The Papal State as described in Historic Encyclopedias

Brockhaus 1834-1837, Pierer 1857-1865

Brockhaus Damen-Conversations-Lexikon 1834-1837, Article : Kirchenstaat
Papal State, the secular possessions of the pope in Italy, located between Tuscany, Lombardy and Naples in the east limited by the Adriatic Sea, in the west by the Mediterranean, contains 812 square miles and has a population of 2,600,000 inhabitants. The country is for the larger part mountainous, is traversed in the east in north-southerly direction by the Appennines, is irrigated by Po andf Tiber, and has sizeable plains only in the north on the Po and in the south near Rome, Campania and the Pontine Marshes. The climate is mild, as that of Tuscany, in the south so warm that oranges grow in the open. Here during the summer Malaria is a problem, and the Scirocco blows; in the winter only exceptionally frost and snowfall. The winter months are the rainy season. Tobacco, hemp, flax, pastel, safran, saflor etc. are grown, a little grain, a lot of Turkish wheat; relatively little care is spent on viticulture and cultivation of olives, and in general cultivation is far beyond its potential. Beekeeping is important; the sericulture of the Papal State is regarded the best in Italy. Mining is neglected, only sulphur, alpetre, vitriol and seasalt are produced. In regard to the industries tanneries, string, wire factories and ironworks are noteworthy. The fine arts are much admired, only nobility and the spiritual institutions are wealthy, burghers and peasants are poor, the common people demoralized and ignorant. In general the inhabitants of the Papal State are a beautiful type of men with noble physiognomy, dark teint, black eyes. The dress of the women is pictoresque. The country's glamour and greatnes is concentrated on Rome (see there) which once ruled the world, but now only is a dim shadow of its former grandeur; Bologna (see there) is the largest city after Rome. With the exception of Rome, the stae is divided in 18 delegations, which are headed by cardinals. The Papal State was established in the year 754, when the Frankish king Pippin donated the Duchy of Rome to Pope Stephen II. Charlemagne confirmed this donation, as did several of his successors, but the papal territory remained subject to Imperial sovereignty. Later popes established their independence and expanded their spiritual power, so that they could decide conflicts between European monarchs in a dictatorial manner, deposed kings and emperors, granted lands etc. By donations of margrave Mathilda, a bitter enemy of the Emperor, between 1077 and 1102 the papal lands were significantly increased. Under Innocent III. in 1198 the papal power reached a climax; he Hohenstaufen dynasty was expelled from Sicily and Naples. The political and spiritual reorganization of the lives of peoples after the crusades resulted in the loss of power of the papal see, the influence of which was further limited by the Reformation. For a while the popes resided in Avignon, in consequence of frequent schisms and the election of anti-popes. This disregarded, in the 15th and 16th century the territory of the Papal State was enlarged by the acquisition of the marches Ancona, Fermo, Macerata etc. After the House of Este extinguished, Ferrara was taken possession of, later Urbino and Benevento united with Rome. Rich and powerful was the Papal State, when devote donations flew there from all of Christian Europe, a flow which declined in the course of the centuries. In 1797 the Papal tate was occupied by French troops, in 1798 transformed into the Roman Republic, in 1800 restored, in 1809 annexed into France, in 1814 restored in her former conditions. In general the inhabitants of the Papal State, because of the frequebnt contact with aliens, are more tolerant of those of a different faith, than are the other Italians.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Kirchenstaat (I)
Papal State (Stato Pontifico, Stato Romano, Stato della Chiesa), secular possession of the pope and only theocracy in the Christian world, as a cohesive unit covers he central part of central Italy and part of northern Italy. The enclaves of Benevento and Pontecorvo included, it has an area of 752.6 square miles (after others 812.5), borders on Venice, Lombardy, Tuscany and Modena, the Mediterranean, Naples and the Adriatic Sea. Mountains : the Appennines, the watershed between both seas, which traverse the land from northwest to southeast almost in the center, which begin at the Sasso di Simone, which reach their highest elevations of 7870 feet at the Velino and 7058 feet at the onte della Sibilla. Branches of this mountain range reach the Adriatic Sea in the east; the branches in the west are longer, spread between Tiber and Garigliano where they form a mountain region called Roman Subappennine; this consists of several parallel ridges, to which in the south the Albano and Volscian Mountains belong. It also fills the land west of the Tiber. The mountains consist of granite, glimmer, Thoni slate, but is rich in volcanic elements, especially on the western slope, where many extinguished volcanos are found.
Rivers : Tiber (main river), Flora, Marta, Mignone, Arone and other coastal rivers feeding into the Mediterranean, the Po (main river in the north, with several arms and tributaries), Montonio, Savo, Uso, Foglia, Metauro, Cesano, Esino, Potenza, Chienti, Aso, Tronto etc. which feed into the Adriatic. Plains are found only in the north, the lowland around Ravenna and the Po delta, which consist in part of marsh, in part of lagunes and swamp, further in the south to the left of the mouth of the Tiber the Campania di Roma and the Pontine Marshes. Inland lakes the Lago di Bolsena, the Lago di Perugia, the Lago di Bracciano, the Lago d'Albano. The coasts on the Mediterranean, 33 miles long, are flat, sandy or swampy, with few promontories such as Cape Anzio and Cirello, and few ports (Civitavecchia and Terracina); also the 42 miles long coast on the Adriatic, in the north similar to the former, in the south mountainous, rocky and steep, has only one important port : that of Ancona. The climate is very pleasant and mild, snow and ice, which cover the Apennines for months, are rae in the plain. October and November are the rainy months; unhealthy only the swampy regions such as the Pontine Marshes, by their harmful evaporation, but also the dry, stiff northern wind (Tramontana) and the Scirocco can be harmful to health. The soil by and large is very fertile, but only in certain areas indusdtriously cultivated, while large stretches remain uncultivated. Land ownership is concentrated in the hands of a few wealthy persons; the peasants do not own the land they work, but are merely tenants of landlords or of cities; he is burdened with almost the entire taxation. Products : grain, hemp, flax, tobacco, natural dyestuffs, rice, chestnuts, fine fruit, pomegranades, lemons, figs, olive oil, which is cultivated near Velletri, Terni, in the Romagna, wine at many locations, but not properly, and only specific types of good reputation (Montesiascione, Orvieto, Forli etc.). imber is plentiful, but the extended forests (pines, several kinds of oaks, lime trees) are poorly taken care of. Among wild animals wolves, wild hogs, badgers, hares, deer, chamois, rabbits, snipes, fieldfares, waterfowl, grey partridges etc. Livestock keeping is conducted with more effort than agriculture; horses, donkeys and mules are bred, which are the usual beasts of burden and traction, catle, buffalo, sheep, goats, hogs, bees and silkworms at many locations. Fishery is intense and productive, especially for eels in the swamps of Comacchio. Minerals produced include the best alum, marble, alabaster, basalt, quartz with crystal, gypsum, traventine, peperin, pozzolano clay, pumice, coal, iron, copper ore, silver, sulphur, earth for dyeing purposes. But the mining industry enjoys little support. Mineral springs are numerous, namely those of Bracciano, Viterbo, Stigliano, Palazio. Also the industry is of little importance. Sericulture is conducted in Rome, Bologna, Camerino, Forli, Pesaro, Ancona, while the best raw silk is produced in Fossombrone. Rome produces the best catgut strings; flax and hemp are processed into rough wares, sail cloth and ropes, of which much is exported, oilve il, soda, soap (Bologna), wax lights, paper (especially in Rome, Ronciglione, Viterbo, Ancona etc.), cloth, licquerish juice, leather (Rome, Tivoli), iron (the ore is imported from Elba), Majolica, glass, sulphur, sulphuric acid and salpetre acid, leather gloves, artificial pearls (Rome). Seasalt is produced at the mouths of Tiber, Marta and Po and at Cervia on the Adriatic Sea. Trade in general is negligible, the only ports of importance are Ancona and Civita Vecchia; in regard to the construction of railroads the Papal State is backward, until he end of 1859 it has only 21 miles of railroad, Rome-Frascati 11 miles, Bologna-Ferrara 7 miles, other lines connect Bologna with Mantua and Florence, Ancona-Bologna and Ancona-Bologna are in the project stage. Main export articles sulphur, sulphuric acid, salt, maize, rice, hemp, hempwares, wine, olive oil, silk, tobacco, ornaments, leatherwares, paper, wallpaper, parchment; import articles grain, flour, timber, coal, cotton, yarns and textiles. Imports in 1855 amounted to9,797,892 Scudi, exports to 9,685,282 Scudi, the number of all vessels entering and departing the ports of the Papal State in 1854 was 14,483, wih a tonnage of 1,193,612; in the same time 1716 papal ships with 106,589 tons departed for foreign ports. For overland trade with Naples Benevento is of importance, Sinigaglia has large fairs. In recent years a lot has been undertaken to increase trade, such as the treaty on trade and navigation with Tuscany, the treaty with Austria and Tuscany regarding the facilitation of trade on the Po, stern measures being taken to supress smuggling trade, the bank established on February 22nd 1851 in Rome with branches in Ancona and Bologna, but trade is still hampered by the strong increase in customs duties (1851) for essential import articles and a number of export articles, as well as the lack of silver coin, an excess in paper money and copper coin, and the lack of safety in the country. In recent years also savings banks and pawnbrokers have opened for business.
The Papal State hs 2,940,000 inhabitants, among them 16,000 Jews, in 106 immediate cities, 728 mediate cities and towns and 1549 villages. The Roman has excellent, but not developed, spiritual potential, is firy, passionate, easily enraged, has a sense for music, painting, tends to lethargy, therefore many live in poverty. The language is Italian, in the Roman, Bolognese and Lombard dialects. The religion is Roman Catholic, but others are tolerated. Education is on a very low level. There are 2 universities of first rank (Rome, Bologna) and 5 of second rank (Perugia, Camerino, Fermo, Macerata and Ferrara), 21 collegia for secondary education (4 in Rome), schools for the arts, in Rome, Bologna and other cities the upper classes have a certain education, but in the Papal State there is stil no seminary for school teachers and the population in general is without education; in the city of Rome only 1/5 of the population is literate. Under Pius IX. child care centers were opened.
