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Dutch Republic Liege
First posted on June 19th 2008, last revised on September 12th 2011







The course of the Dutch Revolt and War for Independence (1579-1648) resulted in the Netherlands being split in the Northern Netherlands (Dutch Republic) and the Southern or Spanish Netherlands. From 1667 onward, the Spanish Netherlands became one of the prime targets of French expansionism; with Spain no longer being capable of defending its territories, the European powers created alliances to counter the French. In 1713, Spain ceded the Spanish Netherlands to Austria, the Spanish Netherlands thus becoming the Austrian Netherlands.

While the Austrian Netherlands were one of the wealthier parts of the possessions of the Austrian Habsburgs, they were, from Viennese perspective, remotely located and difficult to defend. The Austrian administration was more willing to implement political reforms than her Spanish predecessors. Under Empress Maria Theresia (1740-1780) a number of reforms were introduced. In the Austrian Netherlands, the spirit of Enlightenment spread. Maria Theresia's son and successor Joseph II. (1780-1790), who regarded himself an enlightened monarch, impatiently decreed numerous reforms which threatened the degree of autonomy the territories summarily referred to as the Austrian Netherlands hitherto maintained (i.e. the County of Flanders, the Duchy of Brabant, the County of Namur, the County of Hainaut, the Duchy of Limburg, Austrian Gelre, the Duchy of Luxemburg) and the Tournaisis, and ultimately caused the Brabant Revolution of 1789. In 1790 an Austrian military expedition restored Austrian rule; from 1792 to 1794 the Austrian Netherlands were battleground, contested by the French and Austrian armies (War of the First Coalition); Austria ceded the Austrian Netherlands to France in 1797.
At the Vienna Congress, the territory of the former Austrian Netherlands was allocated to the new Kingdom of the United Netherlands. It largely became referred to as Belgium; the latter, in 1830/1839, seceded from the Kingdom of the United Netherlands.

Belgium under French Administration : Consulate, 1799-1813
Belgium under French Administration : Directorate, 1795-1799
The Habsburgian Netherlands : the Brabant Revolution 1789-1790

The Austrian Netherlands : Joseph II., 1780-1790
The Austrian Netherlands : Maria Theresia, 1740-1780
The Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1740

Demographic History : Belgium
Historical Atlas : Belgium Page


Students' Paper : Lee, Eun Soo, Battleground Belgium (2008)
Students' Paper : Kang, Jun-suk, Comparative Urban History : Brugge, Antwerpen and Amsterdam (2008)







