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Parma Savoy-Piemont
First posted on April 10th 2002, last revised on February 14th 2014

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

1115-1532 . 1532-1574 . 1574-1621 . 1621-1670 . 1670-1737 . 1737-1799 . 1799-1814 . 1814-1860

The Republic of Florence was established in 1115, seceding from the Margraviate of Tuscany (which was part of the Holy Roman Empire).
Based on overseas trade, a strong textile industry and moneylending, wealthy Florence became the nucleus of the Italian Renaissance.
The Republic of Pisa was annexed by Florence in 1406. In 1434 the Medici established effective control of Florence, were ousted in 1494, retook control of the republic in 1512, were ousted again in 1527 and restored control in 1530.
The Republic of Siena was to maintain its independence until 1555.

On May 1st 1532, Alessandro de Medici, Capo della Repubblica since 1530, assumed the title of Duke of Florence. In 1537 he was succeeded by Cosimo I. (-1574), who in 1569 was elevated to Grand Duke of Tuscany. He constructed Cosmopoli on Elba, on the ruins of Ferraia, a city sacked by Barbary Coast pirates. In 1557 Cosimo purchased the Republic of Siena - occupied by the Spanish, who conquered the capital after a long siege in 1555 - from the Spanish. Spain only held on to the important Sienese ports, from then onward known as the Stato dei Presidii, administrated as an annex to the (Spanish) Kingdom of Naples.
On October 28th 1533, Caterina de Medici, Duchess of Urbino was married to Duke Henri of Orleans, heir apparent of the French throne and future King Henri II. The ceremony was conducted by Pope Clement VII.
Duke Alessandro's policy was to abolish institutions and symbols reminiscent of the republic; he was perceived by many Florentines as a tyrant. A delegation of Florentine citizens raised numerous complaints against the duke at the Imperial court; in vain, the Emperor continued his support for Alessandro. In 1537, Alessandro then fell victim to an assassination plot.
Succession was decided upon by the Palleschi; the choice fell upon Cosimo de Medici.
Duke Cosimo I. (1537-1574) stabilized Medici rule over Florence; his elevation to Grand Duke of Tuscany (1569) served to erase another reminiscence of Florence's republican past. He foiled an attempt of Florentine exiles, the Fuorusciti, to oust him (1537), succeeded in having the Spanish troops withdrawn from Tuscany (1543). Cosimo extended his power by abolishing the Signoria. In the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (1559), King Philip II. of Spain confirmed the Florentine purchase and annexation of Siena. Cosimo had a Tuscan fleet built, which, together with the fleets of Spain, Venice and the Papal State, fought in the naval Battle of Lepanto (1571).
In true Medici tradition, Cosimo I. promoted the arts; his architect Giorgio Vasari built the Uffizi (begun in 1559)

In 1574 Grand Duke Cosimo I. died. He was succeeded by his son Francesco Maria (1574-1587). Under his rule, Tuscany experienced a number of scandals which involved illegitimate love affairs and murder. The next Grand Duke, Ferdinando I. (1587-1609) was a more decent ruler. Like his brother and predecessor, Ferdinando promoted the arts; he also promoted the city's trade, had the port of Livorno (Leghorn) expanded, settlers attracted to the expanding port city by granting them religious toleration, had a college founded at Pisa. Ferdinando I. also gained a reputation as a benevolent ruler who gave to the poor and who felt for those who suffered distress. In the late 1580es, composer Jacopo Peri, a protege of Grand Duke Ferdinando, composed Daphne, regarded the world's first opera.
Ferdinando was succeeded by his son Cosimo II. (-1621); he invited Galileo Galilei to come to Florence.

In 1621 Duke Ferdinando II. (-1670) succeeded to the throne. Galileo Galilei had been among his tutors, and the Duke protected him during his trial; Duke Ferdinando was an avid reader with a wide range of interests. He continued the Medici tradition, patronizing the arts and sciences. In 1657 the Accademia del Cimento (academy of experiments) was established. Although it disintegrated already in 1667, it produced some remarkable achievements, among them the invention of the barometer by Evangelista Torricelli.
In the 1630es Duke Ferdinand, in an attempt to keep the power in Italy balanced between Spain and France, repeatedly switched his support. Toward the Papal State he pursued a policy avoiding conflict.
Ferdinando's son and heir Cosimo III. in 1661 was married to a French princess, Marguerite-Louise d'Orleans, a relative of Louis XIV.; the marriage de facto was an alliance with France.