The state is a pure elective monarchy under a spiritual head, the pope. Following his election he pope swears an oath on he capitulation, the inalienability of all revenues and lands of the state, the persecution of heretics, the preservation of the Sixtine treasury (which had long ceased to exist). The pope os crowned with a bishops' cap to which three flags are attached (Triregnum, Tiara). always wears a special robe and the ring of the fisherman, resides in the Vatican and Quirinal palaces, uses the Lateran as his episcopal church, uses the title servus servorum, Catholicae ecclesiae, the predicate His Holyness and Holiest Father. Except for ecclesiastical matters, at the side of the pope, especially in foreign affairs is the college of cardinals, which is appointed by him, which is supposed to have 70 members, and from which he is elected for life. .. At his court, where courtiers are numerous, the most particular etiquette is followed; the highest offices are entrusted to cardinals, such as those of Maggior domo e prefetto dei sagri palazzi apostolici (Mayor and Prefect of the Sacred Apostolic Palaces), Maestro di camera (Master of the Chamber), Camerieri segreti (Secret Counsellors), Magister sacri hospitii, Cabvalerizzo (Marshal), Camerieri d'onore, di spado e cappa etc. The pope, as a sovereign, is unlimited monarch and highest spiritual authority of the Papal State, exercised all rights of sovereignty and appoints all spiritual and secular offices. The Papal State, as Roman Republic, from March 20th 1798 had a constitution of 372 articles (Pölitz, Europäische Verfassung 2nd edition Leipzig 1833 II p.406); it was followed in part by the constitution of the Kingdom of Italy, in 1809-1814 by the French, and after a Motu Proprio of Pius VII. the constitution of July 6th 1816 (in Italian Rome 1816, in French Paris 1826, in German Pölitz, Europäische Verfassung III p.408f) the stipulations of which were canceled by a Leo XII by the Motu Proprio of October 5th 1824; it was restored in its essence by Gregory XVI. by the statutes of July 5th 1831 (Neue Jahrbücher der Geschichte und Politik, 1841, II p.51f). Pius IX. on April 19th 1846 decreed a state council the organization of which was regulated by a law of October 4th 1826, and on March 14th 1848 granted a constitution, but lifted it again, as well as the republican constitution of July 3rd 1849, by Motu Proprio of Sept. 12th 1849, in consequence of which the Papak State was given a new organization which is entirely based on the hierarchical principle. The population is divided in 4 classes, peasants, burghers, nobility and clergy, of which the latter is the ruling class, so that the nobility has little influence left, which has increased somewhat during the administration of Gregory XV.; the nobility is subdivided in the old feudal nobiliy (Orsini, Colonna, Doria etc.), the nepotes or papal families, and the new money nobility (Torlonia etc.).
State Administration . The head of the state administration is the state secretary, who at all times has to be a cardinal who is appointed by the pope. He presides the council of ministers, is the institution by the means of which the pope publishes legislative acts, conducts correspondence with cardinal-legates, is the highest authority of provincial administration etc. The council of ministers, according to an edict of September 11th 1850, presided by the state secretary, is composed of 4 ministers (of the interior; of trade, fine arts and public works; of finances; of arms), but the pope is free to add o the number of ministries. In addition the pope can appoint ministers without portfolio as he pleases, which the state secretary may bring into council sssions, where the majority decides. The council of ministers debates stipulations concerning government in general, new laws, authentic interpretations of the law, general police measures etc., the system of the state budget, and it has to supwervise the individual ministries. It is responsible only to the pope. The state council, according to the edict of September 11th 1850, also is appointed by the pope, it is composed of a spiritual president and vicepresident (a cardinal and a prelate), of 9 ordinary and 6 extraordinary councellors, of whom the former are paid, convenes weekly, has advisory function in regard to legislation and financial matters, jurisdictional function in case there are disputes between various state authorities. In all cases the matters have to be presented to it by the state secretary. The Financial Council, created by the decree of October 21st 1850, is called o examine state expenses and budgets, to approve new loans or taxes and similar financial operations. Its president is a cardinal, its vice president a prelate. Its composition is as follows : the councils of the individual provinces suggest 4 candidates each, who have to be at least 30 years old, own property of a value of 10,000 Scudi in real estate or 4000 Scudi in real estate and 8000 Scudi in capital, or by holding public office (for instance a professorship) have to prove their capacity; out of these the pope chooses one for every province. Further he appoints one quarter of the council, namely from the clergy. Appointments are for 6 years, every 2 years one hird of the appointees is replaced. The pope can dissolve the financial council and reorganize it; usually it convenes for 3 months per year. The provincial consultants are paid by the provincial treasury, the ones appointed by the pope by state treasury. The provincial administration is organized according to the edict of November 22nd 1850. The Papal state is divided in (a) the urban district of Rome (Comarca di Roma), to which belongs the province of Rome or the delegations Viterbo, Civitavecchia and Orvieto, (b) and in 4 legations : (aa) the Romagna, with the delegations Bologna, Ferrara, Forli, Ravenna, (bb) the Marches, with Urbino, Pesaro, Macerata, Loreto, Ancona, Fermo, Ascoli, Camerino, (cc) Umbria, with the delegations Perugia, Spoleto, Rieti, and (dd) Campagna and Maritima, with the delegations Velletri, Frosinone and Benevento. Everyone of these provinces is headed by a cardinal legate, the former by a cardinal president. They communicate only with the state secretary. The individual delegations are headed by delegates, which may be recruited from the laymen. The delegations are divided in governi, the presidents of which, the governatori, are also selected by the government. In matters concerning the internal affairs of the delegations, especially when the delegations' finances are involved, the governatori are assisted by delegation counselors, who are selected by the government from three candidates suggested by the municipal councils; they debate and check the delegation's budget, have the right to petition in the matters of the delegation, and by the delegations' commissions which are composed by representatives of the municipal councils and which are the executive authority over them. In both cases the term of office is six years, with one third being replaced every two years. Persons are qualified to run for election if they have reacher the 30th year of age, make a census or prove to have certain education. Both councils can be dissolved. The municipal constitution of November 26th 1850 and June 31st 1851; all municipalities with the exception of Rome are clasified in 5 classes, those of more than 20,000 inhabitants, those between 10,000 and 20,000, 5,000 and 10,000, 1,000 and 5,000, and hose with less than 1,000 inhabitants. The municipal authorities are : the municipal council, with 36, 30, 24, 16 or 10 members, in the case of Rome 48 members; these are elected for 6 years .. from the class of the owners in the 5 classes, where the number of voters is six times the number of hose who are elected, and which consists of 2/3 of land owners and of 1/3 of business owners and intellectuals; in Rome they are chosen from a double list composed by a municipal council with the cooperation of 2 electors from every region and 2 from the chamber of commerce; the magistrates consist of 9, 7, 6, 5 or 3 members, in the case of Rome of 8, who are called conservators; they are selected by the delegat from a triple list which was composed by the municipal council; in Rome the selection is done by the pope, half from the nobility, half from the landowners, merchants and professors. The president of the magistrates is called gonfallere or priore, in smaller places he is appointed by the state secretary, in larger ones by the pope, in Rome he is called senator and selected from among Rome's most respected princes. At their side are placed in larger municipalities two, in smaller ones one clergyman. The term of office is 6 years. Municipal councils can be dissolved, the magistrates deposed. The responsibilities of the municipal authorities include the debate of municipal matters, namely the budget, and the right to propose a terne to the delegation council, but their decisions require the approval of the delegate and of the legates. Jurisdiction is exercised by 21 civil tribunals, from there appeals are directed to he four courts of appeal in Rome (here 2), Macerata and Bologna. The state secretary is the highest instance. But he tribunals are not responsible for matters of church law and so-called mixed matters; these are taken care of by the Sagra Visita Apostolica, a college consisting of cardinals and a prelate as its secretary, from here one may appeal to the congregation of cardinals as the highest instance. A special commission is appointed to revise the law codes. Jurisdiction used to be conducted in accordance with he Corpus Iuris, Canonic Law and the local statutes. Pius VII. decreed the Motu Proprio of July 5th 1816, Sull' organisazione dell' amministrazione publica, which followed the French law codes, and the new court ordinnance of November 22nd 1817, which were combined by Leo XII. in a new codex of Oct. 5th 1824. Next to it, the trade law code, Regolamenti provisorio di comercio, 608 articoli, and Editto del primo Giugno 1821, was valid. Gregory XVI, by Regolamenti of October 5th and 21st 1831, prepared new legislation, the Regolamenti legislativo e giudiziano of January 1st 1835; it contains in three parts and 1806 paragraphs the civil law code Della legislatione civile, the court ordinnance Dell' ordinamento giudiziario, and the procedure in disputed and not disputed matters, Delle legi di procedura. The penal code, Regolamento sui delitti e sulle pene of September 20th 1832 is modelled after the French code penal (see Giuliani, Instituzioni di diretto criminale, Macerata 1840). The military penal code, Reg. di giustizia criminale e disciplinare militare has taken force on January 1st 1843. Since 1830 the juridical magazine Giornale del foro is published. Police is under a director general, who is member of the council of ministers; police authority is exercised by the delegational and municipal authorities under the supervision of the legates and delegates. The restoration of public safety has not been achieved yet. The Papal State still is the cause for unrest in the other Italian states. In ecclesiastical respects the Papal State is under 6 archbishops, and about 60 bishops, of whom some administrate two dioceses. Finances : the revenues, because of the poor state of agriculture, trade and industry, and because of the rare occasion of the transfer of ownership, decline, while expenses rise because of reorganization and because of increased debt. The gros revenue in 1857 was 14,302,693 Scudi, the gros expenses 14,454,995 Scudi. State debt on January 1st 1858 were 66 1/2 million Scudi.