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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles modern Southern Netherlands, from Wikipedia
Article Oostenrijkse Nederlanden, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Article Pays-Bas Autrichiens, from Wikipedia French edition
historical James Shaw, Sketches of the History of the Austrian Netherlands: With Remarks on the Constitution, Commerce etc. 1786, posted on Internet Archive
A.P.B. de Gomicourt, Le voyageur dans les Pays-bas autrichiens ou Lettres sur l'état actuel de ces pays vol.1 1782, vol.2 1782, vol.3 1783, vol.4 1783, vol.5 1783, vol.6 1783, in French, GB
J.H. Stöver, Deutsch-Burgund, oder die österreichischen Niederlande, in ihrem neuesten politischen und geographischen Zustande: nebst einer aktenmässigen Darstellung der Anlässe und Geschichte ihrer gegenwärtigen Freyheits-Revolution 1790, in German, GB
Links, on History from Virtual Library History; Archeonet.BE
Category : History of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Organizations Academie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique
Article : Associations de Genealogie en Belgique, from Wikipedia French edition
Association Francophone des Musees de Belgique
De Vlaamse Museumvereniging
Universiteit Gent, Vlaamse Geschiedkundige Kring
Vlaamse Vereniging voor Leraren Geschiedenis (VVLG) , from Euroclio
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Timeline of Belgian History, from timelines.ws, detailed
Accounts of History General, Modern Note : for publications which cover the Austrian Netherlands as a chapter in the history of Belgium, see under Belgium
Southern Netherlands, from Wikipedia
Article Oostenrijkse Nederlanden, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Article Pays-Bas Autrichiens, from Wikipedia French edition
General, Historical James Shaw, Sketches of the History of the Austrian Netherlands : With Remarks on the Constitution, Commerce etc. 1786, IA, GB
Patrick McNeny, Memoires historiques et politiques des Pays-Bas autrichiens, 1784, posted on Internet Archive
J. des Roches, Prospectus d'une histoire general des Pays-Bas Autrichiens, 1785, in French, GB
W. Coxe, History of the House of Austria,: from the foundation of the Monarchy by Rhodolph of Hapsburgh, to the death of Leopold the Second, 1218 to 1792 vol.2 1807, GB, see Chapters III (1706-1719, pp.22-28), VI (1718, pp.43-59), XLVII (1784-1786, pp.592-600), L (1787-1790, pp.630-650), LIV (1790-1791, pp.688-698)
Specific Periods Article : Censure dans les Pays-Bas autrichiens sous Charles VI, from Wikipedia French edition
Article : Revolution Brabançonne, from Wikipedia French edition
Article : Brabantse Omwenteling, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Charles Piot, Le regne de Marie-Therese dans les Pays-Bas autrichiens 1874, posted on Internet Archive
Joseph Laenen, Le ministere de Botta-Adorno dans les Pays-Bas autrichiens pendant le regne de Marie-Therese, 1901,posted on Internet Archive
J. des Roches, Histoire ancienne des Pays-Bas autrichiens, vol.1 1787, vol.2 1787, in French, GB
Uiber die jezige Gährung in den österreichischen Niederlanden: aus dem Französischen, 1787, in German, GB
S.E.V. le Grand de Reuland, Révolution brabançonne: essai historique, suivi de la joyeuse entrée de Joseph II 1843, in French, GB
T. Juste, Histoire de la révolution Belge de 1790, 1846, in French, GB
T. Juste, Histoire du regne de l'empereur Joseph II et de la revolution Belge de 1790 vol.1 1846, vol.2 1846, vol.3 1846, in French, GB
J. Polasky, The Brabant Revolution, "a Revolution in Historiographical Perception", BTNG/RBHC 35, 2005, pp.435-455
Administration C. Faider, Etudes sur les constitutions nationales (Pays-Bas autrichiens et Pays de Liège) , 1842, in French, GB
Military Note : for publications which cover the Austrian Netherlands as a chapter in the history of Belgium, see under Belgium
J.C. Smyth, Chronological epitome of the wars in the Low countries, from the Peace of the Pyrenees in 1659, to that of Paris in 1815, 1825, GB
C.J.F. Vilain, Mémoires militaires sur la campagne de l'armée belgique dans les Pays-Bas , 1791, in French, GB
A.H.L. Heeren, Mémoires sur les campagnes des Pays Bas en 1745, 1746 et 1747, 1805, in French, GB
J. Rousset de Missy, Histoire Memorable Des Guerres Entre les Maisons de France & d'Autriche vol.3 1748, vol.4 1745, vol.5 1748, in French, GB
P. Massuet, Histoire de la dernière guerre et des négociations pour la paix: contenant tout ce qui s'est passé de plus important en Italie, sur le Rhin 1737, in French, GB
Fontenoy 1745, from John's Military History Tour of Europe
Fortified Places : Charleroi, Ypres
Liste der Infanterieregimenter der kaiserlich-habsburgischen Armee der Frühen Neuzeit, Liste der Kavallerieregimenter der kaiserlich-habsburgischen Armee der Frühen Neuzeit, from Wikipedia Germam edition; Namur not mentined: Infantry Regiment No.9 German-Walloon; no article yet
Economy & Finances Note : for publications which cover the Austrian Netherlands as a chapter in the history of Belgium, see under Belgium
A Global History of Currencies : Belgium
Histoire de la Numismatique et de la Monnaie en Belgique; Tot de Laatste Frank (Until the Last Franc), by K. Driessens, history of money in Belgium, in Dutch, richly illustrated
Antwerp : the Stock Exchange, from Trabel
Belgium Index, from Showcaves, lists a number of historic mines
History of Gem Cutting Regions : Antwerp, from khulsey.com
A Short History of Lace, from Lace - Tapestries (on Belgian lace); Medieval Cloth Trade in Flanders & Artois, from The Other Side
Belgian Breweries - Their History, Their Beers, from European Beer Guide
Paul Servais, Common Lands and Social Transformations : the Ardenne between 1750 and 1900, IEHC 2006
Heidi Deneweth, The Economic Situation and its Influence on Building and Re-Building Work in Bruges during the 16th-18th Centuries, IEHC 2006
David G. Schwartz, A New Deal. Bruges Burghers and Venetian Merchants Invent Mercantile Gambling, IEHC 2006
