The Duchy of Parma-Piacenza, 1748-1802



The Treaty of Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) in 1748 returned the Duchy of Parma with Piacenza to Bourbon rule and added Guastalla to the duke's possessions. Duke Philip, son of King Philip V. of Spain, began the sideline Bourbon-Parma. His minister Guillaume de Tillot implemented a number of "Bourbon" reforms; he established the Academy of Fine Arts; Parma became a center of European culture. Several operas were written here. In 1763, Duke Ferdinand succeeded his father; he married a daughter of Emperor Francis I. and of Maria Theresia. The Jesuits were expelled from Parma in 1768.
When French armies invaded Northern Italy in 1797, establishing satellite republics on the territory of Piemont, Genoa, Milan, Mantua, they left the Duchy of Parma unharmed, as Parma was ruled by a sideline of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty; Spain and France were allies. In the Treaty of Aranjuez (March 21st 1801), Duke Ferdinand renounced the Duchy of Parma (w. Piacenza and Guastalla) for himself and his heirs, in return for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, ceding Parma to France. Parma was placed under direct French administration; it was formally annexed in 1808.






EXTERNAL
LINKS
The Royal House of Bourbon : Parma
Article Diocese of Parma from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913 edition
Filippo di Borbone a Modena, from Cronologia, in Italian
The Succession Laws of Parma, from Heraldica
History of the Ducal Garden in Parma, from Comune di Parma
The Role of Royalty in Music of the Mid-Eighteenth Century, from Theodore's Royalty & Monarchy Pahe
DOCUMENTS List of Dukes, from World Statesmen by Ben Cahoon
Coat of Arms of the Province of Parma, from International Civic Heraldry
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748, as pertaining to Parma, from Heraldica, scroll down
Article Parma, from Zedlers Universallexikon (1730es), posted by Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, in German, 18th century font
REFERENCE


This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on September 9th 2002, last revised on March 25th 2006

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