History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

Papal State Spain
First posted on April 12th 2002, lastr revised on December 11th 2013






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

until 1735 . 1735-1759 . 1759-1777 . 1777-1793 . 1793-1815 . 1816-1848 . 1848-1861
For the history prior to 1735, see History of Naples, History of Sicily
For the history since 1861, see History of Italy


until 1735
The Norman Kingdom of Sicily was established in the 11th century. In 1282 it was split into the Kingdoms of Sicily and of Naples. From 1442 onward Sicily and Naples were in dynastic union, by the Crown of Aragon, since 1516 by the Habsburg Dynasty (since 1556 Spanish line). After the War of Spanish Succession, Spain ceded Sicily to Savoy-Piemont, Naples to Austria. After the War of the Quadruple Alliance, Austria and Savoy-Piemont switched Sicily (now to Austria) for Sardinia (now to Savoy-Piemont, 1720). Austrian rule in Naples and Sicily was ended by a Spanish invasion in 1734.
The Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily had been under joint rule from 1442 to 1718 and from 1720 to 1734.

1734-1759
In the War of Polish Succession (1733-1735), Spain, now under the Bourbon Dynasty, regained the Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, which had been lost to Austria respectively Savoy-Piemont in the War of Spanish Succession (1700-1713). In 1734, the Kingdom of Sicily was absorbed into the (unified) Kingdom of Naples (in contemporary sources also refered to as the Kingdoms of Two Sicilies : Monthenault d'Egly 1741). Don Carlos, son of the King of Spain, was formally crowned King of Naples (1738); Spain renounced her claims, Unified Naples thus becoming a sideline of the Spanish Bourbon Dynasty.
Under King Carlo I. (1735/38-1759) and under minister Tanucci, Naples was a center of the enlightenment. In the spirit of religious toleration, Jews, banned from Naples since 1541, were readmitted in 1735.
King Carlo I reformed the army and improved the roads. When an English fleet threatened the Neapolitan coast in 1742, during the War of Austrian Succession, the Kingdom hastily declared neutrality. Later during the same war, in 1744, an Austrian invasion was repelled.
A number of reforms pertained to the church; the number of priests was limited to 10 for every 1000 inhabitants, later reduced to five; for the construction of new churches state permission was required, church tax reduced etc.; in 1741 and again in 1755 a concordat was signed. A Cadastral Survey of the kingdom was begun in 1740 and completed in the 1750s. A 1756 edict redefined the status of nobles, with the objective to turn them into a class of public servants.
At the University of Naples, Giambattista Vico (he died 1744) taught philosophy; he was a critic of rationalist (enlightenment) philosophy.

1759-1777
In 1759, King Charles inherited the Spanish crown; he abdicated as King of the Two Sicilies in favour of his son Ferdinando IV and, in the pragmatic decree of 1759, established rules for the succession in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, which was to be ruled by a side branch of the Spanish Bourbon Dynasty. From 1759 to 1777, minister Bernardo Tanucci, a Tuscan, dominated Neapolitan politics; he ruled as regent during the minority of Ferdinando IV (until 1767), and beyond since Ferdinando IV was not that interested in politics. Tanucci, who had served as minister under Carlo I., after 1759 reported on his actions to the court in Madrid; the Kingdom of Naples was no longer truly independent.
The Kingdom of Naples, under Tanucci, implemented Bourbon Reforms, an early, concerted form of Enlightened Absolutism. The Jesuits were expelled in 1767; when Pope Clement XIII. responded by excommunicating Tanucci, the latter ordered Pontecorvo and Benevent, exclaves of the Papal State surrounded by Neapolitan territory, occupied (until 1773). Steps were undertaken to make the Church of the Kingdom of Naples autonomous from Rome (Gallican style).

1777-1793
Ferdinando's wife Maria Carolina, a daughter of Austria's Maria Theresia, had Tanucci dismissed (1777) and replaced by Englishman John Acton; during his administration, the Two Sicilies switched from a Spanish dependence to an Anglo-Austrian alliance. Reform policy was continued, although at a reduced pace (termination of the inquisition 1782). Torture was not abolished until 1859.
A Supreme Council of Finance was established in Naples in 1782. In 1778 the Neapolitan Academy of Science and Letters was founded.
The Spanish and Austrian Line of the Habsburgs, the Spanish/Neapolitan Line of the Bourbon, the Dukes of Savoy, even minister Tanucci (a Tuscan) had one aspect in common : they were foreigners, and as such they were perceived by the establishment, the landowning nobility and the church, both of which cooperated in order to defend their position.
The university of Naples was the first to appoint a professor for political economy, Antonio Genovesi (1754). Some attempts were made by the Neapolitan government to introduce reforms; the Jesuits were expelled in 1765, convents closed, attempts were made to reform the agriculture, vehemently opposed by the landowning nobility. In 1763/1764 Naples was struck by a severe famine.