The Military The organization of the army is a mixture of the Fench and the Austrian model; uniforms, administration and education of the cadre of officers and ncos,the payment scale follow the former, the formation of regiments, the strength of companies and batallions, and military jurisdiction follow the latter. In the mid of 1859 the army consisted of 4 regiments of infantry, of which 2 were Swiss regiments, in total about 7500 men, 2 batallions of mountain infantry with 1500 men (without drawn rifles), 1 sedentary batallion of 1000 men, 1 regiment dragoons of 5 swadrons with 760 men, further one regiment of artillery of 7 batteries wih 1600 men, general staff 48 officers. The gendarmerie forms 4 legions of 1000 men each and has 86 officers, to which have to be added 4 veterans companies with 410 men, 1 invalid company with 60 men, the guard of nobles of 75 men, 2 companies palace guards of 110 men and the Swiss Guard of 145 men, 1 cadet corps with 35 cadets and 1 disciplinary company of 60 men. The last listd units do not belong to the fighting force. The system of free recruitment is applied. Accepted is every unmarried man of 18 to 36 years of age, if he has no prior conviction, or foreigners who live in he Papal State for 10 years. Recruits serve for 4, 6 or 8 years. Volunteers who forego a signing bonus, upon entry receive a medal with the inscription volonrario, to be worn on the left side of the breast. Since 1849 the papal armed force is constantly in the proces of reorganization; but the latter is met with obstacles which are hard to overcome : the resentment of the population, the lack of qualified native officers, the poor condition of state finances which causes the army to suffer the lack of necessities etc. Still the recruitment of a part of the foreign regiments of Naples have resulted in a strengthening of the army. Since 1849 the western part of the Papal State, especially Rome and Civitavecchia, are occupied by the French; until 1859 the Romagna and the Marches were occupied by the Austrians. Since the withdrawal of the latter, this part is in rebellion. There are only three fortresses, Ancona, Civita Vecchia and Ferrara, further three large forts : Castello Sant'Angelo, which dominates Rome, Fort Palliano which looks down on the Pontine Marshes, whichout being able to fully control them, and the fort of Civita Castellana. Further there are a number of weakly fortified places, in part only protected by walls, in part by dilapidated fortifications, such as Rome, of which only the part on the right bank of the Tiber has some kind of protection, Porto d'Anzio, Nettuno, Bologna, Perugia, Comacchio, Rieti, Rimini, Faenza etc. Orders : the Order of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, the Order of Christ, the Order of the Golden Spur or Order of Sylvester, Order of St. Gregory (civilian and military order), Order of St. John of Lateran, Order of Pius IX., Medal of Merit for NCOs and Privates in gold and silver, created in 1832 by Pope Gregory XVI., with his image, the crown and the keys and with green lauel twigs, and a token of honour created by Pius VII. in 1816 of gold-covered silver, for freeing the Papal State of brigands, inscribed : Latronibus fugatis securitas restituta. The papal flag is white wih two crossed keys and the papal crown. Coat of arms the respective pope's family coat of arms, or that of his order, above which a pair of crossed keys above which the triple crown above which a flying dove.
Coins, Measures and Weights in the Papal State, the currency is Scudi Romani (Roman Thaler or Piaster) of 100 Bajocchi (or of 10 Paoli of 10 Bajocchi each) of 5 Quattrini each. Besides this legal subdivision of the Scudo there is also that of 1 Scudo being 3 1/3 Testoni, in 5 Papetti and in 20 Grossi. 9 3/4 Scudi are 1 mark in fine Cologne silver, or 1 Scudo = 1 Thaler 13 Neugroschen 5 Pfennig; 1 Bajoccho = 4.35 Pfennig Saxonian or 5.32 Pfennig Prussian. The following coins are minted : gold : pieces of 10, 5 and 2 1/2 Scudi, 13 3/5 coins of 10 Scudi come per rough mark. Older gold coins are pieces of 2 Zecchini, 1 Zecchino and 1/2 Zecchino, of 4.3, 2.15 and 1.075 Scudi, as well as full and half Doppias of 3.15 and 1.575 Scudi. Further the French Louis d'or, Carolines, pieces of 20 Francs, Ktemnitz and Duch Ducats are legal tender. Silver coins : 1 and 1/2 Scudo, Testoni (pieces of 30 Bajocchi), pieces of 20 Bajocchi (Papeto or Lira), of 10 Bajocchi (Paolo) and of 5 Bajocchi (Grossa); further in circulation French foil dollars and pieces of 5 Francs, Crowns, Convention Thalers, Spanish Pesetas; in copper 1 Bajoccho and 1/2 Bajoccho and Quattrini. Measurements : the Piede (foot) = 0.2976 meter, the Canna mercantile of 8 Palmi of 3 Parti = 1.9926 meter, 1 Palmo = 0.2491 m, 100 Canne mercantile = 287,772 Prussian ells. The Canne architettonica of 10 Palme of 12 Onces of 5 Minuti of 5 Decimi is 7 1/2 Piede = 2,2319 m. 1 Palmo = 0,2232 m. Other ell measurements are the Braccio da mercante = 0.67 m, Braccio per le tele (linen ell) = 0.635 m, 1 Passo = 5 Piedi, 1 Passetto architettonico = 3 Palmi architettonico, 1 Catena = 10 Stajoli = 5.75 Palmi architetonico. The Miglio (mile) of 1000 Passi = 1.4879 km; 1 Miglia di Mare = 1.8519 km, 60 of which cover one degree of the equator. Area measurement : 1 Rubbio = 4 Quarti, 7 Pezza, 16 Scorzi, 32 Quartacci or 112 Cateri quadrati = 184,461 Ar, 1 Pezzo = 26.352 Ar. Fruit measurement : 1 Rubbio = 2.945 hectoliter or 5.357 Prussian Scheffel, is divided in Rubbiatelle, 4 Quarti, 4 Quartarelli, 12 Stari, 16 Starelli, 22 Scorzi, 48 Decine or 88 Quartucci. Wine measurements 1 Barilo = 58 1/3 liter, has 32 Boccali of 4 Fogliette each of 4 Quartucci (Cartocci) each; the Botta has 16 Barili. The Oil Barilo = 57 1/2 liter or 152 Roman Pound, has 28 Boccali of 4 Fogliette of 4 Cartocci, in wholesale trade the oil Soma (164 1/4 liter or 440 Roman Pound) 2 Pelli or Mastelli of 10 Cugnatelle of 4 Boccali. Weight : there are three kinds of centreweights, the Cantaro of 160 and of 250 Libbre, and the Centinajo (Cantaro piccolo) of 100 Libbre; some goods are also sold by the Migliajo (Cantaro grosso) of 1000 Libbre, others after the Decina of 10 Libbre. The Libbra (Pound, also gold and silver weight), is divided in 12 Onces of 24 Denari of 24 Grani; 1 Libbra = 339,073 gram. The legal weight for coinage and measurement is the French gram; the medicinal weight the Libbra, here the Once is divided in 8 Dramme of 3 Scrupoli of 24 Grani.
See : Calindri, Saggio geografico, statistico e storico dello Stato Pontificio, Perugia 1829; Tournon, Etudes statistiques sur Rome et la partie occidentale des Etats Romains, Paris 1831.

source in German, posted by Zeno

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Kirchenstaat (II)
History ... In 1814 Pius VII. was released from his imprisonment, and the Treaty of Paris May 30th 1814 restored the Papal State. Acting as a papal delegate, Cardinal Rivarola took possession of Rome, and on May 24th Pius VII. returned. In paragraph 103 of the final act of the Vienna Congress of 1815 the return of the Marches with Camerino and environs, the Duchy of Benevento, the Principality of Pontecorvo to the Papal State was stipulated; the Papal State again would take possession of the Legations Ravenna, Bologna and Ferrara (but the parts on the left bank of the Po were annexed into the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom); Austria received the right to occupy Ferrara and Commacchio. The subjects returning to the rule of the Holy See shall benefit from the stipulations of the Treaty of Paris, all legally acquired private possessions shall be recognized, in order to guarantee state debt and pay for pensions a convention shall be signd by the Papal and the Austrian court. As this article did not mention Avignon and the Venaissin, the pope protested on June 14th 1815, also because of the article being disadvantageous for him. Cardinal Consalva, first state minister of the restored government, with great effot tried to raise the welfare of the land, but with only limited success, as he had to abolish not only the flawed FRench institutions, but also the good ones. Following Napoleon's escape from Elba 1815 King Murat demanded the right to march through the Papal State and planned to take the pope prisoner, but he went to Genoa in March. The Papal State briefly became battleground, was inundated by Neapolitan and Austrian forces, but already in May the former were defeated, and the pope returned to Rome. By the political storms which shattered Naples in 1820 and 1821, the Papal State was also affected. The Carbonari, who rose there, had connections in the Papal State, and when these were uncovered, investigations were undertaken and the guilty severely punished. The marches of Austrian troops across the Papal State in order to suppress the Neapolian Revolution and the unrest in the interior increased the burden of the state.
Pius VII. died on August 20th 1823, and his successor, Leo XII., who by Motu Proprio of October 5th 1824, abolished several improvements by his predecessor, by this act caused general resentment, but by the implementation of savings and the reduction of sinecures in 1826 reduced the people's tribute by 900,000 Scudi. A conspiracy was uncovered which was in connection with smugglers, and 200 officials were involved. A disciplinary council was instituted to avoid abuse of such kind. Brigandry expanded again. The attempt to restore order, and lack of vigilance in regard to the Carbonari resulted in a rebellion centered in Ravenna. Several bankrupcies worsened the ruination of state finances and threatened private finances. In order to promote domestic production and to fight poverty in 1827 it was decreed that only domestic woolwares were to be bought. In 1827 construction of the Leontine Canal, to drain the Pontine Marshes, was begun. In 1827 a new Carbonari network was uncovered, in 1828 anoher conspiracy, which was centered on Bologna and which planned a complete restructuring of the state. On February 10th 1829 Leo XII. died, he was succeeded by Pius VIII. on March 31st 1829. Upon his accession to the throne he decreed heavy taxes, promised premia in order to raise agriculture, manufacturing and the arts, and establishd a state commission to reorganize finances. Everywhere there was misery, trade was down, in Rome and Bologna new conspiracies of the Carbonari were uncovered, a tumult in Imola could only be suppressed by the force of arms. On November 30th 1830 Pius VIII. died.