Duke Cosimo III. ruled from 1670 to 1723, had travelled to London and Paris. Under him, the isolation of the Jewish community from their christian neighbours was strictly enforced. While his predecessor still had offered protection to Galileo, under Cosimo III. scholars and philosophers could be tortured by the Inquisition. The Duke interfered in the curriculum of the University of Pisa and forbade Tuscan students to enrol in foreign universities. Thus, the specific climate of protected science which had characterized Tuscany for so long, was no longer. Duke Cosimo III. added to the financial burden of his subjects by introducing new taxes.
Cosimo's son Ferdinando again favoured the arts, corresponded with Domenico Scarlatti and Georg Friedrich Händel. Ferdinando was married to Princess Violante Beatrice of Bavaria; the couple produced no heirs. He died early (1713), and his brother Gian Gastone (1723-1737), also unhappily married to a German princess, Anna Maria Franziska von Sachsen-Lauenburg, succeeded to the throne. Gian Gastone was an alcoholic He was a collector of relics.
In 1675 Livorno (Leghorn) was proclaimed a Free Port.
In 1691 the Academy of Sciences called 'the Physiocritics' at Siena was founded, in 1716 the Botanical Society of Florence, in 1735 the Tuscan Academy of Sciences and Letters at Florence.
The fate of Tuscany was decided upon by the European Powers. In the War of Polish Succession France occupied Lorraine and awarded the duchy to Stanislas Leszczynski, ex-king of Poland, father-in-law of French King Louis XV. Duke Francis of Lorraine, soon to be husband of Austrian heir Maria Theresia, was to be compensated with Tuscany after the last Medici would pass away (1738).

In 1737 the male line of the Medici dynasty ended, and Francis of Lorraine succeeded to the throne, the husband of Maria Theresia and soon elected German Emperor (1745-1765); thus the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty was established in Florence, which would, with interruptions 1799 and 1801-1814, last until 1860.
Under Francis and his son Peter Leopold, trade was encouraged by the removal of trade barriers; privileges were cancelled. The inquisition was abolished in 1782; a number of monasteries were suppressed.
A 1750 edict redefined the status of noblemen, in an attempt to turn them into a class of public servants. The Gregorian Calendar was introduced in 1750.
The Accademia dei Georgofili, founded in 1753, became a center of Enlightenment thought; Cesare Beccaria, in Milan, argued for the abolition of torture the death penalty, which Tuscany was the first country in Europe to implement (1786); torture was abolished the same year.
In 1763/1764, Tuscany suffered from a severe famine.
Grand Duke Leopoldo and bishop Ricci of Pistoia in 1786 held a synod which passed decrees which Pope Pius condemned as Jansenist/Gallican in 1794. The synod attempted to free the Tuscan church of the influence of Rome. In 1799 Grand Duke Ferdinando III. was forced by the French to abdicate; in 1798 he had permitted a detachment of Neapolitan troops (during the Neapolitan invasion of the Papal State (First War of the Coalition), from where they aimed to expel the French) to land in Livorno.

The Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1801 was transformed into the Kingdom of Etruria, which in 1807 was annexed by France.

In 1814 the Grand Duchy of Tuscany was restored and Grand Duke Ferdinand of Habsburg-Lorraine returned; many reforms introduced by the French administration (1808-1814) were retained. Elba, Piombino and the Stato dei Presidii (the principality given to Napoleon Bonaparte in 1813) were annexed. The Concordat of 1815 returned some confiscated church property. A liberal constitution was granted in 1848. Tuscany joined the short-lived League of Italian States (-1849), with Savoy-Piemont-Sardinia and the Papal State, an Italian customs union which in 1848 briefly turned into an anti-Habsburgian alliance. As Grand Duke Leopold hesitated to fulfill the expectations of his patriotic subjects, his position in Florence became insecure. On Feb. 8th 1849 patriotic revolutionaries proclaimed a republic. Grand Duke Leopold fled, to return with an Austrian army; the republic was suppressed (1849), the constitution suppressed (1852); Leopold then ruled absolute. Austrian troops left in 1855. The Banca Nazionale di Toscana (National Bank of Tuscany) was established in 1857 and began to issue banknotes.
The Armistice of Villafranca (1859, between France and Austria) restored Tuscany to the Habsburgs; yet on August 16th, a national assembly declared the dynasty deposed, and a provisional government took control. After a plebiscite held on March 11th/12th Tuscany was annexed by Piemont-Sardinia. In 1861 the Kingdom of Piemont-Sardinia was renamed Kingdom of Italy.
Population 1823 1,200,000; 1850 1,740,000; size 22,280 square km.