1793-1815
In 1793 the Kingdom of Two Sicilies joined the First War of the Coalition against France. Mount Vesuvius erupted in 1794. In 1798 Neapolitan forces moved into the Papal State in order to expel the French; the coalition falling apart, King Ferdinand, responding to Napoleon's threats, withdrew his forces. In 1799, a French force occupied Naples (i.e. the mainland part of the kingdom; king and administration had moved to Sicily) and proclaimed the short-lived Parthenopean or Neapolitan Republic. It faced armed resistance, in the organization of which the Catholic Church played an important role; the French were labeled atheists and regicides. The French had to withdraw, and the Kingdom of Unified Naples regained her possessions on the mainland.
In 1806 the French again invaded, Napoleon creating the Kingdom of Naples for his brother Joseph. King Ferdinand during the years 1806-1815 resided in Palermo on Sicily, his island kingdom being protected by the British fleet. In 1808, Joseph Bonaparte as King of Naples was replaced by Joachim Murat.

1816-1848
The Vienna Congress restored Ferdinando IV of Bourbon back to the throne of Naples; the island of Sicily (where the constitution of 1812 virtually had disempowered him) was returned to him. He annulled the constitution in 1816; Sicily was fully reintegrated into what was now officially called the Regno delle Due Sicilie (Kingdom of Two Sicilies), Ferdinando IV became Ferdinando I.
A number of accomplishments under the administration of Kings Joseph Napoleon and Joachim Murat, such as the Code Civile, the penal and commercial code, were kept (and extended to Sicily). In the mainland parts of the Kingdom, the power and influence of both nobility and clergy had been greatly reduced, however at the expense of law and order - brigandage and the forceful occupation of lands were problems the restored Kingdom inherited from their predecessor.
The Vienna Congress had granted Austria the right to station troops in the kingdom, and Austria, as well as Russia and Prussia, insisted that no written constitution was to be granted to the kingdom. In October 1815, Joachim Murat landed in Calabria, in an attempt to regain his kingdom; the government responded to acts of collaboration or of terrorism with severe repression; by June 1816 Murat's attempt had failed and the situation was under control. However, the Neapolitan administration had changed from conciliatory to reactionary. Henri de Stendhal, who visited Naples in 1817, called the kingdom 'an absurd monarchy in the style of Philip II.'.
As open political activity was suppressed, liberals organized themselves in secret societies, such as the Carbonari, whose origins date back into the French period; the Carbonari organization had been outlawed in 1816; in 1820 a revolution planned by Carbonari and Carbonari supporters, aiming at the introduction of a written constitution (the Spanish constitution of 1812), did not unfold as planned. King Ferdinand still felt compelled to grant the constitution desired by the liberals (July 13th). A revolution erupted in Palermo, Sicily, that month, but was quickly suppressed. The Neapolitan rebels occupied Benevento and Pontecorvo, enclaves belonging to the Papal State.
At the Congress of Troppau (Nov. 19th), the Holy Alliance (Metternich the driving force) decided to interfere. In view of 50,000 Austrian troops, King Ferdinand (outside of his capital) cancelled the constitution February 23rd 1821; Neapolitan resistance (by regular forces under General Guglielmo Pepe, as well as by irregular rebel forces (Carbonari), against the Austrians was broken by force, on March 24th 1821 Austrian forces entered the city of Naples.
Political repression only intensified. To lawlessness in the countryside another problem intensified - corruption in the administration. An 1828 attempted coup to again force the promulgation of a constitution was suppressed by Neapolitan troops (the Austrian troops had left the previous year).
King Francis I. (1825-1830) died after having visited Paris, where he witnessed the 1830 revolution. In 1829 he had created the Royal Order of Merit (Royal Order of Francis I. of the Two Sicilies). His successor Ferdinand II. declared political amnesty and undertook steps to stimulate the economy, among them lowering the taxes. The railroad from Naples to Portici was taken in operation in 1839; progress was visible. However, the church still objected to the construction of tunnels, because of their 'obscenity'. The city of Naples received street lighting.
In 1836 the Kingdom was struck by a cholera epidemic which killed 65,000 in Sicily alone. In the following years the Neapolitan countryside saw sporadic local insurrections.
The population of the city of Naples numbered 427,000 in 1800, 449,000 in 1850 - an insignificant increase if compared to Milan, Turin, Paris. The numbers for Palermo were 139,000 in 1800, 180,000 in 1850. The population for the mainland part of the kingdom numbered 4.99 million around 1800, 4.91 million c. 1816, 5.6 million c. 1825, 5.93 million in 1833, 6.15 million in 1838. 6.38 million in 1845, 6.61 million in 1848, an increase of 32 % over half a decade. The population of Sicily had risen from 1.66 million c. 1800 to 2.10 million in 1848.