Gregory XVI. was elected on February 2nd 1831. He took up his office under miserable circumstances; all classes of society were dissatisfied, which broke out first in Bologna, and then spread to several parts of the Papal State. The insurgents, who planned to topple the papal administration and to introduce a republican constitution, organized a republic in Bologna, and the insurrection had to be suppressed by Austrian troops, which met resistance only at isolated locations. But the dissatisfied did not give in, Bologna showed determined resistance, until the Papal corps arrived in January 1832, which in combination with Austrian troops entered Bologna and disarmed the city. Dissatisfaction also on several occasions became apparent in Ancona and in the countryside. The Austrian intervention had caused the French to dispatch a corps under Cubieres by sea to Ancona, which landed there, disarmed the Papal troops and occupied the citadel, by treaty, and despite the disleasure of the pope, held it occupied until 1838, after the Austrians had evacuated Bologna. The Papal State now had been pacified, but flawed legislation and confusion in state finances remained. The foreign troops just had departed, when the subversive activities of Giovine Italia and of the political sect Ferdinandina became apparent in Viterbo 1838 and 1839, in Ancona 1840 and in Bologna 1841 and in other places. Everywhere police suppressed these attempts of insurrections with great severity. At earlier times opposed to steam technology, the papal administration now introduced steam shipping on the Tiber and began the construction of railroads to Civita Vecchia and Terracina. In November 1841 the pope deprived the House Sforza Cesarini of the right to appoint knights of the Order of the Golden Spur, because the family had abused the privlege; he converted the order in a military one, to award those who had earned merits for the state. In the summer of 1843 in Bologna further traces of Carbnarism wee found, but as the government moved energetically, many of the conspirators left the city and spread unrest in the country. Similar unrest emerged in Cesena, Ancona and Ravenna. The sources of such events were sought in secret organizations seated in Paris, which had branches in Malta, Corfu and Corsica, from where money and weapons were brought into the country. In March the government established mobile columns which patrolled the unrestly areas; hose arrested were shot or sent to the galleys. At the beginning of 1845 Cardinal Tosti, because of the irregular budget, was deposed and subjected to investigation. On September 23rd 1845 a ship sailing from Malta into the Adriatic succeeded in disembarking a number of conspirators near Rimini, which started an uprising under Ribotti, which hoisted the tricolore on the towers and published a proclamation to the inhabitants of the Romagna. When instead in the next days troop reinforcements from the adjacent legations arrived, the leaders of the insurgency fled into the mountains, where a large number of these refugees was taken prisoner; the others moved into Tuscan territory, where they laid down their arms. As the Grand Duke of Tuscany did not extradite them, tensions arose between both courts. On the other hand, an approachment between the pope and the Czar of Russia took place; the latter visited Rome on December 13th to 18th 1845 and met the pope. Following the death of Gregory XVI. on June 1st 1846 in the entire Papal State a movement was noticeable which attempted to communicate to the Conclave which convened on June 14th the long-held, but hitherto unfulfilled wishes and desires regarding the termination of maladministration in the government; this seemed to convince the assembled cardinals of the necessity to proceed with speed in the election process. The conclave lasted only 2 days, and ended on June 16th with he election of Pius IX.
From the Accession of Pius IX. to the Newest Times . By his first measure Pope Pius IX. gained the sympathies of the population to such an extent, that it seemed that a new era had begun for the Papal State. A general amnesty for political crimes since 1831 was decreed, concessions for the construction of railroads granted, the restrictions of the press eased, on April 19th 1847 a decree issued, according to which respected persons from all provinces were to be convened to give their advice on an improved organization of municipal councils and other issues, and to participate in the administration, and the drecree of July 6th 1847 permitted for Rome and the provinces the establishment of a civic guard. While the liberal party because of these policies celebrated the name of the pope, the conservatives were concerned, and because the liberals were under the impression that the conservatives were supported by Austria, soon passionate Anti-Austrian sentiment spread, namely as these interpreted their right to occupy Ferrara beyond the city, as including the city itself, which they occupied on August 13th 1847. The papal legate in Ferrara immediately launched a protest, and the dispute if Austria by the treaties of the Vienna Congress was entitled to occupy only he citadel, or city and citadel of Ferrara, was solved by both sides giving in. The solution of this dispute with Austria calmed the pope's enthusiasm, and the pariots harboring the furthest reaching expectations recognized in the willingness of the pope to give in an Anti-Italian sentiment of the pope, a sympathy with Austria, and were willing to listen to suspicions about the pope. The fury of the people, stirred up against the pope, was calmed by Angelo Brunetti called Cicernacchio (see there), a wealthy merchant and friend of the people, by the means of prudence and calmness. But such an influence could not be of lasting effect, as the scale of events in other Italian states increased, as the governments in Tuscany and Sardinia had to make concessions and implement political reforms. On October 4th 1847 the law on the consulta do stato was published, which was to be composed of 1 cardinal president, 1 vice president and 24 members; the first two were to be appointed by the pope, the latter 24 to be selected by the pope from among candidates proposed by the delegations' councils. This new council, composed of boh clergymen and laymen, convened for the first time on November 15th. In his opening speech the pope described the rather limited authority of the council's authority, emphasized the limitlessness of his authority as the spiritual and secular ruler, upon which the political life of the Papal State had to be based, thus greatly reduced the expectations of the progressive party in this new political body. So impatience and dissatisfaction spread, and instead of petitions and requests now demands were issued at the head of the state. At first there were only two points disputed between the people and the pope. First, the ministry of December 29th 1847 was unpopular (composed of Cardinal Ferretti as minister of foreign affairs, president of the council of ministers, Amici minister of the interior, Cardinal Mezzofanti minister for public insruction, Roborti for grace and justice, Cardinal Riario for trade and industry, Rusconi for public works and war, Savelli for the police), which on the occasion of the publication of the budget of 1847 had to present a deficit of 1 million Scudi. Then the policy of the Papal State of inactively observing the actions taken by Sardinia in order to liberate Italy of any form of foreign influence, was criticized. Following numerous demonstrations and several deputations the pope not only partially changed the ministry on February 12th (Count Giuseppe Pasolini became minister for trade, Advocate Sturbineti minister for public works, Prince Pompeio Gabrielli miniser of war, Gaetani Prince of Teano minister for the police) but also conceded at the beginning of February 1848 that all mobile troops were to be sent to the Lombardian border, that the debates of the consulta were to be made public, that in certain areas it was to have decisive authority, and finally hat an alliance was to be concluded with Sardinia and Tuscany.
Then suddenly the February Revolution broke out in Paris, and in consequence of this event the pope, after having formed a new cabinet under Cardinal Antonelli on March 10th, on March 14th under the name Statuto fondamentale he decreed a new constitution for the secular administration of the Papal State, in which councils with advisory function, a high council with members appointed for lifetime, a council of (elected) deputees (1 per 30,000 inhabitants), the right to vote for every 25 year old man who paid at least 12 Scudi in tax, the right to run for office for every 30 year old were guaranteed. This constitution, which foresaw at the side of a public, responsible ministry a secret college of cardinals without responsibility, and in which the pope maintained the full execution of his unrestricted sovereignty in all aspects, was given a cool, indifferent reception, as not liberal enough, all the more as at the same time news arrived about the outbreak of revolutions in Vienna and Milan, and all interest in regard to reforms in one specific Italian state would take second place, to create room for the slogans national independence, war with Austria. Sardinia stood at the head of the military movement, the pope had to permit numerous volunteers, together with the Roman troops under Durrando and Ferrari, moved toward the Po. On May 30th Austrian roops handed the fortress of Commacchio over to Papal troops. But the pope could not be moved to declare war on the Austrians, and when in consequence of this a movement arose, the ministry declared its resignation on May 3rd. A new ministry was appointed in which secular foreign affairs were separated from the spiritual ones, and in which Count Mamiani took over the ministry of the interior. On May 5th the Austrian ambassador, Count von Lützow, after the Ausrian coat of arms had already on March 21st been torn down by the mob, demanded his passport; on May 8th the Austrian embassy dissolved. The war soon ended in Austria's favour.
In the meantime on June 6th the chambers had been ceremoniously opened by Cardinal Alfieri in the name of the pope; Minister Mamiani in the first session of June 9th declared that the pope, as the father of the faithful, would remain in the exalted circle of godly reverence, and would leave in the peace of dogmata; as a sovereign he would leave the determination of most temporal matters to the wisdom of the chambers. After on June 10th the commission of the chamber of deputees upon deliverance of the response to the speech in the name of the throne had expressed the decision to rsume the war with Austria, papal troops again moved toward the Po, despite the pope having expressed his displeasure. In consequence, Prince Liechtenstein crossed the river, and again occupied Ferrara, which had surrendered to him unconditionally. Despite the protest against this Austrian measure by Cardinal Soglia in a circular note to the diplomatic corps of July 18th, because the pope always had spoken against the war, the Austrian troops held on to Ferrara. The declaration of the pope against the war with Austria made visible the breech between him and the people; the ministers resigned. At the same time news came in from the provinces reporting the most concerning events, of disturbance of peace, of assassinations, of robbery, and from Switzerland Mazzni and his followers, by the way of sending revolutionary emissaries, attempted to stir he masses up to an insurrection. Meanwhile on August 8th the new ministry had convened, in which Cardinal Soglia held the presidency and the ministry of foreign affairs (both temporal and spiritual, reunited), Fabbri the ministry of the interior, Pelegrin de Rossi the ministry of grace and justice), after on the preceding day the chamber of deputees unanimously voted, for the preservation of Italian independence, to call upon he French nation to intervene, and has chosen delegates to be sent to the parliaments of Naples, Turin, Florence and Sicily. The government now took on the task to remove the Austrian troops from the territory of the Papal State, and on August 16th by a note of the papal nunzio in Vienna renewed he protest against the occupation of Ferrara, in response to which the Austrian ministry in a note of August 24th complained about the double strategy which was employed by Rome, as the pope distinguished between himself and his subjects; the occupation of Ferrara would have been necessary to protect the garrison in that city. A few days later, on August 26th, the chambers were adjourned; instead of the ministry which resigned on September 14th a new ministry was formed in which Soglia held on to the presidency and Rossi took on the mnistries of the interior and the police.