Historical Encyclopedia Entries on Tuscany 1815-1860
Historical Atlas, Tuscany Page

Students' Papers : Chu, Haena, Comparative history of art patronage : Renaissance Florence and the Ottoman Empire (15th-17th century) (2013)
Students' Papers : Choi, Jungyun, A Comparative Economic History of Florence and Venice During the Italian Renaissance

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current Article Tuscany, from Wikipedia
Article Toscana, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Links, on History Categoria : Storia della Toscana, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Portals Portale : Toscana, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Organizations Associazione Dimore Storiche Italiane - Sezione Toscana
Istituto Comprensivo Centro Storico, Firenze
Historical Dictionaries Dictionaries on History Enciclopedie on Line, from Treccani, in Italian
Nuovo dizionario istorico, ovvero storia in compendio di tutti gli uomini che si sono resi illustri ... dal principio del mondo fino ai nostri giorni ... con tavole cronologiche vol.1 (1796) AA-AL, vols.2-3 (1796) AM-BZ, vol.4 (1796) CA-CY, vols.5-6 (1796) DA-FU, vol.7 (1796) GA-GO, vols.8-9 (1796) GR-LE, vol.10 (1796) LI-MA, vols.11-12 (1796) MA-MU, vols.13-14 (1796) NA-PH, vols.15-16 (1796) PI-RH, vols.17-18 (1796) RI-SE, vols.19-20 (1796) SF-TZ, vols.21-22 (1796) VA-ZW, in Italian, posted on Internet Archive
Emanuele Repetti, Dizionario geografico fisico storico della Toscana, vol.1 1833, vol.2 1835, vol.3 1839, vol.4 1841, vol.5 1843, suppl. vol.1 1845, Introduzione 1846, in Italian, posted on Google Books
Old Encyclopedias Enciclopedia italiana e dizionario della conversazione, vol.1 : A-Amminicolo, 1838, vol.2 : Amministrazione-Asfodelo, 1838, vol.3 : Asia-Basilica, 1839, vol.4 : Basilicata-Brunetto Latini, 1841 (incomplete scan), vol.5 : C-Cavallino, 1842, vol.6 : Ceba-Danza di San Vito, 1843, vol.7 : Danzica-Errore, 1844, vol.7 pt.2 : F-Guizot, 1845, vol.8.1 : H-Litotomista, 1847 (incomplete scan), vol.8.2 : M-Orientali, 1848 (incomplete scan), vol.9.1 : P-Sesso, 1850 (incomplete scan), vol.9.2 : Siam-Zaffiro, 1851 (incomplete scan), vol.10 : Appendice, 1853, Tavole vol.1, 1837, Tavole vol.2, 1847, in Italian, GB
Accounts of History general modern A Short History of Tuscany, from Welcome to Italy, very brief
Article History of Tuscany, from Wikipedia
Article Toscana : Storia, Granducato di Toscana, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Janet Ross, Old Florence and Modern Tuscany (1904), IA
19th century Lorenzo Pignotti, The History of Tuscany from the Earliest Times .. (1826), posted on Internet Archive
H.E. Napier, Florentine History, vol.4 (1846), vol.6 (1846), posted on Internet Archive
L. Pignotti, The history of Tuscany: from the earliest era, vol.1 1826, vol.2 1826, vol.3 1826, vol.4 1826, posted on Google Books
Biblioteca dei Franciulli : Storia Toscana, 1821, in Italian, posted on Google Books
L. Pignotti, Storia Della Toscana Sino Al Principato, 1824, in Italian, posted on Google Books
G.M. Bruto, Delle istorie fiorentine: libri otto, vol.1 1839, vol.2 1839, in Italian, posted on Google Books
pre 19th century J.R. Galluzzi, Istoria del granducato di Toscana: sotto il governo della casa Medici, vol.1 1781, vol.2 1820, vol.3 1820, vol.4 2nd ed. 1781, vol.5 1821, vol.6 1821, vol.7 1821, vol.8 2nd ed. 1781, vol.9 1821, in Italian, GB
G.M. Mecatti, Storia chronologica della citta di Firenze o siano Annali della Tuscana, part 2, 1755, in Italian, GB
Specific Periods Thomas Adolphus Trollope, Tuscany in 1849 and 1859 (1859), posted on Internet Archive
Bella Duffy, The Tuscan Republics (Florence, Siena, Pisa and Lucca) with Genoa (1892), posted on Internet Archive
Marianne Young, Persecution in Tuscany (1853), posted on Internet Archive
Istoria delle cose avvenute in Toscana; dall'anno 1300 al 1348 1578, in Italian, posted on Google Books
Die Reformstaaten Toscana und Piemont vom Sommer 1846 bis Ende 1847 pp.312-333 in H. Reuchlin, Geschichte Italiens von der Gr?dung der regierenden Dynastien bis zur Gegenwart, Part 1, 1860, in German, GB
Toscana vom Jahre 1849 bis 1858, pp.96-120; Toscana im Jahre 1859 pp.419-475 in H. Reuchlin, Geschichte Italiens von der Gründung der regierenden Dynastien bis zur Gegenwart : Pt.3 : Die Reaktionszeit und die nationale Erhebung Italiens von der Bekämpfung der römischen Republik im Frühjahr 1849 bis zum letzten Ministerium Cavours im Januar 1860, 1870, in German, GB
