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Switzerland Prussia
First posted on July 27th 2003, last revised on December 12th 2013

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

see also History of Switzerland, History of Prussia

From 1504 to 1707, the Principality of Neuchatel (with Valangin) was ruled by the Princes of Nemours, a sideline of the house of Bourbon. Although the princes were Catholic, the majority of the population of Neuchatel was Calvinist. After the death of Marie d'Orleans, the last princess, the Estates elected, among no less than 25 claimants, King Frederick I. in Prussia. Bern had supported the Prussian claim, and Prussia had entered the War of Spanish Succession under the condition that the Allies supported her claim on Neuchatel. In 1707, the Principality of Neuchatel had c. 25,000 inhabitants, the city of Neuchatel c. 3,000.
The Treaty of Utrecht 1713 confirmed the Dynastic Union between Prussia and Neuchatel. However, while Brandenburg-Prussia was ruled absolute, the King could rule Neuchatel only in cooperation with the Estates. A 1709 attemp by Prince Conti to seize power in Neuchatel failed due to local resistance. In 1712-1713 the principality suffered famine. Neuchatel was affected by Huguenot migrations, mainly as a transit station. Neuchatel participated in the Toggenburg War of 1712 - Neuchatel was affiliated to the Swiss Confederation.
Since 1717 there were episodical rumours about a possible sale of Neuchatel by the Princes; in 1730 the King was willing to sell N. for 600,000 Thalers; the sale did not materialize. An attempted coup by Marquis Louis de Nesles in 1734 failed. Some Neuchatellers emigrated to East Prussia in 1734, where the 'wilderness' was settled. The Estates pressurized a tiny community of Mennonites which, after having fled Bern, had settled a remote corner of the principality, without official permission. In vain the King tried to intervene on their behalf; ultimately the 77 persons emigrated (1734-1744).
In 1748 a tax reform was implemented. In 1767-1768 Prussia contemplated to take a loan from Bern over 700,000 Thalers and to pawn the revenues from Neuchatel; the plan caused resentment in Neuchatel and the loan did not materialize. On May 20th 1768, Swiss troops occupied Neuchatel, following the assassination of royal emissary Claude Gaudet on April 24th. The conflict was settled through negotiation.
In April 1763, Jean-Jacques Rousseau had become a citizen of the Principality of Neuchatel. On March 13th he was excommunicated by the Calvinist church of Neuchatel; he received threats against his life; in September a sermon by Priest Montmoulin incited the mob to insult the philosopher, who fled the principality.
On May 28th 1777, France and Switzerland concluded an alliance. In 1740, the principality had a population of 30,000; in 1786 of c. 40,000 inhabitants, the rise being supported by the industrialization (clocks, dyed cotton textiles, laces). In 1781, the Regiment Meuron, mainly consisting of Swiss mercenaries, and all-protestant, was raised to serve the Dutch V.O.C.; in 1795, following the surrender of the Dutch Republic, they served the British until being disbanded in 1816. They served a.o. in the Cape Colony, Ceylon, Canada.
The population of Neuchatel was conservative, rather opposed to the ideas of 1789. The Paris 'Club Helvetique' spread revolutionary propaganda. In 1791 the population of Vaud rose against Bernese rule. In 1792 the Estates of Neuchatel declared their loyalty to the King of Prussia. There was unrest in some communities of Neuchatel in 1792; foreign agitators were expelled and the situation calmed down. Trees of Liberty, planted Dec. 1792- Jan. 1793, were removed in May 1793, patriotic societies were dissolved in June 1793.
Supporters of the revolution were recognized by their 'bonnets rouges', while supporters of the traditional order wore 'cocardes oranges'. Neuchatel became residence of a number of French emigres.
In 1806 Prussia ceded Neuchatel to France; an attempt to integrate Neuchatel into Switzerland failed.

Napoleon Bonaparte granted the Principality of Neuchatel to one of his officers, Marechal Berthier. After Napoleon's defeat, and a brief period of Austrian occupation (Dec. 23rd 1813 - Jan. 14th 1814), Neuchatel returned to Prussian rule, but simultaneously was integrated in the Swiss Federation. King Frederick William III. visited the principality in July 1814.
