In 1802, Napoleon, in another of the numerous twists in his policy on Italy, annexed
, in 1805
and the Ligurian Republic
, in 1807/08
, in 1809
remainder of the Papal State
These regions now an integral part of the Empire Française
saw the introduction of the Code Civile
of the Metric System
and many other
reforms. Based on the Concordat
Napoleon Bonaparte had signed with the Pope in 1801, relations between state and church were
placed on a legal basis.
Napoleon regarded Italy a region he could politically toy with, create and exterminate states whenever
he pleased or regarded it suitable. The regions directly administrated by
therefore were a little bit more stable than those beyond
the French borders. Napoleon had given his son the title King of Rome, a title expressing both political
ambition and an emphasis on Italy.
The Italians welcomed many of the reforms introduced by the French (and, during the post-Napoleonic
years, strove to get them back), but were put off by Napoleon's arbitrary rule, his nepotism and his
disrespect for the wish of many Italians to have Italy unified. Many resented military conscription and
the huge financial burden placed on them in order to finance the war.