1914-1918 History of Italy 1922-1929

The Papacy, 1918-1922

In 1920, Jeanne d'Arc, the maiden of Orleans, was canonized, a measure to symbolically recognize the effort of the French people, who during World War I under tremendous suffering stood up to an alien (German) invasion.
While World War I was in its final stage, revolution began in Russia. The church recognized the appearance of Mother Mary to three illiterate shepherd children at Fatima in Portugal in 1917, which refers to the events in Russia, to the spread of suffering and atheism that would originate from there.
The Russian Revolution turned into a brutal civil war; revolution spread to Hungary, Germany, Austria, seemingly to Italy herself (the Red Biennium). Pope Benedict XV. was deeply concerned. In Italy, priest Don Sturzo established the Partito Populare Italiano (PPI, 1919), a Catholic Party; under the circumstances, Pope Benedict did not interfere, thus temporarily interrupting the policy of non-cooperation with the Italian state.

In 1919 the Catholic university at Nijmegen (Netherlands) was established, ending the state monopoly of higher education there. In 1921 diplomatic relations with France were resumed. In 1922 Pope Benedict XV. died.

Biography of Benedict XV., from Popes through the Ages, from Vatican
Joan of Arc Archive
Biography of Don Sturzo, from Cronologia, in Italian
DOCUMENTS Encyclicals of Benedict XV., from Vatican
The Story of Fatima, from fatima.org
REFERENCE Book Reviews : Papal State, from History Book Reviews

Franz Xaver Seppelt, Georg Schwaiger, Geschichte der Päpste (History of the Popes), München : Kösel 1964, 572 pp., in German [G]
Article : Roman Catholic Church, in : New International Year Book 1919 pp.578-580, 1920 pp.590-591, 1921 pp.626-628 [G]
Article : Rome, See and Church of, in : Statesman's Year Book 1919 pp.1169-1174 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on September 1st 2002, last revised on August 16th 2007

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