In 1830, Trees of Liberty again were planted. In 1831 a plan to separate Neuchatel from Switzerland was considered; it failed in 1834. In 1848/1857 the Dynastic Union between Prussia and Neuchatel was terminated. Neuchatel became a canton of Switzerland.

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current Article Canton of Neuchatel, from Wikipedia; Kanton Neuenburg, from Wikipedia German edition; Canton du Neuchatel, from Wikipedia French edition; Canton Neuchatel, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Historic Ch. XXVI, XXVII, XXVIII pp.277- in : William Coxe, Sketches of the natural, civil, and political state of Swisserland, 1780, posted on Google Books
County of Neuchatel, pp.160-172 in : A. Yosy, Switzerland, as now divided into nineteen cantons, vol.1, posted on Google Books
H.A. Sandoz-Rollin, Essai statistique sur le canton de Neuchatel, 1818, in French, posted on Google Books
Links General Category : Canton of Neuchatel, from Wikipedia; Categorie : Canton de Neuchatel, from Wikipedia French edition; Categoria : Canton Neuchatel, from Wikipedia Italian edition
on History Kategorie : Geschichte (Kanton Neuenburg), from Wikipedia German edition; Categorie : Histoire du Canton de Neuchatel, from Wikipedia French edition
Organizations Societe d'Histoire et d'Archeologie du Canton de Neuchatel
Universite de Neuchatel, Institut d'Histoire
Societe Neuchateloise de Genealogie
Historical Dictionary on Switzerland Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz (in German), Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse (in French), Dizionario storico della Svizzera (in Italian)
a brief historical dictionary in English this site
M. Lutz, Dictionnaire geographique et statistique de la Suisse, 1837, in French, posted on Google Books
H.J. Leu, Allgemeines Eydgenössisches oder Schweitzerisches Lexicon, vol.1 : A, 1747, vol.2 : B-Be, 1748, vol.3 : Be-Bi, 1749, vol.4 : Bi-Ca, 1750, vol.5 : C-D, 1751, vol.6 : D-F, 1752, vol.7 : F, 1753, vol.8 : Ga-Go, 1754, vol.9 : Go-He, 1754, vol.10 : He-K, 1756, vol.11 : K-Le, 1756, vol.12 : Le-Me, 1757, vol.13 : Me-N, 1757, vol.14 : N-R, 1758, vol.15 : R, 1759, vol.16 : Sa-Se, 1760, vol.17 : Se-T, 1762, vol.18 : T, U, V, 1763, vol.19 : W, 1764, vol.20 : X, Y, Z, 1765, in German, posted on Google Books
on Neuchatel
Timelines from MEMO, in French
Accounts of History General, Modern Article Canton of Neuchatel : History, from Wikipedia; Kanton Neuenburg : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition; Histoire du Canton de Neuchatel, from Wikipedia French edition; Canton Neuchatel : Storia, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Histoire du Canton de Neuchatel, from MEMO, in French, subfiles
Canton Neuchatel : History, from Swiss Genealogy
General, Historical V. Benoit, Le canton de Neuchatel: notice historique et descriptive, 1861, in French, GB
J. Boyve, Annales historiques du comte de Neuchatel et Valangin depuis Jules-Cesar, 1858, in French, posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods Histoire du gouvernement de Neuchatel, sous la domination Prussienne depuis 1807 jusqu'en 1832, 1833, in French, GB
Histoire abregee des troubles de Neuchatel pendant les annees 1766, 1767, et 1783, 1832, in French, GB
Ch.A. Pury, Relation exacte et impartiale de tout ce qui s'est passe la Neuchatel, 1767, in French, GB
J.A.S. Sandoz, Mes reflexions: ouvrage relatif aux dissensions qui troublent le comte de Neuchatel, 1761, in French, GB
A. Ineichen, Die Erhebung der Schweiz für Neuenburg, 1858, in German, GB
J.U. Wagner, Neuenburg oder der Kampf zwischen Republik und Monarchie, 1857, in German, GB
Politics U. Guinand, Fragmens Neuchatelois, ou, Essai historique sur le droit public Neuchatelois, 1833, in French, posted on Google Books