Politics Foreign Relations A. de Miltitz, Manuel des Consuls, vol.2 pt.2 : Des Consulats a l'Etranger par les Principaux Etats de l'Europe et les Etats-Unis de l'Amerique du Nord, bk.3 : Etablissement des Consulats a l'Etranger, France et Toscane pp.161-162, Deux-Siciles et Toscane pp.252-253, Sardaigne et Toscane pp.322-323, Espagne et Toscane pp.489-490, Portugal et Toscane pp.583-584, Grande Bretagne et Toscane pp.850-853, Pays-Bas et Toscane p.991, Danemark et Toscane p.1091, Suede et Toscane p.1171, Russie et Toscane pp.1340-1341, Autriche et Toscane p.1447, Porte Ottomane et Toscane pp.1471-1479, Etats Unis d'Amerique et Toscane p.1583, 1839, in French, GB
U.S. Dept. of State, Office of the Historian, A Guide to the History of Recognition, Diplomatic and Consular Relations since 1776 by Country, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Military Sacro Militare Ordine di Santo Stefano Papa e Martire, from CNICG, in Italian
Notices sur la Toscane, pp.286-293 in N.Ch.V. Oudinot, De l'Italie et de ses forces militaires, 1835, in French, GB
Austrian Army : Toscana Infantry, from Kronoskaf
Lista dei reggimenti italiani (1792-1799), from Wikipedia Italian edition; scroll down for Granducato di Toscana
Economy Brendan Dooley, Products and Materials in Circulation : Don Giovanni de Medici as Connoisseur and Entrepreneur, IEHC 2006
Enrico Stumpo, Between Art Market and Luxury Production. Some Metholodical Remarks, IEHC 2006
Valeria Pinchera, The Art Consumption in Early Modern Florence, IEHC 2006
Federico Paolini, review of Stefano Maggi, Annalisa Giovani, Muoversi in Toscana. Ferrovie e Trasporti dal Granducato alla Regione Bologna, Il Mulina 2005, from Storia e Futuro 2006
Italy, from European Textile Network (historical sites)
Windmills of Italy, from Windmill World (several Tuscany mills)
Zimmerman, V. K. Import-Export Activities of Italy, ca. 1400: Some Economic and Accounting Considerations. Business and Economic History, 2d ser., 6 (1977): 99-105.
J.M. Stuart, History of Free Trade in Tuscany (1876), IA
David G. LoRomer, Merchants and Reform in Livorno, 1814-1868, Berkeley : University of California Press 1987
John Bowring, Report on the statistics of Tuscany, Lucca, the Pontifical, and the Lombardo-Venetian States 1837, GB
The Art of Glassmaking in Montaione (Tuscany), from Visit Montaione
Religion Catholicism Dioceses Archdiocese of Florence, from Catholic Hierarchy
Articles Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, Roman Catholic Diocese of Arezzo-Cortona-Sansepolcro, Roman Catholic Diocese of Grossetto, Roman Catholic Diocese of Livorno, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lucca, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Pisa, Roman Catholic Diocese of Pistoia, Roman Catholic Diocese of Prato, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Siena-Colle di Val d'Elsa-Montalcino, from Wikipedia
Articles Arcidiocesi di Firenze, Diocesi di Arezzo-Cortona-Sansepolcro, Diocesi di Grosseto, Diocesi di Livorno, Arcidiocesi di Lucca, Arcidiocesi di Pisa, Diocesi di Pistoia, Diocesi di Prato, Arcidiocesi di Siena-Colle di Val d'Elsa-Montalcino , from Wikipedia Italian edition
Monasteries Fratri Minori di Toscana, from OFM Toscana, in Italian
Franciscan Provinces with their Custodies and Convents, c.1350, from M. van der Heijden and B. Roest, click Tuscany
Patron Saints Patron Saint Index : Tuscany
Judaism The Virtual Jewish History Tour : Pitigliano, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Livorno
Regions History, from Tuscan Archipelago
I Pirati, Napoleone e il Granducato, from Associazione per la Difesa dell'Isola di Pianosa, in Italian
Local History Articles History of Florence, Arezzo : History, Livorno : History, Lucca : History, Piombino : History, Pistoia : History, Prato, Siena : History, from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Tuscany
Culture Florence : The Medicean Grand Duchy, from La Cucina Italiana
Biographies Family Portrait : The Medici of Florence, from Your Way to Florence, 10 chapters
Florence, from Executed Today
S. Ticozzi, Memorie di Bianca Cappello, gran-duchessa di Toscana, 1827, in Italian, GB
Environmental History
Others Heraldry in Tuscany : Brief History, from Heraldica
Marco Lenzi, Moderatismo e Amministrazione nel Granducato di Toscana (advertisement for book)