Wnen, on the occasion of the reopening of the chambers on November 15th, Rossi was assassinated when entering the chancellor's palace (Palazzo della Cancellaria), this functioned as the sign for the final outbreak of the long feared revolution. With vehemence the masses crowding in the streets of Rome lead by the members of the people's club (circolo popolare) demanded in an address to the chamber of deputees, which they themselves delivered, the promulgation of the principle of Italian nationality, the convention of a constitutional assembly and declaration of the war of independence. Simultaneously, the circolo popolare issued a declaration at the Roman people in which it promised, until a new government would be formed, to take charge of the protection of the lives, honour and property of the Romans, and in which it demanded of all Romans to obey decrees. The pope was coerced to appoint a new ministry on November 17th, in which Mamiani (who in the meantime in October in Turin together with Gioberti and other Romans had decided on the unification of Italy) would become minister of foreign affairs, Galetti the ministry of the interior and of the police, Sterbini that of trade. So the victory of the radicals was decided, and already on November 20th the new ministry presented its programme, in acordance with the democratic government in Florence (see their history). It intended to call for the convention of an Italian constituent assembly and to draft an Italian federation act. As the pope, in his palace under struct guard and supervision, found no saviour in his surrounding, and as he saw the regular military fraternize with the insurgents, he fled on Nov. 24th in the habit of an ordinary priest to Gaeta, to where most cardinals and prelates and the entire diplomatic corps followed him. Following the escape of the pope the Chamber of Deputes declared itself as permanent, while the pope issued a proclamation on November 27th in which he protested against all measures of the ministry Galetti and appointed a government commission consisting of Cardinal Castracane, Roberti, he Prince of Roviano, Prince Barberini, Marquess Bevilacqua, Marquess Ricci of Macerata, and Baron Zucchi. But while not one of them accepted the office, the Chamber of Deputees (which had been left by most moderate members) on Dec. 2nd declared this papal decree as illegal, and appointed a governing junta which consisted of Prince Corsini, Galetti and Count Camerata, and which was to represent executive power until the pope would return or send a properly accredited representative. On Dec. 17th the pope again protested agaist this governing junta, in response to which the latter dissolved parliament on December 28th, and on the 29th called the Constituente Romana to convene on February 5th 1849. This was to be composed of 200 representatives directly elected in the entire Papal State, should debate and pass the constitution. On January 1st 1849 a papal protest against the convention of the constituente was issued, combined with the threat of excommunication against all who were to participate in the constituente. Then, after Corsini had done so on Dec. 28th, the two other members of the governing junta resigned on January 2nd. Without anyone listening to the pope, the elections proceeded quickly, and after the provisional government on January 18th had called on all peoples of Italy to send delegated to the constituente, already on February 5th 1849 the Constituente (Assemblea) opened, as the president of which Galetti was elected, and already on February 9th the pope was proclaimd deposed of his secular office, and the Roman Republic was proclaimed. At the same time the Swiss regiments in papal service in Bologna were dissolved. In order to strengthen he new constitution the Constituente on February 12th appointed for the duration of the provisional condition an indeposable executive committee of 3 persons, advocate Carlo Armellini, advocate Aurelio Salietti and Mattia Montecchi, which already on February 13th declared all church lands confiscated, and which moved toward the election of a ministry which was composed of Muzzarelli (president, minister of public instruction), Rusconi (foreign affairs), Saffi (interior), Lazzarini (justice), Guiccioli (finances), Sterbini (trade) and Campello (war and navy).
When these events were reported to him, the pope on February 14th again protested against he decisions of the Constituente and called on all European governments for armed intervention. Austria, Spain, Naples and even France declared their willingness to do so. Austria already in a note of January 17th had sufggested to the provisional government in Paris, in cooperation with Naples and after consultation with the pope, to provide support to the latter, and to restore to him the full rights of a sovereign. While an alliance of Rome, Tuscany, Sicily and Venice was concluded, for mutual protection and the establishment of national independence, the entire Italian insurrection simultaneusly suffered many serious defeats at various locations, that a success was no longer feasible, and as affairs in the other revolutionary states, especially Tuscany and Sardinia, matters had been decided, the insurrection in the Papal State found itself isolated. The first strike which hit the young republic came from he Austrians, which invaded the Papal State under Haynau, and who occupied Ferrara on the 18th of February, because Ausrian military had been attacked. The Roman government called upon the province of Ferrara to expel the Austrians by force and dispached troops, but befoe they arrived, Haynau had evacuated his troops. A few weeks later, when Sardinia on March 12th 1849 cancelled the truce with Austria, the Roman government, which had replaced Campanello as minister of war by Calandrini on March 8th, decided to participate in the renewed struggle with a contingent of 10,000 men. But the troops had not even crossed the border, when the Austrian troops had ended the brief war by a decisive victory at Novara.
The Roman government now took o extraordinary measures, ordered armament, dissolved the executive committee and in its place on March 29th appointed a dictatorial triumvirate, consisting of Mazzini, Saffi and Armelini, which immediately surrounded itself with a new ministry, in which Rusconi took responsibility for foreign affairs, Pichat (soon replaced by Mayr) for the interior, Sturbinetti for insruction, Manzoni for finances, Lazzarini for justice, Montecchi for trade and (on April 19th) Avezano for war. But whatever efforts the triumvirate undertook in the face of the threatening danger, in regard to the overwhelming force set in motion against it, the fall of the republic could only be postponed, not prevented. Among the nations, which in response to the call of the pope of April 20th participated in the intervention, France showed most haste. The Roman triumvirate immediately took measures to prevent the landing of the French troops, but already on the morning of April 24th a French fleet appeared off Civita Vecchia, consisting of 6 steamer frigates, 2 steamer frigates and two light steamers; on April 25th 1849 French troops under Oudinot landed, who issued a proclamation to the inhabitants of the Papal State in which it was declatred that France was called upon to ease the establishment of a system of government which was to be as distant of the abuses which had been forever abolished by Pius IX., as it were of the recent anarchy. In Rome news of the landing of he French was received with bitterness; the Constituente immediately protested against it as an invasion of the territory of Roman territory, and when Major Leblanc appeared in Rome as an emissary of Oudinot, and in a conference with the triumvirate declared, the purpose of the French expedition was none other but to restore the pope to his throne, everybody hurried to prepare Rome for defense. Oudinot, after he had declared the state of siege over Civita Vecchia, had the garrison disarmed and the fortress occupied, on April 30th he appeared off the gates of Rome, which was defended so valiantly that the French had to postpone further action until the arrival of reinforcements from France. In the meantime the Austrians under Wimpffen moved on Bologna which surrendered on May 15th and was occupied the following day, occupied Imola on May 17th and then laid siege to Ancona with 11,000 men, which already was blockaded from the seaside by Viceadmiral Dalrup, and which was under fire; it surrendered on June 18th. In the meantime, the Austrians under Liechtenstein took Perugia on May 31st; Ferrara already had been occupied on May 7th by General Thun-Hohenstein. While the north of the Papal State thus had been returned to the rule of the pope, the same was attempted from the south by the Neapolitans and he Spaniards. The former, 6000 men under Winspeare with a small papal corps under Zucchi on April 29th occupied Terracina, after the Spanish squadron had caused the city to surrender and to hoist the papal flag. Against them moved a republican force under Garibaldi, who was victorious on the 8th at Palestrina, but was defeated on the 10th near Valmontone, and on May 19th, supported by Rosetti, at Velletri defeated the Neapolitans, who on the following day evacuated the city, and who returned onto their territory via Cisterina. he Spaniards, the impressive squadron of whom had the papal flag again hoisted in Terracina on April 29th and in the port of Fiumicino on the mouth of the river Tiber on May 7th, enforced by 6000 men under Cordoba landed on May 29th near Gaeta and acted in cooperatiin with the Neapolitans, invaded Roman territory together with them in June, and after the fall of Rome were given he charge to participate in the persecution of Garibaldi's force. They occupied Spoleto in August, 2000 men strong, and they left Italy in December.