A major problem in the Kingdom was the distribution of land property - most of it concentrated in the hands of a few families, the Landed Oligarchy. The villages housed a large Rural Proletariat, desperately poor and dependent on the landlords for work. The Kingdom's few cities had little industry, thus not providing the outlet excess rural population found in northern Italy, France or Germany. The figures above show that the population of the countryside rose at a faster rate than that of the city of Naples herself, a rather odd phenomenon in a time when much of Europe experienced the Industrial Revolution.
The city of Naples' poor, called Lazzaroni, partially lived from handouts from the royal court; hence their loyalty to the monarchy and their reluctance to participate in a revolution.
In the 1840es, underground literature (political pamphlets etc.) evaded censorship; a September 1847 rising, before being suppressed, crossed from mainland Calabria over to Sicily. On January 13th 1848, an open rebellion began in Palermo; the reintroduction of the 1812 constitution was demanded. King Ferdinand appointed a liberal prime minister, broke diplomatic relations with Austria, even declared war on the latter (April 7th). While the revolutionaries in the mainland part of the kingdom (they had risen shortly after the Sicilians, in several cities except Naples) approved with these measures (April 1848), Sicily continued in her revolution. With the reformers on the mainland disagreeing, King Ferdinand, using the Swiss Guard, took the initiative and suppressed the revolution in Naples (May 15th); the mainland was again under royal control by July; in September 1848, Messina was taken. Palermo, the revolutionaries' capital and last stronghold, fell on May 15th 1849.
Naples, Italy's largest city, had been a cultural center. Rossini had composed for the Neapolitan Opera; from 1822 to 1835 Donizetti.



1848-1861
The Kingdom of Two Sicilies, in the course of 1848-1849, had been able to suppress the revolution and the attempt of Sicilian secession with their own forces, hired Swiss guards included. The war declared on Austria in April 1848, under pressure of public sentiment, had been an event on paper only.
In 1849 King Ferdinand II. was 39 years old; he had begun as a reformer; the early death of his wife (1836), the frequency of political unrest, the extent and range of political expectations on the side of various groups that made up public opinion, had caused him to pursue a cautious, yet authoritarian policy aiming at the prevention of the occurrence of yet another rebellion.
Over half of the delegates elected to parliament in the liberal atmosphere of 1848 were arrested or fled the country. The administration, in their treatment of political prisoners, in their observation of 'suspicious elements', violated the rights of the individual guaranteed by the constitution. Conditions were so bad that they caused international attention; in 1856 Britain and France demanded the release of the political prisoners. When this was rejected, both countries broke off diplomatic relations.
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies pursued an economic policy of protectionism; the country's economy was mainly based on agriculture, the cities, especially Naples - with over 400,000 inhabitants Italy's largest - 'a center of consumption rather than of production' (Santore p.163).
Administratively, Naples and Sicily remained separate units; in 1858 the Neapolitan Postal Service issued her first postage stamps; that of Sicily followed in 1859.
Until 1849, the political movement among the bourgeoisie, at times revolutionary, had been Neapolitan respectively Sicilian rather than Italian in its tendency; Sicily in 1848-1849 had striven for a higher degree of independence from Naples rather than for a unified Italy.
As public sentiment for Italian unification was rather low in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the country did not feature as an object of acquisition in the earlier plans of Piemont-Sardinia's prime minister Cavour. Only when Austria was defeated in 1859 and the unification of Northern Italy (except Venetia) was accomplished in 1860, die Giuseppe Garibaldi, at the head of his 1000 Redshirts, launch his invasion of Sicily, with the connivance of Cavour (Second War of Italian Independence. Once in Sicily, many rallied to his colours; after a successful campaign, he crossed over to the mainland. King Francis II. (since 1859) withdrew to the fortified port of Gaeta, where he surrendered and abdicated in February 1861.
At Teano, Garibaldi met King Victor Emmanuel, transferring to him the conquered kingdom (Handshake of Teano); the Two Sicilies were annexed into the Kingdom of Italy. What used to be the Kingdom of Two Sicilies became Italy's Mezzogiorno.

