Region II : Scandinavia Region IV : Germany
Last revised on November 20th 2001

Duke Philip of Burgundy inherited the counties of Flanders and Artois in 1384, to which soon other territories were added. The Burgundian administration at Dijon created the term les pays bas to describe the newly acquired territories, an expression which stuck. The Burgundian dukes established not only a dynastic union, but established central institutions, thus giving the region a distinct identity.
Previously, the Low Countries - modern Benelux - were a part of the Empire, Flanders of France. For the region's earlier history see also GERMANY (for most of the Netherlands) and FRANCE (for Flanders and Artois).

The Netherlands and the Sea

The Netherlands before the Burgundians, 1300-1490

Unification of the Low Countries
The Burgundian Period (1384-1515)

Part of the Habsburg Empire
Tax-Paying Provinces
Suppression of Protestantism

The Showdown
the Dutch Revolt, 1572-1609
Golden Age
Dutch Republic, 1609-1648
A Haven for Refugees

The Dutch Republic
First Era of Liberty (1650-1672)
The Dutch Republic
William III. (1672-1702)
The Dutch Republic
Second Era of Liberty (1702-1748)
The Dutch Republic
William IV. and V. (1748-1787)

The Spanish Netherlands, 1600-1713 The Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1789 Liege 1650-1744 Liege 1744-1815

The Dutch Colonial Empire
the V.O.C.
The Dutch Colonial Empire
the V.W.C.
Dutch Discoverers

The Age of Revolution
The Habsburgian Netherlands
Belgium under French Administration, 1795-1813

The Age of Revolution
The Patriots, 1787
The Age of Revolution
The Batavian Republic
The Age of Revolution
The Kingdom of Holland
The Age of Revolution
The Dutch Colonies 1791-1815

The Northern Netherlands
Belgium 1815-1830
The Northern Netherlands
Belgium 1830-1848

Belgium 1848-1870

Luxemburg 1839-1867
Netherlands 1848-1870

The Dutch Colonial Empire, 1815-1870

Late 19th Century, 1870-1914
The Netherlands
The Dutch Colonies
The Belgian Colonies

World War I, 1914-1918
World War I, 1914-1918
The Netherlands
World War I, 1914-1918

Between the Wars, 1918-1940
The Twenties
The Netherlands 1918-1929
Depression Years
The Netherlands 1929-1940
The Twenties
Belgium, 1918-1929
Depression Years
Belgium, 1929-1940
Luxemburg 1919-1945

World War II, 1939-1945
The Netherlands Belgium
The Dutch Colonies, 1914-1945 The Belgian Colonies, 1914-1945

Transition, 1945-1949
Benelux 1947-
Belgium 1945-1949 Netherlands 1945-1949

Post-war Economic Boom, 1949-1969
Belgium 1949-1969 Luxemburg 1945-1969 Netherlands 1949-1969 Decolonization
Dutch Colonies
Belgian Colonies

Late Cold War, 1969-1990
Belgium 1969-1990 Luxemburg 1969-1990 Netherlands 1969-1990

The Korean War
Dutch Forces in Korea
The Korean War
Belgian Forces in Korea

Virtual Library History : Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg
Dutch History Resources on the Internet, from Univ. of Leiden
The Holland Page, encyclopedic, from Roman times till present
History of the Netherlands, from the Neth. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, encyclopedic, from 1568 till present
Belgium History, from geocities, encyclopedic, brief, covering all ages
Biografisch Woordenboek van Nederland, only volume 5 online, in Dutch
DOCUMENTS Primary Documents : Belgium, from Eurodocs
Primary Documents : Netherlands, from Eurodocs
Primary Documents : Luxemburg, from Eurodocs
Historical Maps featuring Amsterdam, The Netherlands, from Amsterdam University Library
Photos of Belgian historical monuments, by Jean Servais Henri Colemonts
Belgian painters, Dutch painters, from Olga's Gallery
Documents relatifs au duche de Bouillon, 1484-1825, from Heraldica, many document excerpts pertaining to Bouillon, in French
REFERENCE J.C.H. Blom and E. Lamberts, History of the Low Countries, N.Y.: Berghahn 1999
Jonathan Israel, The Dutch Republic, It's Rise, Greatness and Fall, 1477-1806, Oxford : Clarendon 1998
Arend H. Huussen, Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands, London : Scarecrow 1998, 237 pp.
Robert Stallaerts, Historical Dictionary of Belgium, London : Scarecrow 1999, 303 pp.

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