In the meantime the French governmen sent Ferdinand Lesseps to Rome as special emissary, who concluded a truce for 8 days with the Romans on May 18th. In the course of the negotiations difficulties arose, and the Roman National Assembly rejected French proposals (the Roman State requests France's aid, the Roman people shall freely express their wishes regarding the constitution, Rome would accept the rench as friends) as unacceptable, as these did not contain a formal recognition of the Roman Republic. So Lesseps left Rome on May the 24th and went to the French headquarters at Palo. The truce was extended for another 8 days, while the French moved more and more cannon to Rome. Finally on May 31st Lesseps and the Roman triumvirate signed a convention which was to have the French, appear as friends of the Roman Republic and as assisting in her defense. But Oudinot did not stick to it, as the convenion did not contain stipulations concerning the acceptance of French troops in the city of Rome, and after Lesseps had departed to Paris on June 1st, the French troops began the assault on Rome on June 3rd, and took possession of Villa Pamfili and Palazzo Corsini, so that they held the two most important defensive locations. Immediately a skirmish broke out, which ended undecided when the night fell. The Roman troops, c. 20,000, composed of Poles, Germans, Lombards, Swiss, Frenchmen, Dutchmen etc., were commanded by Garibaldi and Roselli, the French force in the last days consisted of 25,000 men, 48 field cannon, 8 batteries of 12 pounders, of 2 16 pound cannon, 20 pieces position cannon, 13 mortars, several 30 pound paixhans. On June 4th the fight renewed, the Montenero was stormed, he Porta del Popolo attacked, on June 5th the main fight took place at the Porta S. Pancrazio, which the French took by storm three times, but were repelled by the Romans three times. Now the fight calmed down, as both sides had suffered severe losses. The French worked hard on siege fortifications; a sortie by Garibaldi in vain attempted their destruction. After these had been completed and Oudinot on June 12th by proclamation had called upon the Romans to cease their resistance, without success, the French on June 13th began the bombardment of Rome, on June 22nd stormed through the breech at the Porta San Pancrazio into the city. Finally on June 30th the Constituente demanded the cesation of hostilities, as it regarded any further defense of the city as impossible. While the municipium delivered this decision to both he Roman and the French army, the triumvirs Mazzini, Saffi and Arminelli resigned and handed over executive power to Salicetti, Mariani and Calendrelli. Rome surrendered unconditionally to the French; on July 2nd the gates San Paolo, Portese and San Pancrazio were opened to them, on July 3rd they entered. Immediately the Assemblea dissolved, on the 3rd Oudinot issued a proclamation, according to which all state authority temporarily would be concentrated in the hands of the French military authority. As Roman army only that which existed prior to November 17th 1848 was recognized; all free corps were dissolved. The keys to the city were sent to the pope in Gaeta. General Rostolan was appointed governor of Rome; on July 5th declared the state of siege for Rome. The civita was dissolved. As a number of assassinations had taken place in the first days of the French occupation, the public were disarmed.
The reintroduction of papal government (the pope continued to reside in Gaeta) in various parts of the Papal State happened after the victories of the respective invading armies. At first following the occupation of Bologna by the Austrians on May 24th under civil and military governor Gorzkowski and the extraordinary papal commissioner Bedini in the delegations Bologna, Ferrara, Forli, Ravenna; after the surrender of Ancona on June 27th by commissioner Savelli in the delegations of Urbino and Pesaro, also for the delegations Ancona, Macerata, Camerino, Fermo and Ascoli. The proclamations issued on these occasions mainly contained the reintroduction of censorship and the annulment of all appointments and promotions issued after November 16th 1848, while all officials dismissed on or after that day were to be returned in office. In Rome the proclamation of the restoration of papal rule was issued on July 15th. On this day the commission appointed by Oudinot on July 9th assumed office. On August 1st the papal government assumd office, inn the name of the pope an extraordinary commission formed by the cardinals della Genga, Valtieri and Altieri was formed and the formation of which was announced in an address by the pope to the inhabitants of the Papal State on July 17th. The government, which on August 9th formed the following ministry : Savelli for the interior, Giasanti for justice, Galli and Cavalieri held on to the portfolios of finances and trade, but already on August 13th Jacobini replaced the latter. Many higher and lower officials were fired, arrests, sentencing to many years in prison or on the galleys, and many executions all over the Papal State became daily occurrences, while the secret police acted energetically; all state reforms which had been introduced by the pope himself or by the republican authorities after him, were abolished. On September 4th the pope moved his residence from Gaeta to Portici near Naples, to spend fall and winter there. He was accompanied by the diplomatic corps. From here on September 12th he decreed a Motu Proprio which promised the establishment of a state council charged with the examination of all law drafts, a state consulta for finances, of provincial councils, the members of which were to be selected by the pope from lists of candidates suggested by the municipal councils, to debate provincial matters, municipal councils and reforms in the administration of jurisdiction. On this Motu Proprio on September 18th followed a decree of amnesty which excluded the members of the provisional government, the Assemblea, the triumvirate and the republican government, the leaders of the military corps and all those who had conducted common crimes. Held back from a return to Rome by the presence of French troops, when the Spanish troops were to embark on December 7th, the pope attempted to prevent this in a personal letter to Queen Isabella, as he hoped, following the departure of the French, to have Rome occupied by the Spaniards. Instead the French stayed on and the Spanish departed, but the Spanish permitted to recruit volunteers in Spain for the formation of a bodyguard. Finally the pope left Portici on April 4th 1850 and returned to Rome on April 12th. The provisional commission laid down its office on that day. The sentiment of the people toward the pope remained a cool one. While in regard to the implementation of the Motu Proprio of September 12th a numbr of laws were projected, month after month passed without such laws being passed. Meanwhile severe actions of police and military lasted on, the number of arrests increased, especially in ecclesiastical affairs the administration more and more returned to the old ways, the Jesuits were rehabiliated, already by he end of 1850 the general of the Jesuits, Roothan, returned to Rome from Sicily, etc. Many were also upset with the conflict which had arisen with Sardinia because of the Siccardian Laws (see there). The worst point were the finances; the silver agio rose to unprecedented levels, by the end of April the government had to raise the already exorbitant tax on real estate by 1/6.; the pope even found it necessary to tax the clergy 100,000 Scudi annually. The establishment of a new bank was attempted on May 1st, the issuance of bonds etc. But public confidence in the finances of the Papal State, by measures such as these, was not strengthened. On June 12th the reorganization of the army was decreed, but the progress of this matter was not favourable. The French intervening troops remained in their positions, but early in May were reduced to one division; command over it was entrusted to General Gemeau.
Finally on September 11th 1850 the first organic laws promised in the Motu Proprio of September 12th were passed, namely those on the ministries and the state council, which defined the responsibilities of the individual ministries, but made no mention of a constitution. The edict on the organization of ministries divided the branches of public administration in 5 departments : interior, justice, finance, trade and public works, war. The personnel of the council of ministers consisted of Cardnal Antonelli, presien and minister of fioreign affairs, Savelli, minister of the interior, Glausentini for justice, Jacobini for trade, Kalbermatten for war, Galli for finances. In this organization the state secretary, the papal organ when it came to the publication of legislative acts, not only became the supreme, but the only chef of the political state. His power surpassed, as it had done in earlier times, that of any other minister by far, while the others could be regarded only the highest ranking bureaucrats. The state council was a purely advisory body, consisting of a president in the person of Cardinal state secretary (Antonelli), a prelate (Consolini) as vice president, as well as nine ordinary and six extraordinary councilmen, all of whom were appointed by the pope.
Almost simultaneous with the publication of these two edicts the pope issued a circular (on September 16th) in which he ordered all chancellors to reopen the universities (which had been closed for almost 2 years) on November 1st. The first further addition was the edict of October 30th on the organization of a financial consulta to examine and revise the revenues and expenses of the state; the publication of this edict concided with the time when the tariff of the new trade tax became public, which caused more dissatisfaction among the population. The consequence was a crisis in the ministry, as first he minister of finances Galli, and then mnister of war Kalbermatten requested their demission; the latter was replaced by Prince Orsini. A further piece of organic legislation on November 22nd concerned the provincial government and administration, by newly regulating the administrative division of the Papal State. The impression which the enacting of this law made on the more intelligent part of the population was a favourable one, despite the electorate being rather limited, and despite the final decision being left in the hand of state officials. As the final element of he organic laws on November 26th a law on municipal administration was passed for the provinces, in 1851 for the city of Rome. The individual laws were not immediately implemented, the sentiment of the population in general remained desperate and depressed, any free movement immediately was suppressed by police with severity, half of the Papal State remained occupied by foreign troops, of which especially the French occasionally had brawls with the Papal troops; France even ordered the occupation troops to be increased. Meanwhile banditry increased in the entire Papal Sate to such an extent, that bands of robbers dared to enter the nearest environs of Rome itself. Finally on March 12th Cardinal state secretary Antonelli opened the state council in the Quirinal. The new municipality in Rome, headed by Prince del Drago as senator, was established on April 1st. Only temporarily did public sentiment improve when the conclusion of two treaties was published, which were of importance for the future, namely the navigation treaty concluded with Tuscany on April 5th 1851 on the basis of mutuality, and the treaty concluded with Austria and Tuscany on April 22nd 1851 concerning the construction of a railroad from Mantua via Bologna to Florence. On June 17th 1851 Pius IX. decreed a new amnesty. The decree of July 7th 1851 restored the supreme spiritual court of revision, the Sagra Visita Apostolica, with extended authority. The publication of the state budget for 1851 again included a deficit of 1,756,745 Roman Scudi. In consequence, again extraordinari measures had to be taken. Serious problems were created for the Papal government by the community of democratic refugees which had their center in London, from where Mazzini in August 1851 issued a manifesto to the Italians calling for the papal government to be toppled, a dictatorship to be established for the duration of the struggle. Sp threatened, the government had to remain under the protection of Austrian and French troops. An Ausrian brigade was statind at Bologna, a second one at Ancona, a division of Frenchmen under General Gemeau in Rome, Civita Vecchia and environs. The coup d'etat of December 2nd 1851 in Paris, in regard to which the pope expressed his satisfaction, freed him from much concern in regard to Mazzini's undertakings, despite Mazzini (on March 2nd 1852) again called for a revolution, at first in Italy, in order to then reform the political organization of all of Europe. Also in 1851 the finances were one of the weak sides of the Papal State; the republican triumvirate had left behind a debt of 4,651,000 Scudi in paper money, after the papal paper money had been converted in republican paper money, the Papal government now again converted the republican paper money in papal paper money, but did not succeed in doing so completely. The efforts of the government to improve the administration and create a new army brought with them new expenses, without any improvement on the side of revenues. In order to recruit foreign troops, Germans and Swiss, the government decided to raise the signing bonus and the salary, and thus to form two regiments composed of foreigners, but by June 1852 only 12,000 men had signed up. In regard to the proper administration, plans for improvement ran into two obstacles, the dishonesty of officials and the unopularity of the political power of the clergy.