Historical Encyclopedia Entries : Two Sicilies 1815-1860
Historical Atlas, Naples Page; Sicily Page






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles modern Article Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, from Wikipedia
Article Regno delle Due Sicilie, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Portale Due Sicilie, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Rilettura sintetica della storia del Regno delle Due Sicilie, by Giuseppe Ressa
historical Michel Palmieri de Micciche, Mours de la cour et des peuples des deux-siciles, 1837, in French, GB
Ch. Garnier, Le royaume des Deux-Siciles: Memoire, 1866, in French, GB
Links on History Category : Two Sicilies, History of Sicily, House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, from Wikipedia
Categoria : Regno delle Due Sicilie, Storia della Campania, Storia della Sicilia, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Organizations Associazione Culturale Due Sicilie
Historical Dictionary Enciclopedie on Line, from Treccani, in Italian
Enciclopedia italiana e dizionario della conversazione, vol.1 : A-Amminicolo, 1838, vol.2 : Amministrazione-Asfodelo, 1838, vol.3 : Asia-Basilica, 1839, vol.4 : Basilicata-Brunetto Latini, 1841 (incomplete scan), vol.5 : C-Cavallino, 1842, vol.6 : Ceba-Danza di San Vito, 1843, vol.7 : Danzica-Errore, 1844, vol.7 pt.2 : F-Guizot, 1845, vol.8.1 : H-Litotomista, 1847 (incomplete scan), vol.8.2 : M-Orientali, 1848 (incomplete scan), vol.9.1 : P-Sesso, 1850 (incomplete scan), vol.9.2 : Siam-Zaffiro, 1851 (incomplete scan), vol.10 : Appendice, 1853, Tavole vol.1, 1837, Tavole vol.2, 1847, in Italian, GB
Timelines Virtual History of Sicily, from antiquity to modern times
Primati del Regno delle Due Sicilie, from Orgoglio Sud
Accounts of History General, Modern Article Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, from Wikipedia
Article Regno delle Due Sicilie, from Wikipedia Italian edition
The Royal House of the Two Sicilies, History, from The Royal House of Bourbon
General, Historical Camillo Minieri-Riccio, Essai sur l'histoire du royaume des deux Siciles, 1835, in French, GB
Alexandre Dumas, Storia dei Borboni di Napoli, from Repubblica Napoletana, in Italian
Specific Periods until 1793 Charles Philippe de Monthenault d'Egly, Histoire des rois des deux Siciles de la maison de France, vol.1, 1741, vol.2, 1741, vol.3, 1741, vol.4, 1740, in French, GB
C. Lancelotti, Memorie istoriche di Ferdinando I, re del Regno delle Due Sicilie, 1827, GB
P. Colletta, Storia del reame di Napoli: dal 1734 sino al 1825, vol.1, 1851, vol.2, 1851, vol.3, 1834, in Italian, GB
1793-1815 Leon Hervey de Saint-Denys, Histoire de la revolution dans les Deux-Siciles depuis 1793, 1856, in French, GB
Gregoire Orloff, Memoires historiques: politiques et litteraires sur le royaume de Naples, vol.1, 1819, vol.2, 1819, vol.3, 1821, vol.4, 1821, vol.5, 1821, in French, GB
Article : Parthenopean Republic, Wikipedia
Cronologia : Insurrezione Calabrese 1806
Cronologia : Il Regno di Napoli sotto Giuseppe Bonaparte poi sotto Gioacchino Murat 1806-1815
Cronologia : Sicilia : Padroni gli Inglesi ! La costituzione Siciliana del 1812
C. Lancelotti, Memorie istoriche di Ferdinando I, re del Regno delle Due Sicilie, 1827, GB
P. Colletta, Storia del reame di Napoli: dal 1734 sino al 1825, vol.1, 1851, vol.2, 1851, vol.3, 1834, in Italian, GB
1815-1847 Cronologia : La Rivoluzione Palermitana 1820
Cronologia : Il Regime Costituzionale nelle Due Sicilie, 1820-1821
Cronologia : Morte di Ferdinando I di Napoli, Francesco I Re delle Due Sicilie 1825
C. Lancelotti, Memorie istoriche di Ferdinando I, re del Regno delle Due Sicilie, 1827, GB
P. Colletta, Storia del reame di Napoli: dal 1734 sino al 1825, vol.1, 1851, vol.2, 1851, vol.3, 1834, in Italian, GB
1847-1861 G. de Sivo, Storia delle due Sicilie dal 1847 al 1861 vol.1, 1868, vol.2, 1868, vol.3, 1865, vol.4, 1867, vol.5, 1867, in Italian, GB
Der Aufstand in Sicilien, die Krisis und Verfassung in Neapel im Januar 1848, Folgen davon für Italien im Februar pp.33-64, Schärfung und Zusammenstoss der Extreme im Kirchenstaat und in Neapel im April und Mai 1848 pp.185-217, Innere und äussere Verwicklung Siciliens seit Eröffnung des Parlaments am 25. März 1848; die Königswahl, Erstürmung Messina's und der Waffenstillstand bis zur Wiedereroberung der Insel durch die Neapolitaner im Mai 1849, pp.289-352 in H. Reuchlin, Geschichte Italiens von der Grüdung der regierenden Dynastien bis zur Gegenwart, Part 2, 1860, in German, GB