J.E. Boyve, Recherches sur l'indigenat helvetique de la principaute de Neuchatel et Vallangin, 1778, in French, posted on Google Books
G.A. Matile, Histoire des institutions judiciaires et legislatives de la Principaute de Neuchatel et Valangin, 1838, in French, posted on Google Books
Economy & Finances
Social History
Religion L. Junod, Farel : reformateur de la Suisse romande et pasteur de l'Eglise de Neuchatel, 1865, in French, posted on Internet Archive
F.L. Godet, Histoire de la Reformation et du Refuge : dans le pays de Neuchatel, 1859, in French, posted on Internet Archive
Neuchatel, from GAMEO
Article : Roman Catholic Diocese of Lausanne, Geneva and Fribourg, from Wikipedia
Article : Diocese de Lausanne, Geneve et Fribourg, from Wikipedia French edition
Neuchatel, from Jewish Virtual Library
D.E. Jablonsky, The liturgy used in the Churches of the principality of Neufchatel, 1712, GB
Local History
Biographies Standard Works of Reference F.A. Jeanneret, Biographie neuchateloise vol.1, 1863, vol.2, 1862, in French, GB
Web Compilations, General Les Neuchatelois Celebres, from MEMO, in French
Environmental History
Others Ch.L.G. de Tribolet, Description topographique de la juridiction de Neuchatel , 1827, in French, IA
F.H. du Bois-Reymond, Considerations sur la prosperite, la situation politique et la Constitution de la Principaute et Canton de Nauchatel et Valangin, 1831, in French, GB
A. Pury et al., Memoires sur le Comte de Neuchatel en Suisse, 1831, in French, GB

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Swiss Cantons, by Ben Cahoon; scroll down for Neuchatel
Titles of European Hereditary Rulers : Neuchatel
List of Consuls Political Graveyard : Switzerland, has incomplete list of U.S. consuls in La Chaux-de-Fonds
Statistical Data Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Switzerland, Provinces, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes Bulletin officiel des seances du Corps Legislatif de la Principaute et Canton de Neuchatel vol.1., 1831, vol.4, 1833, vol.5, 1834, in French, GB
Bulletin officiel des deliberations de l'Assemblee constituante de la Republique et canton de Neuchatel 1848., in French, GB
Links, Overviews Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers], scroll down for Zwitserland
Online Yearbooks Staatskalender Regimentsbuch der XXII Kantone der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft : Kanton Neuenburg, pp.226-237 in 1828 edition, pp.235-246 in 1829 edition, in German, GB
Staatshandbuch der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft, 1837, BSB
Staatskalender der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft 1856, BSB, 1858, BSB, 1859, BSB, 1860-1861, BSB, 1861-1862, BSB, 1862-1863, BSB, 1863-1864, BSB, 1864-1865, BSB, 1865-1866, BSB, 1866-1867, BSB, 1867-1868, BSB, 1868-1869, BSB, 1869-1870 GB
Die Bundesbehörden der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft (current)
International Etat des cours de l'Europe ou Tableau des gouvernements, republiques etc. : Allies de Suisse : Principaute de Neufchatel 1783 pp.209-210, Gallica
Allies des Suisses : Principaute de Neufchastel entries in J.Ch. Poncelin de la Roche Tilhac, Etat des Cours de l'Europe et des Provinces de France pour l'annee ... vol.1 MDCCCLXXXIV 1783 pp.308-309, vol.2 MDCCCLXXXV, 1785, p.315, in French, GB
Genealogisch-historisch-statistischer Almanach, Canton Neuenburg, 1830 pp.478-479, 1831 pp.483-484, 1832 pp.552-553, in German, GB
Image Databanks Bilddatenbank, from Fotostiftung Schweiz
Alte Ansichtskarten Schweiz; Historical Postcards, Canton Neuenburg, from Alte Postkarten
Categories : Historical Images of Neuchatel, Historical Images of the Canton of Neuchatel, from Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits
Constitutions Precis de la Constitution du canton de Neuchatel, 1833, in French, GB
