable of making the criteria.
In 1992, Italy's courts began looking into the connections between organized crime (the Mafia) and politics (Tangentopoli. A number of hitherto respected politicians were sentenced to serve time in jail, among them six time prime minister Giulio Andreotti. Judge Antonio di Pietro most credited with the political clean-up (Mani Polite).
Italy's established parties disintegrated or renamed themselves, billionaire Silvio Berlusconi (owner of Mediaset and of AC Milan) formed the conservative Forza Italia and allied himself with Neofascists and the Northern League; the political left regoganized itself as the Olive Tree Coalitiion.

The Economy . To the surprise of many, Italy met the Maastricht criteria and joined the Euro Zone from the start. The Euro was introduced in 2002, the Lira was discontinued in 2004.

Culture . In 1997, Italian Dario Fo was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Turin hosted the Winter Olympic Games 2006. Italy won the Football World Cup in 2006.

Cronologia, Italian language site on Italian and World History
History of Italy : Republic, from Wikipedia
Political Resources on the Net : Italy
Timeline of Italian history, from BBC News, focussed on recent history
Romano Prodi, from Infoplease
Giulio Andreotti, from Infoplease; by James Glampe
Antonio di Pietro, from Just Response
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Italy
Historical Population Statistics : Italy, from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
Time Trail : Italy, from Time Magazine, online edition of articles published in Time Magazine (by the same) on Italy's clean-up of corruption 1992-, 15 articles
REFERENCE History Book Reviews : Italy

Article : Italy, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1990-1991 pp.743-753, 1991-1992 pp.742-753, 1992-1993 pp.817-828, 1993-1994 pp.813-822, 1994-1995 pp.806-815, 1995-1996 pp.803-812, 1996-1997 pp.744-753, 1997-1998 pp.753-762, 1998-1999 pp.807-817, 2000 pp.926-937, 2001 pp.903-914, 2002 pp.939-950, 2003 pp.941-952, 2004 pp.946-957, 2005 pp.951-963, 2006 pp.947-960 [G]
Entry : Background Notes - Italy pp.200-206; Travel Warning - Italy, pp.519-521, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2000, Supplement [G]
Entry : Italy, Cabinet p.52, Background Notes : Italy, pp.726-731, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Entry : Italy, pp.588-595 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]
Article : Italy, in : Americana Annual 1992 pp.298-300, 1993 pp.298-300, 1994 pp.295-297, 2006 pp.218-219 [G]
Article : Italy, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1991 pp.456-458, 627-628, 1992 pp.433-434, 626-627, 1993 pp.443-445, 634-635, 1994 pp.441-443, 635-636, 1995 pp.426-427, 635-636, 1996 pp.424-425, 635-636, 1997 pp.436-437, 633-634, 2002 pp.446-448, 638-639 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2000, last revised on March 2nd 2007

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