Kingdom of Two Sicilies, from Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions
Constitutions and Parliaments, Italy 1848-1849, from Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions, paragraph on Naples (Two Sicilies)
Article Guglielmo Pepe, from EB 1911; from Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions
Article : Sicilian Revolution of 1848, Wikipedia
Cronologia, 1859 Due Sicilie I, II, III
Historiography
Administration Foreign Relations A. de Miltitz, Manuel des Consuls, vol.2 pt.2 : Des Consulats a l'Etranger par les Principaux Etats de l'Europe et les Etats-Unis de l'Amerique du Nord, bk.3 : Etablissement des Consulats a l'Etranger, Section II : Italie, Article I : Deux-Siciles, pp.207-260, 1839, in French, GB
U.S. Dept. of State, Office of the Historian, A Guide to the History of Recognition, Diplomatic and Consular Relations since 1776 by Country, Two Sicilies
Military Regno delle Due Sicilie, from CNICG, in Italian
Category : Orders, Decorations and Medals of the Two Sicilies, from Wikipedia
Ch.St. Forbes, The Campaign of Garibaldi in the Two Sicilies, 1861, GB
Royaume des Deux Siciles, pp.3-88 in N.Ch.V. Oudinot, De l'Italie et de ses forces militaires, 1835, in French, GB
Lista dei reggimenti italiani (1792-1799), from Wikipedia Italian edition; scroll down for Regni di Napoli e Sicilia
Economy & Finances Paola Avallone, Paper Money in the Kingdom of Naples : The Public Banks between XVI and XVIII Centuries, IEHC 2006
Nella crisi del 1848. Cultura economica e dibattito politico nella Sicilia degli anni quaranta e cinquanta, by Pina Travagliante, intro by Franco Angeli Edizioni
Numa Presteau, Eveil sur la position financiere du royaume des Deux-Siciles, 1829, in French, GB
P.M. Augimeri, The economic ideas of Antonio Genovesi (1713-1769), thesis Univ. of Sydney 1992
Ethnography Maschito, Italy. A Short History of the Maschitan People nd their Dialect, by Ann La Centra Backen, 1996
Language Data : Albanian (Italy), from Eurolang
Article Arbereshe, from Wikipedia
Sicilian Peoples : the Albanians, from Best of Sicily
Social History
Religion Documenti per la storia degli ebrei a Napoli nel XVIII secolo, from Hebraica Hereditas, in Italian
Muslim Sicily, from Saudi Aramco World
Article History of Islam in Southern Italy, from Wikipedia
Storia del Eparchia di Piana degli Albanesi, in Italian
La Storia, from Diocesi di Lungro, in Italian
H.C. Lea, The inquisition in the Spanish dependencies : Sicily - Naples - Sardinia - Milan - the Canaries - Mexico - Peru - New Granada 1908, IA
J. Matthews, The Jesuits in Naples, 2003
History of Regions Articles History of Sicily, Abruzzo : History, Apulia : History, Basilicata : History, Calabria : History, Campania : History, Molise : History, from Wikipedia
Storia, of Agrigento, Caltanisetta Catania, Enna, Messina, Palermo, Ragusa, Siracusa, Trapani
La Provincia di Agrigento : Storia, La Provincia di Caltanissetta : Storia, La Provincia di Catania : Storia, La Provincia di Enna : Storia, La Provincia di Messina : Storia, La Provincia di Palermo : Storia, La Provincia di Ragusa : Storia, La Provincia di Siracusa : Storia, La Provincia di Trapani : Storia, from Sicilia in Rete
Article : Storia della Sicilia Borbonica, Wikipedia Italian edition
Local History Articles Agrigento : History, Amalfi : History, Bari : History, Brindisi : History, Campobasso, Capua : History, Catania : History, Crotone : History, Foggia : History, Gaeta : History, Manfredonia : History, Messina : History, History of Naples, History of Palermo, Ragusa : History, Reggio di Calabria : History, Salerno : History, Sorrento : History, Syracuse : History, Taormina : History, Trapani : History, from Wikipedia
Institutions Structurae : Abruzzo, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Molise, Sicily
Article : Ferrovie Siciliane : Storia, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Articles University of Palermo : History, University of Salerno : History, University of Naples : History, from Wikipedia
Culture
Biographies Biography of Bernardo Tanucci, from Wikipedia, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Biography of Charles III of Spain, chapter : Rule of Naples and Sicily, Wikipedia
Biography of Sir John Acton, from Wikipedia