The impression that the papal power in the course of the year 1851 declined in the political field while it increased in the spiritual one continued in the year 1852. Political tension with Sardinia continued. Following the abolition of the privileges of the Roman Catholic clergy in this country, the solution of the question of church property and of the introduction of civil marriage where matters against which the pope declared himself with determination. Also Tuscany did not intend to undo the Leopoldine legislation beyond what was agreed upon in the concordat of 1851. The Grand Duke of Tuscany even fired a minister who intended to implement religious reaction in the spirit of papal policy. Negotiations were under way with the British government concerning the establishment of a British embassy in Rome, the British government promised to spend special care on he Catholic church in Ireland, if the pope were to agree to influence the political activity of the Irish clergy in a direction favourable to British government. On October 20th 1852 the financial consulta convened for the first time, a kind of assembly of notables and stae representation, which was to debate the interests of the country and which was composed of as many persons of exalted birth as of men of great capability. They were informed of the budget for 1853, and Marquess Baldini suggested that the reports on revenues and expenses of earlier years should be published, in order to enable persons to judge the budget. This was done. In the budget of 1852 the papal government has fixed the revenues at 11,110,569 Scudi, the expenses at 12,909,119 Scudi, thus a deficit of 1,795,949 Scudi had remained. Thus a population of 3 million roughly had paid 3 Roman Thalers (4 Thalers 14 Silver Groschen Prussian) tax per person. Upon request of the financial consulta, the paper money should be repaid, the deficit for 1853 which was calculated at 1,500,000 Scudi should be covered by cuts in spending and by a loan of 800,000 Scudi. The pope approved hese decisions, the taxs were raised by 1/6 and a loan was taken from the House Rothschild. Public opinion also responded favourably on the establishment of a commission charged with the examination and termination of political trials dealing with matters of the revolution years. A large number of these was ended that way. In the area of public construction, in 1853 greater activity was unfolded. Permits were granted for the construction of the railroad connecting Rome with Frascati, and Rome with Civita Vecchia. New steamboats were purchased, and finaly, in the presence of the pope, the first attempts with an elecric telegraph connecting Rome with Terracina were made, which was to connect via Bologna with the telegraph line of Northern Italy, Germany and France. Before the session of the second financial consulta was opened in November 1853, a list of the debts of the Papal State was composed. It turns out that in 1814 to 1830 there had been budget surplusses, and that the increase of public debs had begun in 1831. The total sum of state debts in 1853 was 100 million French Franks; the interests to be paid on these were about 5 million Franc annually, or 1/10 of state revenues. In regard to the establishment of regiments of foreign soldiers, one Swis regiment had been formed. The situation was calm everywhere, so that the French forces of occupation were reduced from 10,000 men to 8,000, and limited to Rome and Civita Vecchia, while the Austrian occupation from the beginning had limited itself to Bologna and Ancona.
It could not be overlooked that the Roman administration, slowly and gradually, improved, and that the government intended to improve the state economy and finances without raising expectations of political reform. One of the most important measures in this direction was the publication of all data on the state economy. in consequence of which for 1852 for the first time data about the trade between the Papal State and other countries were published. The total value of imports for 1851 was 10,598,261 Scudi, that of exports 9,733,465 Scudi, among which 5,592,618 Scudi for imported fabricated goods, only 2,506,699 for exported ones. The value for food exports (grain, rice, livestock etc.) was 5,441,701 Scudi, that of imports 2,224,127. The two main ports (Ancona, Civita Vecchia) were visited by 5821 vessels with a combined tonnage of 524,229. The disharmony with Sardinia continued. The Sardinian government demanded that the pope should enter into negoriations with them over ecclesiastical matters, and if the pope was not unwilling to enter into these in the first place, he did not trust in the honesty of the proposals which were addressed to him from Turin. He rejected these and did not want to make sacrifices which would contradict the teaching of the church. In the warning which the Apostolic Chamber once a year on the feast of St. Peter reads out against those who failed in the fulfilment of their obligations toward the papal administration, namely Naples and Parma, now Sardinia also was included, because of her refusal to hand in the Golden Chalice of a value of 2000 halers, which the papal treasury was to receive annually in compensation for the dissolved monasteries since Benedict XIV. When on November 28th 1854 the draft o a Sardinian law foresaw the dissolution of monasteris, the sales of their property and the usage of the money for purposes of the state, a draft which later was accepted by both chambers, the pope in a secret consistory of January 22nd 1855 declared the former as null and void, and on Jul7 26th excommunicated all those who proposed that law, voted for it or approved it. The budget presented to the reconveded financial consulta showed increased expenses as compared to 1854, which were covered by an increase in revenues by 1/6, which hit those liable to property tax the hardest. State expenses, after the implemented savings, still amountd to 1,800,000 Scudi. In order to increase the revenues, for 1856 a new tax on alcoholic beverages was introduced, the tax on patents reinroduced and a raise in import tariffs decided upon. For 1856 and the following years, the government hoped to collect so much by administrating the monopoly for salt and tobacco, that revenues and expenses could be balanced. According to the budget of 1855, ordinary expenses were 13,137,162 Scudi, extraordinary ones 563,162 Scudi, for the army 1,801,122 Scudi, in adition the government had to pay for the French and Austrian occupation. The deficit for 1855 was calculated at 1,101,497 Scudi. A financial embarrassment was the copper coinage of low copper content, which it had minted since 1851 in large quantity and which it now had to replace to avoid higher losses. The extraordinary trade tax which was collected since in 1851 now was abolished, as its collection proved impossible; the government even decreed those to be reimbursed who had paid it. Cholera and rising prices in 1855 had spread misery among the population, a situation the Mazzinists again attempted to exploit, but without a chance of success, because the French garrison in Rome numbered only 5,000 men, but a newly formed second regiment of foreign soldiers was stationed nearby. Of the railroads, which had been much talked about since 1852, none were completed yet, because companies charged with the construction met with obstacles which slowed down the progress of the project. But the construction of the electric telegraph connection made progress, in 1855 the branch line Bologna-Ferrara-Venice was opened for traffic. The papal nuncio in Madrid was recalled as Spain had violated the concordat; the Spanish ambassador departed from Rome. The greatest achievement of papal policy in 1855 was the concordat (see there) concluded with Austria on August 18th. The supply with food because of the good harvest of 1855 had improved in the Papal State so much, hat the government permitted the export of rice, maize and legumes until July 1st 1856. Only banditry and unrest continued.
The condition of the political relations of the European system of states, which in the Oriental War had resulted for Italy in an alliance of Sardinia with Britain and France, proved stimulating, while the diversity of French and Austrian interests in Italy, for centuries fighting each other with the force of arms, and in the patronization of the pope only seemingly pursuing the same interests, hardly could be of beneficial nature. Now the Paris Peace Conferences brought a turn to the better. There the Sardinian delegates had described the administration of the various Italian states as causing worries for peace in all of Italy, concerning the Papal State they urged an understanding with the pope and to ask him to change his entire system of government; the Austrian occupation force should evacuate the Papal State immediately, while the French should stay on until necessary reforms were completed. As a result of the negotiations held until April 8th, in the protocol the stipulation was included that Austria and France wished to see the Papal stae evacuated of forces of occupation, as soon as this was possible without jeopardizing the peace in the country. In the meantime the papal administration renewed her effort to raise the number of her armed forces from 14,000 to 18,000 and to inforce the still weak second regiment of foreign soldiers, but simultaneously declared that 3 to 4 years would pass until these measures could be implemented. Further the pope informed the two Catholic powers, that he wished nothing more than to implement those reforms which France and Austria regarded necessary, in consequence of which the latter believed it better not to undertake measures, which in the eyes of the people made such reforms appear as the result of foreign pressure instead of papal policy. The British government declared to be satisfied with the proceding of the pope, and when after the conclusion of the Treaty of Paris in June several Austrian, French, British and Sardinian statesmen visited Rome, they probably did so to deprive the Italian revolutionary party of her hopes. On July 7th finally the first railroad of the Papal State was opened, cionnecting Rome and Frascati, separated by about 5 hours of walk German. The exchange of expressions of amity with took place during a meeting of the pope and the king of Naples at the Porta d'Anzio, showed that the demands raised by Britain and France against Naples were not approved by the pope. Relations between the pope ans Russia improved since Alexander II. had ascended the throne, but the pope's desire to conclude concordats similar to that with Austria with Tuscany and with the Kingdom of Naples did not materialize. Instead on June 3rd 1857 a concordat with Württemberg was concluded. On June 16th 1856 the pope appointed 6 new cardinals, so that they were 66 in total, 30 of whom n the Papal State, 21 in Rome, only one third of them Non-Italians. The conditions in the country did not improve much, but the deficit declined from year to year. The wishes and proposals the financial consulta made at he end of every session never were answered; complaints were widespread, that the promises made in he Motu Proprio of September 12th 1849 insufficiently had been implemented. Lord Palmestron in the House of Commons called the government of the Papal State an abitrary and tyrannical one; the French government clearly declared her dissatisfaction with the existing conditions. On October 16th 1856 the commander of the French occupation roops was replaced by General Goyon; in the Marches and the Romagna the state of siege was lifted (December 1856); in Ancona and Bologna the Austrian occupation limited the authority of military courts to cases of high treason and robbery.