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen List of Grand Dukes, from World Statesmen by Ben Cahoon
Regnal Chronologies : Tuscany
Titles of European Hereditary Rulers : Tuscany
Lists of Ambassadors List of Diplomats from the United Kingdom to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, from Wikipedia
Lists of Bishops Articles : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, Lucca, Pisa, Siena, Diocese of Arezzo, Chiusi, Chiusi e Pienza, Colle di Val d'Elsa, Cortona, Fiesole, Grosseto, Livorno, Massa Carrara, Massa Marittima, Montalcino, Montepulciano, Orbetello, Pescia, Pienza, Pistoia e Prato, Pitogliano, Pontremoli, San Miniano, Sansepolchro, Sovana, Volterra, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Statistical Data Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Italy, historical demographical data of the regions, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Economic Statistics Prices and Wages : Italy 16th century - 1800, by Pierre Marteau
Global Price and Income History Group, Southern Europe, has several files on Florence, Tuscany, Siena
Documents Historical Newspapers foreign L'Emeroteca Digitale (867 historical newspapers, mainly from Lombardy)
Le Gazzette Bolognesi 1645-1796
from Tuscany Gazzetta Toscana, vol.1/2 1766-1767, vol.3/4 1768-1769, vol.7/8 1772-1773, vol.9/10 1774-1775, vol.11/12 1776-1777, vol.13/13 1778-1779, vol.17/18 1782-1783, vol.19/20 1784-1785, vol.21/22 1786-1787, vol.23/24 1788-1789, in Italian, GB
Gazzetta universale, o sieno, [Firenze] vol.3, 1776, vol.6, 1779, vol.7, 1780, vol.8, 1781, vol.9, 1782, vol.10, 1783, vol.11, 1784, vol.12, 1785, vol.13, 1786, vol.14, 1787, vol.15, 1788, vol.17, 1790, vol.18, 1791, vol.19, 1792, vol.21, 1794, vol.22, 1795, vol.23, 1796, vol.24, 1797, vol.26, 1799, vol.28, 1801, in Italian, GB
Gazzetta di Firenze 1815, 1818, 1821, in Italian, GB
Online Yearbooks Staatskalender, Tuscany Almanacco Toscano 1842
Staatskalender, Papal State Annuario pontificio, 1721, 1722, 1723, 1724, 1726, 1728, 1729, 1731, 1732, 1733, 1734, 1735, 1736, 1737, 1739, 1740, 1741, 1742, 1744, 1746, 1749, 1750, 1751, 1752, 1753, 1755, 1756, 1757, 1759, 1760, 1762, 1763, 1764, 1766, 1767, 1770, 1771, 1773, 1775, 1776, 1779, 1781, 1783, 1785, 1786, 1787, 1788, 1789, 1790, 1791, 1795, 1796, 1802, 1806, 1822, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1851, 1853, 1854, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1868, 1869, in Italian, posted on Google Books
International P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde; entry : De l'Estat de Florence, in French, 1613, pp.561-575, GB; 1614, pp.559-571, GB; 1616, pp.559-573, GB; 1617, pp.559-573, GB; 1621, pp.588-603, GB; 1628, pp.561-575, GB; 1630, pp.398-408, GB; 1633, pp.561-575, GB; 1659, pp.335-348, GB; 1665, pp.316-339, GB
J.Ch. Poncelin de la Roche Tilhac, Etat des Cours de l'Europe et des Provinces de France pour l'annee ... vol.1 MDCCCLXXXIV 1783 pp.262-265, vol.2 MDCCCLXXXV, 1785, pp.286-288, vol.3 MDCCCLXXXVI, 1786, pp.247-248, in French, GB
Genealogisches Reichs- und Staats-Handbuch : Toscana 1798 pt.2 pp.112-113, 1799 pt.2 pp.40, 1800 pt.2, pp.48-49, Etrurien 1802 pt.2, p.343, 1803 pt.2, pp.76-77, in German, GB
Genealogisches Staats-Handbuch : Toscana, vol.65 pp.255-259, 1827, vol.66 pp.297-301, 1835, vol.67 pp.315-319, 1839, in German, GB
Genealogisch-historisch-statistischer Almanach : Toscana, vol.1 : 1824 pp.348-350, 1824, vol.2 : 1825 pp.348-351, 1824, vol.3 : 1826 pp.382-384, 1826, vol.8 : 1832 pp.503-506, 1831, vol.9 : 1833 pp.575-580, 1832, vol.10 : 1834 pp.592-596, 1833, vol.11 : 1834 pp.611-616, 1834, vol.12 : 1835 pp.705-709, 1835, vol.13 : 1836 pp.686-692, 1836, vol.16 : 1838/39 pp.640-646, 1839, vol.17 : 1840 pp.786-792, 1840, vol.19 : 1842 pp.808-816, 1842, vol.20 : 1843 pp.808-816, 1843, vol.23 : 1846 pp.684-689, 1846, in German, GB
Almanach de Gotha : Toscane 1771 p.lxxviii, 1771, vol.86 pp.73-74, 1849, vol.87 pp.73-74, 1850, vol.89 pp.73-74, 1852, vol.90 pp.73-74, 1853, vol.94 pp.79-80, 1857, vol.95 pp.79-80, 1858, vol.97 pp.82-84, 1860, vol.102 pp.97-99, 1865, vol.106 pp.11-12, p.384, 1869, in French, GB
Almanacco istorico, politico, militare, scientifico, 1794, 1795, in Italian, GB
Annuario Storico Universale : Granducato di Toscana, 1845 pp.24-25, in Italian, GB