Environmental History S.F. Cocco, Vesuvius and Naples: nature and the city, 1500-1700, thesis Univ. of Washington 2004
Others Massoneria ed Illuminismo in Sicilia nella Seconda Meta del XVIII Secolo : Il Messinese Andrea Gallo (Masonry and Illuminism in the Second Half of the 18th Century in Sicily : The Messinean Andrea Gallo), by Guglielmo Mondio, in Italian
Entry Two Sicilies, Kingdom of, 1848-1849, from Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions
Giuseppe Garibaldi e il Regno delle Due Sicilie, by MAAT

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen List of Kings, from World Statesmen by Ben Cahoon
Titles of European Hereditary Rulers : Sicily
Lists of Bishops Cronotassi dei Vescovi, AD Agrigento, AD Bari, AD Brindisi, AD Capua, AD Catania, Crotone, AD Gaeta, Ischia, AD Lecce, Manfredonia, Melfi, AD Messina, AD Napoli, Nardo-Gallipoli, AD Otranto, AD Palermo, AD Potenza, Pozzuoli, AD Reggio Calabria, AD Salerno, AD Siracusa, AD Sorrento, AD Taranto, Trapani, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Lists of Ambassadors List of Diplomats from the United Kingdom to the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, from Wikipedia
Ambasadorowie Polsky we Wloszech, from Wikipedia Polish edition
List of French representatives in Naples, of Naples in France pp.v-viii in vol.38 of F. Schoell, Cours d'histoire des etats Europeens 1833, in French, GB
Statistical Data Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Italy, historical demographical data of the regions, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Historical Newspapers
Historical Newspaper Articles The Latest Heroic Deed of the House of Bourbon, article written by Friedrich Engels, published in the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, issue of June 1st 1848, posted by marxists.org
Online Yearbooks full text online Almanacco della Real Casa e Corte / Regno delle Due Sicilie 1823, 1824, 1825, in Italian, GB
Annali civili del regno delle Due Sicilie (official), vols.1-68, 1833-1860, in Italian, GB
Almanacco istorico, politico, militare, scientifico, 1794, 1795, in Italian, posted on Google Books
Annuario Storico Universale : Regno delle Due Sicilie, 1845 pp.26-27, in Italian, GB
Staatskalender
Image Databanks
Archival Deposits
Constitutions Archivio delle Costituzione Storiche : Italia, entries for Napoli 1799 (2), Napoli e Sicilia 1808, Sicilia 1812, Due Sicilie 1820, Due Sicilie 1821, Due Sicilie 1848, Sicilia 1848, Sicilia 1849; Italian language documents
Costituzione politica del Regno dell Due Sicilie, 1821, in Italian, GB
Laws Regno delle Due Sicilie, from Materiali e studi per una storia del diritto d'autore
Codice per lo regno delle Due Sicilie, vol.2, 1819, vol.4, 1819, vol.5, 1819, in Italian, GB
Collezione delle leggi e de' decreti reali del regno delle Due Sicilie 1815, 1816 I, 1817 I, 1818 I, 1819 I, 1819 II, 1820 I, 1821 I, 1822 I, 1822 II, 1823 I, 1823 II, 1824 I, 1824 II, 1825 I, 1825 II, 1826 I, 1826 II, 1827 I, 1828 I, 1828 II, 1829 I, 1830 I, 1831 I, 1831 Suppl., 1832 I, 1833 I, 1834 I, 1835 I, 1836 I, 1837 I, 1838 I, 1838 II, 1839 I, 1840 I, 1841 I, 1842 I, 1842 II, 1843 I, 1844 I, 1845 I, 1845 II, 1846 I, 1846 II, 1847 I, 1847 II, 1848 I, 1848 II, 1849 I, 1849 II, 1850 I, 1850 II, 1851 I, 1851 II, 1852 I, 1852 II, 1853 I, 1853 II, 1854 I, 1854 II, 1855 I, 1855 II, 1856 I, 1856 II, 1857 I, 1858 I, 1858 II, 1859 I, 1859 II, 1860, in Italian, GB
Ordinanza della amministrazione militare del Regno delle Due Sicilie del 29 Giugno 1824, GB
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections U.S. Treaty with Two Sicilies 1845, from Avalon Project
The Two Sicilies, pp.338-340 in vol.1 of G. Chalmers, A collection of treaties between Great Britain and other powers, 1790, GB
Treaties, Other Documents Pertaining to Two Sicilies, 1819, trsl. pp.1148-1154 in vol.6 of British and foreign state papers, 1835, GB
Sicilien, pp.227-235 in Johann Vesque von Püttlingen, Uebersicht der Verträge Oesterreichs mit den auswärtigen Staaten, 1854, in German, GB
Naples, ou Deux-Siciles, pp.124-125 in vol.1 of Table des traites entre la France et les puissances etrangeres, depuis la paix de Westphalie jusqu'a nos jours, 1802, GB
George Chalmers: [A] collection of treaties between Great Britain and other powers. (London 1790): vol. 2 : English Treaties with two Sicilies
Cartularia
Historiography
Document Collections