Verfassungsurkunde des Fürstenthums Neuenburg, pp.313-322 in vol.2 of Verfassungen der Kantone der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft , 1836, in German, GB
Laws Les loix, us et coutumes de la souverainete de Neuchatel et Valangin, 1785, in French, GB
Reglement militaire pour la principaute de Neuchatel et Valangin, 1818, in French, GB
Recueil des lois, decrets, et autres actes du gouvernement de la Republique et Canton du Neuchatel, vol.4, 1851, GB
Code penal de la Republique et Canton de Neuchatel, 1856, GB
Table raisonnee des matieres du Code civil de la Republique et canton de Neuchatel, 1863, GB
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections International Treaties Switzerland has signed, from Confoederatio Helvetica, in French
Recueil de diverses pieces concernant les franchises et libertes des peuples de la Principaute de Neuchatel et Valangin, 1762, in French, posted on Google Books
Suisse : Neufchatel, p.109 in vol.1 of Table des traites entre la France et les puissances etrangeres, depuis la paix de Westphalie jusqu'a nos jours, 1802, GB
Document Collections Swissdox; site permitting to download historical Swiss documents; charges fee
R.L. Herminjard (ed.), Correspondance des reformateurs dans les pays de langue francçaise, vol.1, 1512-1526, 1866, vol.2, 1527-1532, 1868, vol.3, 1533-1536, 1870, GB
Individual Documents
Individual Documents Memoires du marechal Berthier: prince de Neuchatel et de Wagram, 1827, in French, posted on Google Books
Rapport du conseil d'etat au grand-conseil de la republique et canton de Neuchatel , 1856, GB
Historical Maps
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles : Neuchatel, Switzerland (Canton), Neuchatel, Switzerland (Capital), from EB 1911
Religious Article : Bulles (Neuchatel, Switzerland, from GAMEO
Economic Neufchatel, pp.324-325 in vol.1 of P. Kelly, The Universal Cambist 1811, GB
Fürstentum Neuenburg, Schweizer Canton, pp.310-312 in G.K. Chelius, Mass- und Gewichtsbuch, 1830, in German, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entry Neuschatel oder Neuenburg, posted by DTBSWS
Geographical Von der Regierung der Souverainität Neuburg (Neufchatel), pp.643-649 in J. Simmler et al., Von dem Regiment der loblichen Eydgenossenschaft, zwei Bücher, 1735, in German, GB
Neufchatel, pp.439-507 in vol.4 of J.C. Faesi, Genaue und vollst?dige Staats- und Erd-Beschreibung der ganzen Eidgenossschaft, derselben gemeinen Herrschaften und zugewandten Orten, 1768, in German, GB
Das Fürstentum Neuenburg, pp.392-443 in vol.3 of J.C. Füsslin, Staats- und Erdbeschreibung der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft 1770, in German, GB
Der Kanton Neuenburg, pp.390-393 in G. Hassel, Lehrbuch der Statistik der Europäischen Staaten, 1822, in German, GB
Der Kanton Neuenburg, pp.256-260 in G. Meyer von Kronau, Abriss der Erdbeschreibung und Staatskunde der Schweiz, 1824, in German, GB
Neuchatel, pp.190- in : H. Cotton, A typographical gazetteer, 1831, posted on Google Books
Neuchatel, pp.107-118, in : M. Lutz, Dictionnaire geographique et statistique de la Suisse, 1837, in French, posted on Google Books
The Canton of Neuchatel, pp.162-163 in F.H. Ungewitter, Europe, past and present: a comprehensive manual of European geography and history, 1850, GB
Historical Neufchatel, pp.1238-1239 in vol.2 part 1 of A. Desing, Auxilia Historica oder Behülff zu den Historischen und dazu erforderlichen Wissenschafften, 1741, GB
Neufchatel, pp.269-270 in vol.2 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1745, GB
Neuenburg, pp.75-78 in Kurze Geschichte der Schweitz zum Gebrauch der Schulen, 1782, in German, GB
Parliamentary Debates
Postal Routes etc. Etat general des postes de France 1812, 1814, in French, GB; search for Neufchatel etc.