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons : Tuscany
Category : Historical Images of Tuscany, Florence, Livorno, Lucca, Pisa, Pistoia, Siena, from Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Foreign Ministry Archives Services of the European Union Member States : Italy, from Consilium Europa, has files on diplomatic representation of Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Nationaalarchief (NL) Inventaris van het archief van het Nederlands Gezantschap in Toscane, 1826-1828
Constitutions, Laws Archivio delle Costituzione Storiche : Italia, entries for Lucca 1799, Lucca 1801, Lucca 1805, Toscana 1848, Italian language documents
Laws Edict of the Grand Duke of Tuscany: for the reform of criminal law, 1789, GB
Annals, Chronicles P. Tronci, Annali Pisani, vol.1 1828, vol.2 1829, vol.3 1829, vol.4 1829, in Italian, GB
Giovanni Villani, Nuova Cronica, Tuscan version (to 1348) 1997, English trsl. in excerpts (to 1321) 1906, IA
The Chronicles of Dino Compagni, trsl. by E.C.M. Benecke et a;., 1906
La cronica domestica di Messer Donato Velluti, scritta fra il 1367 e il 1370, con le addizioni di Paolo Velluti, scritte fra il 1555 e il 1560 dai manoscritte originali per cura di Isidoro del Lungo e Guglielmo Volpi, con cinque tavole dimostrative e sei facsimili
L. Bruni [1369-1444], D. Acciaiuoli [1429-1478], Istoria Fiorentina 1861
J. Pitti, Istoria fiorentina. Illustrata con documenti e note
Fonti per la storia d'Italia pubblicate dall'Istituto storico italiano : C. Calisse (ed.), Liber Maiolichinus de gestis Pisanorum illustribus, 1904
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections G. Arias, I trattati commerciali della Repubblica fiorentina. v. 1., Secolo XIII (1901), vol.1, posted on Internet Archive
Toskana, pp.238-243 in Johann Vesque von P?tlingen, Uebersicht der Verträge Oesterreichs mit den auswärtigen Staaten, 1854, in German, GB
Toscane, pp.123-124 in vol.1 of Table des traites entre la France et les puissances etrangeres, depuis la paix de Westphalie jusqu'a nos jours, 1802, GB
Document Collections Il Granducato di Toscana, from Materiali e studi per una storia del diritto d'autore
Documenti di storia nazionale, from Wikisource Italian edition, scroll down for Granducato di Toscana
Ch.27 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Italicum, pp.659-716 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Individual Documents L.J.A. de Potter, Memoirs of Scipio de Ricci. Late Bishop of Pistoia and Prato (1829), posted on Internet Archive
Governo della Toscana sotto il regno di sua maesta il re Leopoldo II, 1790, in Italian, posted on Google Books
Gobierno de la Toscana baxo el reynado del Gran Duque Pedro Leopoldo 1792, in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
Historical Maps entire country, hindsight/modern Republic of Florence 1527, from Historical and Political Maps of the Modern Age, by Joaquin de Salas Vara de Rey
Cartography in Tuscany, from Institute and Museum of the History of Science
Tuscany 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, from euratlas
entire country, contemporary Map : Northern Italy, from Sohr-Berghaus, Vollständiger Hand-Atlas der neueren Erdbeschreibung über alle Theile der Erde, 1st ed. 1844, 4th ed. 1847, 5th ed. 1855, 5th ed. 1861, posted by M. Witkam
Map : Northern Italy 1842, from Stieler's Handatlas, 2nd edition 1847, posted by M. Witkam
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary Florence 1908, Livorno 1908, Pisa 1898, Pisa 1908, Pisa 1913, Pistoia 1908, Siena 1898, Siena 1909, from Discus Media
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Tuscany, Elba, Arezzo, Carrara, Florence (Firenze), Grosseto, Leghorn (Livorno), Lucca, Massa, Pisa, Siena, from EB 1911
Articles Toscana, Elba, Arezzo, Carrara, Florenz, Grosseto, Livorno, Lucca, Pisa, Pistoja, Siena from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Tuscany, Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, Pisa, Siena, Diocese of Pistoia and Prato, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Articles Pisa, Leghorn, Florence, Lucca, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Economic Change de la France avec Florence, Capitale de la Toscane, pp.517-532; Change de la France avec Livourne en Toscane pp.657-662 in vol.1 of Th. de Bleville, Le banquier et negociant universel, ou Traite general des changes, 1760, in French, GB