The Patriotic Italian Party pursued everywhere the policy of attacking only the Austrians while not touching the French, so that the Austrians had to resort to military courts, while the French appeared as benevolent occupants. Political activity was conducted more and more in the open, so that the pope and his ministers left Rome on May 4th 1857 to take up in Bologna for a while, and to appease the sentiment in the legations. In the meantime the concept of separating the legations from the papal state, expressed by Sardinia in the Paris peace negotiations, had been so much discussed; it had already had supporters at the Vienna Congress of 1815. All cities of he legations, first of all Bologna, formulated addresses which requested political and administrative improvements, and while these were not offcially delivered to the pope, he had taken notice of them. In consequence of these the pope returned to Rome already on September 5th 1857 without having achieved his goal. The only achievements were the lifting of the state of siege in Bologna and Ancona and he reduction of the expenses for the Austrian occupation, while the Papal government regarded the continuation of the Austrian occupation a necessity. In regard to economic policy, the papal government had concluded an agreement with Austria concerning the establishment of telegraph lines on her territory which were connected with the Austrian system; also it granted permits for the consruction of 4 railroads, from Rome to Civita Vecchia, 80 km, from Rome to Ancona, 280 km, from Ancona to Bologna, 206 km, from Bologna to Ferrara, 53 km. The stockholders were granted an interest of 6 % annually. A stretch of the line Rome - Civita Vecchia was already opened for traffic in January 1857. In order to promote the enterprise, the pope permitted religious communities to purchase stocks of the central railroad, which was done. On the other hand the papal position in regard to the relations with both ptrotecting powers indicated the tendency to stubbornly resist to anything new, while France in the Papal State wanted the program to be maintained, which Louis Bonaparte had outlined in a letter to the pope. When the French government transferred her former ambassador, de Rayneval (who had written a letter of protection for the existing institutions in the Papal State), to Sankt Petersburg, and appointed in his stead the Duke of Gramont, hitherto ambassador in Turin, the official Roman gazette (the Giornale di Roma) failed to announce the change, an announcement which would have been the custom, and when the French government again presented the necessity of political reforms, the papal government responded by having the director of the Roman loan bank, who had been the order of the legion of honour by the French government, arrested because of embezzlement. The papal government was shocked by the assassination attempt against Emperor Napoleon III. of January 14th 1858, which had been plotted by three subjects of the Papal State (Count Orsini, Pieri, Pianori). The shock was of such a scope that it not only broke off the negotiations held in Vienna and Paris in regard to the withdrawal of the Austrian and French troops, but that they even hinted o the French that they would approve of an increase in the French occupation force. The financial consulta assembled at that time declared the project of the drainage of the Pontine Marshes, begun by Pius VI., which costed he state 35,000 Scudi annually, as completed, a measure which was approved by the government. The planned budget for 1858 foresaw increased revenues of 331,300 Scudi and decreased expenses of 202,425 Scudi and an overall budget surplus of 1425 Scudi. The troops, 12,600 men of whom 5,000 were gendarmerie, cost 2,323,567 Scudi annually. All ministries of Rome employed 98 clergymen and 5059 laymen. The abduction of a boy in the summer of 1858 caused a great sensation in all of Europe. The young, seven year old Edgard Montara was secretly, without any reasons being given, on June 24th 1858 was taken from his Jewish parents in Bologna at the order of papal authorities, and brought o Rome to a papal educational institution. A maidservant who had served in the house of the Montara family declared that she had baptized the boy when he was one year old. More than 1000 residents of Bologna signed an address to the papal government, in which they supported the request for the boy being returned. The pope pointed at laws of the Roman Catholic church which did not permit that.
Many frictions between the population of Rome and the French soldiers caused the French commander to publish an order of the day in which he allocated cases of an offense of French soldiers o French military courts and in which he demanded hat French soldiers would be the same respect as the ruling pope. In consequence a serious dispute emerged between prime minister Antonelli and General Goyon, and Goyon withdrew his order of the day. In September 1858 suddenly he rench occupation force was increased and the pope urged to permit the French to fortify the port of Civita Vecchia, where works on he fortification were conducted by the French with haste, without anyone knowing the reasons for such action. The papal government began new negotiations with the goal of termination the French and Austrian occupation of the Papal State with the exception of Ancona and Civita Vecchia in 1860, while public affairs moe and more reached the state of dissolution, the offices proved to be powerless. In several places (Rimini, Forli, Ravenna) already early in 1859 the better part of the population had taken the administration in their own hands, while the National Party prepared the annexation by Sardinia. Already several weeks before the war broke out, in Rome money had been collected to support the volunteers who were to go to Piemonte, who were given passes in which they gave up their right to return. Count Cavour and Massimo d'Azeglio came to Rome to win the pope over for the reorganization of Italy, while the government of the latter strove to complete the second regiment of foreign soldiers, and even to recruit a third such regiment abroad, and to establish a regiment of indigenous mountain infantrymen of 1000 men. When French troops arrived, ostensibly to liberate Italy, public events were held in Rome to honour he French; the French commander ordered these to be stopped. The sudden change of events in Tuscany also caused shock in Rome and gave cause to fear the repetition of the events of 1848 and 1849. In the legations the papal administration ceased to function, the Romagna was in the state of anarchy. Amidst this unrest the railroad from Rome to Civita Vecchia was completed and opened for traffic. By the end of April, the Austrians in Ancona and the French in Civita Vecchia received reinforcements, despite the pope protesting against both, as he feared his country to be turned into a battleground. The French occupation force in Rome was strenghened to the size of a division. The domestic recruitment drive for the papal forces made litle progress, because the Papal State's youth inspired by national euphoria moved in increasing numbers by railroad to Civita Vecchia and from there across the sea to Piemont, and the papal government had to give up any kind of resistance. A national insurrection was prepared, gradually, but inevitably. At the same time the French fortified themselves in Castello Sant'Angelo, on Monte Mario and on S. Pietro in Montorio on the Janiculus, so that they were in full control of Rome. The papal government on May 3rd declared her neutrality in the war (which was respected by Austria; by France and Piemonte only in such a way that obligations which were to protect neutraliy were violated), while in Rome two clubs existed to support volunteers heading to Piemonte, and while even among the Papal troops entire detachments in full armour deserted their flag to join that of Piemonte. In the beginning of June the Austrians evacuated Ancona, Bplogna and Ferrara, and immediately the municipality of Bologna proclaimed that it recognized King Vittorio Emanuele as dictator (June 12th). Forli, Faenza and Imola acceded to this declaraion, and soon all the legations had declared their secession from the papal government. Perugia also participated in the insurrection, but the Swiss regiment restored papal rule on June 20th. Victor Emanuel appointed an extraordinary commissioner for the rebellious provinces of the Papal State, while he had to reject the role of dictator offered to him. The papal government, in a note directed at the powers, protested against the measures taken by Piemonte. In consequence of the agreement concluded by he Emperors of Austria and France at Villafranca, according to which a federation of the Italian states should be formed, the French Emperor expressed in a wish 4 articles : honorary presidency of the pope in the Italian federation, amnesty, full implementation of he statute of 1848 with modifications and the elimination of clergymen from the government. In the meantime the party which demanded the unification of Italy under Vittorio Emanuele, unanimous with their brethren in Parma, Modena and Tuscany, was extremely active, in order o raise an armed force against the papal government in the legations, appointed a provisional government, appointed a dictator, General Garibaldi, as commander of the troops in the Romagna, took on a loan of 6 million Francs, introduced the Code Napoleon as civil law code and scheduled elections for a national assembly. Simultaneously defensive alliances were concluded against restoration attempts with the provisional governments of Tuscany, Parma, Modena and that of Bologna. This Central Italian Federation offered the command over their unified forces to General Fanti, who accepted. On September 1st he national assembly of the 4 legations which called themselves Romagna convened, they decided unanimously to make use of their right no longer to recognize the temporal power of the pope, and that they desired the unification of the Romagna with the Kingdom of Sardinia. On September 26th a treaty was concluded between the papal government and Spain, in which the Spanish government placed troops at the pope's disposal for all eventualities. In he meantime on the order of the papal government all troop movements against the rebellious legations were stopped, as the French government in concordance with suggestion made in the negotiations of 1856, supported the separation of the legations, except for foreign policy and spiritual matters. Tuscan troops moved into Bologna to protect it against papal troops. All public acts were isued in the name of Vittorio Emanuele. The hitherto collected customs duties between Modena, the Romagna and Tuscany were abolished, at the remaining borders the Sardinian customs tariff introduced, the inquisition tribunal was abolished, the stamp tax abolished. The papal government now sent the Sardinian emissary his passport, after the papal emissary long had been recalled from Turin. On November 7th the National Assembly of the Romagna unanimously elected Prince Eugene of Savoy-Carignan as regent, the same happend in Parma, Modena and Tuscany. At the same time the Sardinian constitution was promulgated. Victor Emanuel refused to permit the Prince of Carignan to accept the offered regency over central Italy, because of the urgently presented reservations of France, also because the papal governmnt declared in case of acceptance to request Neapolitan assistance for the maintenance and restoration of her rights. Prince Eugene appointed Comthur Bonocompagni, who had energetically participated in the revo;ution in central Italy, to take n the regency offered to him until a congress of the European powers would have decided over the future order. The French government accepted this development, and Garibaldi laid down his office.
See : Biener, De donatione a Constantino M. in Silvestrrum pontificum collata, Marini, Nuove esame dell'autentica de diplomi di Ludovico Pio, Otone I et Arrigo II sui dominio temporale dei Romani pontifici, Rome 1822, Münch, Über die erdichtete Schenkung Constantins des Grossen, Freiburg 1824, Leopold von Ranke, Die Römischen Päpste, ihre Kirche und ihr Staat im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert, Berlin 1834-1836, 4th edition 1854-1856, Helfferich, Römische Zustände, Leipzig 1850, H.G. Hasse, Über die Vereinigung der geistlichen und weltlichen Obergewalt im Römischen Kirchenstaat, Haarlem 1852, Sugenheim, Geschichte der Entstehung und Ausbildung des Kirchenstaates, Leipzig 1854, Gosselin, Die Macht des Papstes im Mittelalter, German after the 2nd ed. Münster 1859, 2 vols., Th. Mundt, Rom und Pius IX., Berlin 1859, L. About, La question Romaine, Brussels 1859

source in German, posted by Zeno


This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on March 5th 2009

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