Individual Documents Charles III. of Spain, the Two Sicilies etc., Pragmatic Decree of October 6th 1759, posted by Chivalric Orders, in Italian
Formal Protest made by King Ferdinand II. of the Two Sicilies against the Re-Promulgation, in Spain, of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1830, March 18th 1833, posted by Chivalric Orders, in Italian
Royal Order of Francis I. of the Two Sicilies, description with foundation document of 1829, from twosicilies.org, in English
Historical Maps links
overview, modern Maps : Europe in the Year 1700, 1800, from Euratlas
overview, historic Stieler's Handatlas, 2nd edition 1847-1852, Südliches Italien, posted by M. Witkam
Kingdom of Two Sicilies 1836 (Tanner), from David Rumsey Collection
Regno delle Due Sicilie 1841 (Benedetto), from David Rumsey Collction
detail, historic Naples, 7 maps 1898-1929, Agrigento 1912, Agrigento 1929, Amalfi 1912, Bari 1912, Bari 1929, Brindisi 1929, Catania 1929, Catania 1912, Messina & Environs 1929, Messina 1912, Messina 1929, Palermo Environs 1929, Palermo 1912, Palermo 1929, Pozzuoli and Environs 1898, Pozuoli and Environs 1912, Salerno 1912, Salerno 1929, Sorrento 1929, Syracuse Environs 1929, Syracuse Environs 1929, Syracuse 1912, Syracuse 1929, Taormina 1912, Taormina 1929, Taranto 1912, Taranto 1929, Trapani & Environs 1912, Trapani & Environs 1929, from Discus Media
City Panoramas 1750, from Historic Maps, Messina, Neapel, Palermo
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Kingdom of Naples, Sicily, Calabria, Apulia (Puglia), Basilicata, Campania, Abruzzi e Molise, Naples, Alcamo, Amalfi, Bari, Brindisi, Campobasso, Capua, Caserta, Catania, Cotrone, Favara, Foggia, Gaeta, Girgenti, Lecce, Manfredonia, Messina, Monte San Giulan, Otranto, Palermo, Ragusa, Sicily, Reggio Calabria, Salerno, Sorrento, Syracuse, Taormina, Taranto, Trapani, from EB 1911
Articles Sizilien, Königreich beider, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Naples, Capua, Caserta, Salerno, Gaeta, Amalfi, Sorrento, Isernia and Venafro, Castellammare di Stabia, Teramo, Avellino, Valva and Sulmona, Bari, Brindisi, Lecce, Otranto, Taranto, Manfredonia, Foggia, Cosenza, Cotrone, Catanzaro, Reggio di Calabria, Messina, Catania, Syracuse, Sicily, Trapani, Palermo, Girgenti, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Articles Sicily, Messina, Palermo, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Reggio di Calabria, Apulia, Bari, Otranto, Brindisi, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Economic Of the Trade of Naples, pp.610-612 in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva, 1773, GB
Naples, pp.189-191, in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Gallipoli (Kingdom of Naples), p.162, Naples, pp.317-322, Sicily, pp.384-386, in P. Kelly, The universal cambist, and commercial instructor, 1811, GB
Naples, pp.190-195, Messina pp.175-178, in : W. Dickinson, Universal commerce, or, The commerce of all the mercantile cities and towns, 1818, GB
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, pp.610-631 in C.W. Rödansz, European commerce; or, Complete mercantile guide to the continent of Europe, 1818, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Gallipoli, Messina, Neapel, Palermo, Salerno, Sicilien, posted by DTBSWS
J. Chr. Nelckenbrecher, Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen ..., Berlin : Wever 1769, in German, entries Messina, Napoli, posted by DTBSWS
Political Gouvernement des Deux-Siciles, pp.444-462 in vol.2 of G. de Real de Curbon, La science du gouvernement, 1762, in French, GB
Geographical The Pretensions and Dominions of the House of Bourbon in Italy, pp.435-453 in J. Campbell, The present state of Europe, 1753, GB
The Kingdom of Naples, pp.374-377 in W. Pinnock, A comprehensive system of modern geography and history, 1835, GB
Die Italische Halbinsel, pp.143-184 in F. von Rudtorffer, Militär-Geographie von Europa, 1839, in German, GB
Neapel und Sicilien, pp.1-210 in vol.4 of F.W. Schubert, Handbuch der allgemeinen Staatskunde von Europa, 1839, in German, GB
Italy, pp.69-78 in Ch. R. Maxwell, An epitome of the military geography of Europe, 1850, GB
Italy pp.271-291 in W. Hughes, A manual of geography, 1861, GB
The Kingdom of Naples, or the Two Sicilies, pp.326-329 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Ethnographical Royaume des Deux Siciles, pp.168-178 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Historical Neapel und Sicilien pp.109-126 in vol.2 of the 1st edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1794, in German, GB