J. Chr. Nelckenbrecher, Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen ..., Berlin : Wever 1769, in German, entries Florentz, Livorno, posted by DTBSWS
Florence, pp.102-105, Livourne, pp.153-156, in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Livourne, p.373 in P. Giraudeau, La banque rendue facile aux principales nations de l'Europe 1793 in French, GB
Leghorn, pp.224-233 in P. Kelly, The Universal Cambist, 1811, GB
Toscane, pp.341-352 in vol.4 pt.1 of J.M. Demeunier, Economie politique et diplomatique, 1788, in French, GB
Livourne (Italie, Toscane), in Metrologie universelle, ancienne et moderne, 1817, in French, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Florenz, Livorno, posted by DTBSWS
Leghorn, pp.543-549 in J. Blunt, The shipmaster's assistant, and commercial digest, 1837, Gb
Le Grand Duche de Toscane, in A. Bonneville, Encyclopedie monetaire, 1849, in French, GB
Leghorn, pp.37-38 in W. Tate, A manual of exchanges, 1829, GB
Tuscany, pp.327-328 in J. Blunt, The shipmaster's assistant, and commercial digest , 1862, GB
Tuscany, pp.652-653 in W. Waterston, A cyclopaedia of commerce, mercantile law, finance, commercial geography, 1863, GB
Political Estat du Grand Duc de Toscane, pp.304-332 in Pierre d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, 1660 Part 4 : Description de l'Europe, Quatriesme Partie du Monde, avec tous ces Empires, Royaumes, Estats et Republiques, vol.3, 1660, GB
Estat du Grand Duc de Toscane, pp.317-338 in P. d'Avity, Nouveau theatre du monde: contenant les estats, empires, royaumes, et principautez, representez par l'ordre et veritable description des pays, moeurs des peuples, forces, 1661, in French, GB
Gouvernement de Toscane, pp.463-481 in vol.2 of G. de Real de Curbon, La science du gouvernement, 1762, in French, GB
Geographical Di Grand Duche de Toscane, pp.376-388 in vol.2 of J. Hübner, La geographie universelle , 1746, in French, GB
Della Toscana, pp.327-333 in A. Chiusole, Il mondo antico moderno e novissimo ovvero breve trattato dell'antica e moderna geografia ... , 1749, in Italian, GB
Gran Ducato di Toscana, pp.248-340 in vol.21 of Th. Salmon, Lo stato presente di tutti i paesi e popoli del mondo naturale, politico e morale, 1757, in Italian, GB
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany, pp.404-415 in vol.6 of T.G. Smollett, The present state of all nations, 1769, GB
Grossherzogthum Toscana, pp.327-335 in G. Hassel, Allgemeines Europäisches Staats und Address-Handbuch 1816 in German, GB
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany, pp.394-401 in vol.2 of J. Bell, A system of geography, popular and scientific, 1832, GB
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany, pp.36-38 in H. Murray, The Encyclopaedia of Geography, 1839, GB
Das Grossherzogthum Toscana, pp.533-642 in vol.4 of F.W. Schubert, Handbuch der allgemeinen Staatskunde von Europa, 1839, in German, GB
Die Italische Halbinsel, pp.143-184 in F. von Rudtorffer, Militär-Geographie von Europa, 1839, in German, GB
Tuscany, pp.674-676 in vol.2 of S.G. Goodrich, Pictorial geography of the world, 1840, GB
Italy, pp.69-78 in Ch. R. Maxwell, An epitome of the military geography of Europe, 1850, GB
The Duchy of Tuscany (including Lucca), pp.120-127 in F.H. Ungewitter, Europe, past and present : a comprehensive manual of European geography and history, 1850, GB
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany, pp.371-372 in vol.2 of R.Sw. Fisher, The Book of the World, 1851, GB
Tuscany, pp.652-653 in Th. Prescott, The Volume of the World, 1855, GB
Tuscany, pp.978-981 in vol.2 of M'Culloch's universal gazetteer , 1855, GB
Italy pp.271-291 in W. Hughes, A manual of geography, 1861, GB
Grand Duchy of Tuscany, pp.324-325 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Ethnographical Grand Duche de Toscane, pp.287-290 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Historical Tuscany or Florence, pp.620-631 in : Samuel von Pufendorf, An introduction to the history of the principal kingdoms and states of Europe, 1719, GB
Tuscany, pp.299-306 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
Grand Duchy of Tuscany, pp.329-333 in vol.37 of The modern part of An universal history, 1783, GB