K.Fr. Jahn, Post-Reise-Handbuch, 1833, in German, GB; search for Neuenburg
Search Bradshaw's continental railway, steam transit, and general guide 1853, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, GB, for Neufchatel/Neuchatel
Tour Guides Neufchatel, pp.166-169 in J. Murray, The hand-book for travellers in Switzerland and the Alps of Savoy and Piedmont: including the Protestant valleys of the Waldenses, 1811, GB
Neufchatel, pp.119-120 in J.H. Stocqeler, Norton's hand-book to Europe; or, How to travel in the old world, 1860, GB
Neuchatel, pp.202-205 in K. Baedeker, Switzerland: with the neighboring lakes of northern Italy, Savoy, and the adjacent districts of Piedmont, Lombardy and the Tyrol, 1863, GB
Neuchatel, p.133 in Englishman Abroad, Practical Swiss guide: Red book for Switzerland, the adjoining districts of Savoy, Piedmont, North Italy, the introductory routes from London, etc, 1864, GB
Canton of Neuchatel, pp.91-106 in Bradshaw's pedestrian route-book for Switzerland, Chamouni, and the Italian Lakes, 1870, GB
Institutions Archives Les Archives de l'Etat de Neuchatel
Musea Ville de Neuchatel, Musee d'Art et d'Histoire
Monuments Denkmalschutz Historische Militärbauten, from Armasuisse; scroll down for Neuenburg, Jura
Liste von Burgen und Schlössern in der Schweiz : Neuenburg, from Wikipedia German edition
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms FOTW : Neuchatel
Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins, Banknotes Neuchatel minted dated coins from 1589-1818 (Numiswiss
Search Coin Archives for Neuchatel
Search Early Dated Coins (1166-1520s) for Neuchatel
R. Stuart Poole, A descriptive catalogue of Swiss coins in the South Kensington Museum, 1878, IA; Neuchatel pp.308-325
Neuchatel, pp.263-293 in vol.2 of G.E. von Haller, Schweizerisches Munz- und Medaillenkabinet 1781, in German, GB

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general
on Neuchatel Bibliographie zur Schweizergeschichte 1999-
Schweiz, Gesamtgeschichte, from BibScout
Schweiz : Neuchatel, from Computatio
Catalogue des livres qui composent la bibliotheque de Neuchatel, 1833, posted on Google Books
Universite de Neuchatel, Institut d'Histoire, Publications
Bibliographie sur le canton de Neuchatel, from MEMO
Bücher und Schriften welche sich vorzugsweise auf Örtlichkeiten beziehen : Neuenburg, p.559 in vol.1 of Archiv für schweizerische Reformationsgeschichte, 1869, GB
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust
on Switzerland Swiss Electronic Library
Helvetic Archives, at the Swiss National Library
Thesis Server Dissertationen-Server Univ. Zurich; links to other Swiss Univ.' Dissertation Servers
Online Journals full text online Directory of Open Access Journals
Swiss Electronic Academic Library Service : Retrodigitized Journals : Sammlung Geschichte und Geographie
Revue Historique Neuchateloise, French language magazine on the history of Neuchatel
Musee Neuchatelois, 1864, IA, 1866, GB, 1867, GB, 1868, GB, 1870, IA, 1872, IA, 1876, IA, 1878, IA, 1882, IA
General Accounts
Specific Topics Wolfgang Stribrny, Die Könige von Preussen als Fürsten von Neuenburg-Neuchatel (1707-1848), Geschichte einer Personalunion (The Kings of Prussia as Princes of Neuenburg-Neuchatel (1707-1848), History of a Dynastic Union), Berlin : Duncker & Humblot 1998
Jean Courvoisier, Le Marechal Berthier et sa Principaute de Neuchatel, 1806-1814, Neuchatel : Baconniere 1959
Historical Dictionaries Leo Schelbert, Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, Lanham Md.: Scarecrow 2007 [G]

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