Neapel und Sicilien pp.140-163 in vol.2 of the 2nd edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1807, in German, GB
Neapel und Sicilien, pp.167-204 in vol.2 of the 3rd edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1823, in German, GB
Naples pp.282-285, Sicily pp.285-287, in vol.2 of S. Maunder, The history of the world: comprising a general history, 1856, GB
Neapel pp.269-270 in vol.2 of J.K. Friedrich, Die Geschichte unserer Zeit, 1826, in German, GB
Fortsetzung der Geschichte der Entstehung der ersten Koalition gegen Frankreich. Krieg mit Portugal, Neapel und Sardinien, pp.389-395 in vol.8 of J.K. Friederich, Die Geschichte unserer Zeit, 1827, in German, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tariffs Naples (and back, from the U.K.) - 130 days, p.148, Palermo - 130 days, p.149 in : Ellis' British Tariff for 1832-1833, 1835, GB
Historic Travel Guides Naples, pp.345-362 in vol.3 of Th. Nugent, The Grand Tour, 1749, GB
Mariano Vasi, A new guide of Naples, its environs, Procida, Ischia and Capri, 1826, GB
Travelogues H. Swinburne, Travels in the two Sicilies by Henru Swinburne Esq.: in the years 1777, 1778, 1779, vol.1, 1790, vol.2, 1790, vol.3, 1790, vol.4, 1790, GB
Karl Ulysses von Salis Marschlins, Travels through various provinces of the Kingdom of Naples in 1789, 1795, GB
L. Spallanzani, Travels in the two Sicilies, and some Parts of the Appenines, vol.1, 1798, vol.2, 1798, vol.3, 1798, vol.4, 1798, GB
Richard Keppel Craven, A Tour through the southern provinces of the kingdom of Naples, 1821, GB
J. Kavanagh, A Summer and a Winter in Two Sicilies, 1858, GB
Institutions Archives Archivio di Stato di Agrigento, Bari, Brindisi, Campobasso, Caserta, Catania, Crotone, Enna, Foggia, Lecce, Messina, Napoli, Palermo, Ragusa, Salerno, Siracusa, Taranto, Trapani
Archivio Storico di Comune di Manfredonia
Musea
Monuments
Libraries
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, Coat of Arms, by Roberto Breschi
Flag, from FOTW
Coat of Arms, Royaume de Naples puis des Deux-Siciles, Royaume de Naples, Royaume de Sicile, from Heraldique Europeenne
Coins, Banknotes Coins of the Kingdom of Sicily, from The Maskukat Collection
Regno delle Due Sicilie, from Numismatica Italiana
Article Franco delle Due Sicilie, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Categoria : Monetazione del Regno di Napoli, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Stamps Rare Italian States Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery
Storia Postale del Regno delle Due Sicilie, from Il Postalista
Online Catalogus of Italian Stamps : Napoli; Sicilia

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general
on Two Sicilies Bibliografia, from Associazione Culturale Due Sicilie
Italian language books on Regno delle Due Sicilie, from Unilibro (bookseller)
Le Istitutione Politiche ed Amministrative nel Regno delle Due Sicilie nel 1815 al 1860, by Paolo Spagnuolo
The Mafia, from Best of Sicily
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust
Swiss Electronic Library; Gallica
Two Sicilies
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories, Italy
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Tesi Online
Online Journals full text online Directory of Open Access Journals
Contents Online
General Accounts John Santore, Modern Naples, 1799-1999, a documentary history, NY : Italica Press 2001, KMLA Lib.Sign. 945 P844b v.5
Jeanne Chenault Porter, Baroque Naples,, 1600-1800, a documentary history, NY : Italica Press 2001, KMLA Lib.Sign. 945 P844b v.4
Girolamo Imbruglia, Naples in the 18th Century, Cambridge : UP 2000, KMLA Lib.Sign. 945.73 I32n
Franz Pesendorfer, Österreich - Grossmacht am Mittelmeer ? Das Königreich Neapel unter Kaiser Karl VI. (1707/20-1734/35) (Austria - Great Power in the Mediterranean ? The Kingdom of Naples under Emperor Charles VI., 1707/20-1734/35), Wien : Böhlau 1998, in German [G]
Specific Topics The 18th Century : the Era of Enlightened Reforms, in : Christopher Duggan, A Concise History of Italy, Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1994, pp.75-86
Anna Maria Rao, Enlightenment and Reform, pp.229-252 in Early Modern Italy (Short Oxford History of Italy), Oxford : UP 2002 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Europe 1750-1988, London : Palgrave 2000 [G]
Yearbook Entries