Grossherzugthum Toscana pp.169-188 in vol.2 of the 1st edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1794, in German, GB
Grossherzogthum Toscana pp.218-240, Königreich Etrurien pp.240-241 in vol.2 of the 2nd edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1807, in German, GB
Grossherzogthum Toscana und Königreich Etrurien, pp.268-294 in vol.2 of the 3rd edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1823, in German, GB
Grand-duche de Toscana, pp.1-41 [on 1621-1717] in vol.32 of Maximilian-Samson-Friedrich Schöll, Cours d'histoire des Etats Europeens, depuis le bouleversement de l'empire romain d'Occident jusqu'en 1789, 1832, in French, GB
Tuscany, pp.784-787 in vol.2 of S.G. Goodrich, A history of all nations, from the earliest periods to the present, 1859, GB
Parliamentary Debates
Postal Routes etc. Etat general des postes de France 1812, 1814, in French, GB; search for Lucques
K.Fr. Jahn, Post-Reise-Handbuch, 1833, in German, GB
Search Bradshaw's continental railway, steam transit, and general guide 1853, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, GB, for Florence, Leghorn, Lucca, Pisa, Pistoia, Siena
Tariffs Leghorn (and back, from the U.K.) - 130 days, p.148 in : Ellis' British Tariff for 1832-1833, 1835, GB
Tour Guides A. and W. Galignani, Galignani's traveller's guide through Italy, 1824, GB
F. Palgrave, Hand-book for travellers in northern Italy, 1856, GB
Fr. Coghlan, Handbook for travellers in northern Italy, 1856, GB
J. Murray, Handbook for travellers in northern Italy, 1860, GB
Exhibition Catalogues Official Catalogue of the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations 1851, GB; Tuscany pp.318-320
Official Catalogue of the New York Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations 1853, GB; Italy [!] pp.179-186; Tuscany under Italy
Institutions Archives Archivio di Stato di Firenze; Grosseto; Livorno; Lucca; Pisa; Pistoia; Siena
Musea Institute and Museum of the History of Science, Florence
Museo Galileo, Florence
Monuments Categoria : Monumenti della Toscana, from Wikipedia Italian edition
Libraries Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry, from Heraldique Europeenne
Coins, Banknotes Toscana 3 Quattrini 1846, from Edixxon
Tuscany Coins, from World Coin Gallery
Search Coin Archives for Toscana, Tuscany, Florence, Florenz, Firenze, Pisa, Siena, Lucca
Stamps Rare Italian States, Tuscany Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general
on Tuscany from Archiweb Massa Carrara
Storia Postale di Toscana Periode Prefilatelico
from Tuscany-Toscana Info
Italian language books on Granducato di Toscana, from Unilibro (bookseller)
Entries Toskana, Florenz, Lucca, Pisa, Prato, Siena, from Computatio
Toscana, from Bibliografie zur Geschichte und Kultur des Weines (Bibliography on History and Cultivation of Wine)
D. Moreni, Bibliografia storico-ragionata della Toscana vol.1, 1805, vol.2, 1805, GB
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Swiss Electronic Library; Gallica
on Italy Repertori di biblioteche digitali italiane
BNCF Biblioteca Digitale; BNCR Biblioteca Digitale; Digitami, Biblioteca Digitale di Milano
Biblioteca Italiana
Biblioteche Digitali, from Biblioteca del Dipartimento di Scienze della Storia e della Documentazione Storica, Univ. of Milan
Imago Historiae. Biblioteca digitale degli storici italiani dell'Umanesimo e del Rinascimento
on Tuscany Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Teca Digitale
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories, Italy
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Tesi Online
Online Journals Directories Directory of Open Access Journals
full text online Biblioteca Digitale Italiana, Programma di digitalizzazione delle pubblicazioni periodiche
Rassegna Storica Toscana, 1955-2009 Online
General Accounts Christopher Hibbert, The House of Medici, its Rise and Fall, New York : Morrow Quill 1980, 364 pp.
Eric Cochrane, Florence in the Forgotten Centuries, 1527-1800, Chicago : UP 1973, 593 pp. [G]
John A. Marino, Early Modern Italy 1550-1796, Oxford : UP 2002 [G]
Specific Topics Rebecca Jean Emish, The Undevelopment of Capitalism. Sectors and Markets in Fifteenth-Century Tuscany, Temple UP 2009 [G]

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