The memoirs of John Ker, of Kersland in North Britain, Esq : containing his secret transactions and negotiations in Scotland, England, the courts of Vienna, Hanover and other foreign parts : with an account of the rise and progress of the Ostend company in the Austrian Netherlands (1726), posted on Internet Archive
The Commerce of the Ostend Company with India, pp.294-304 in D. MacPherson, The history of the European commerce with India, 1812, GB
Social History De burgerlijke stand in de Franse tijd, VVF Brussel, in Dutch
Ethnography Languages of Belgium, from Ethnologue
Le francais en Wallonie et a Bruxelles aux XVIIe. et XVIIIe. siecles (French language in Wallonia and Brussels in the 17th, 18th Century), by Daniel Drioxhe, goes beyond title; in French, explains how French became the dominant language in Belgium
Article Languages of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Article Demographics of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Belgium, from Kirken i Norge
The Various Christian Communities in Belgium, from Wederkerigheid, with contact addresses, brief histories etc.; Alden Oreck, Jewish Virtual History Tour : Belgium, from Jewish Virtual Library
Article Religion in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Category Religion in Belgium, from Wikipedia
J.F. de Jonghe, Belgium Dominicanum, 1719, in Latin, GB
History of Regions Articles Seventeen Provinces, County of Flanders, Duchy of Brabant, County, Duchy and Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, Duchy of Guelders, Duchy of Limburg, County of Namur, County of Artois, County of Hainaut, from Wikipedia
Articles Zeventien Provinciën, Graafschap Vlaanderen, Hertogdom Brabant, Hertogdom Luxemburg, Staten van Limburg en de Landen van Overmaas, Graafschap Namen, Graafschap Artesië, Graafschap Henegouwen, Doornik en het Doornikse, Hertogdom Gelre, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Articles Dix-Sept Provinces, Duche de Brabant, Duche de Limbourg, Duche de Luxembourg, Duche de Gueldre, Comte de Flandre, Comte d'Artois, Comte de Hainaut, Comte de Namur, from Wikipedia French Edition
Petit Histoire du Nord, from Region Nord-Pas du Calais
Flanders in the Spanish Empire, from History of Flanders
Local History Geschiedenis van Brussel, from Digitaal Brussel, in Dutch
Marcel Huon, Parochiekroniek van O.L.Vrouwparochie van Diest (Parish Chronicle of St. Mary's in Diest), posted by Pierre Trouillez; while local history, a lot of details on Belgian history in general; scroll down, in Dutch
Articles : Aalst : History, Antwerp : History (Antwerpen), Ath : History, Bastogne : History, Bruges : History (Brugge), Brussels : History, Charleroi : History, Ghent : History (Gent), Liege : History, Mons : History, Namur : History, Ostend : History (Oostende), Ypres : History (Ieper), from Wikipedia
De Oostenrijkers in Brussel (1700-1790), from Digitaal Brussel
Institutions Articles Brussels-Charleroi Canal : History, Category : Canals in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Belgium
The Royal Belgian Academy of Sciences, from MacTutor
Culture Articles Flemish Language, Walloon Language : History, from Wikipedia
Article Flemish Literature, from Wikipedia
Biographies electronic click here
List of Belgians, from Wikipedia; Biographies of Belgian and Luxemburgian Saints, from Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon, in German; Famous Belgians, 247 English-language biographies; Dictionnaire des Personalites, from Brabant Wallon
Belgian painters, from Olga's Gallery
Categorie : Noblesse dans les Pays-Bas méridionaux, from Wikipedia French edition
scans of print editions Biographie Nationale [Belgium], vol.2 1868, vol.3 1872, vol.5 1876, vol.12 1893, vol.17 1903, in French, posted on Internet Archive; volumes 1 - 44 as well as Nouveau Biographie Nationale vol.1 - 8, 1866 -2005 posted by Academie Royale de Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique
Others Notable events in the meteorological history of the Province of Antwerp, from meteo.be; in Dutch; other provinces clickable
Claire Quetelet, De evolutie van de levensverwachting in Belgie, 18de - 20ste eeuw (The Evolution of Life Expectancy in Belgium, from the 18th to the 20th century), thesis Univ. Gent 2005, in Dutch
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Belgium
200 Years of Freemasonry in Antwerp, by Christian David Rom (1984)
Category Disasters in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Thomas de Wolf, De Visie van Reizigers op Brabant en Mechelen, ethesis 2004
Ph.J.B. O'Kelly, Receuil analytique des edits, placards, et ordonnances heraldiques des Pays-Bas Espagnols et Autrichiens, 1865, posted on Internet Archive
Simon Pierre Ernst, Histoire abregee du tiers-etat de Brabant; ou, Memoire historique, 1788, posted on Internet Archive
Article : Censure dans les Pays-Bas autrichiens sous Charles VI, from Wikipedia French edition

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies, scroll down for Belgium
Titles of European Rulers : Belgium
Liste des souverains des Pays-Bas espagnols et autrichiens, Liste des gouverneurs des Pays-Bas espagnols et autrichiens, Liste des ministres plenipotentiaires des Pays-Bas autrichiens, from Wikipedia French edition
Lists of Ambassadors to Brussels List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Belgium (1600-) 1830-, from Wikipedia
Lists of Bishops Lijst van Aartsbisschoppen van Mechelen, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
List of Bishops of Ghent, from Wikipedia
Lijst van Bisschoppen van Antwerpen, van Brugge, van Ieper (Ypres), van Namen (Namur), from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Belgium, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten (Newspapers), from Belgica
Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers], scroll down for Belgium
Gazette van Gend 1766, 1768, 1769, 1770, 1771, 1772, 1773, 1774, 1775, 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, 1780, 1781, 1782, 1783, 1784, 1785, 1786, 1787, 1788, 1789, 1790, 1792, 1793, 1794, 1795, GB
Online Yearbooks Staatskalender Calendrier Belgique 1790, in French, GB
General, entries on A.N. Jährliches genealogisches Hand-Buch : Oesterr. Niederlande 1730 pp.14-15, 16, 18, 1732 pp.12-13, 13-14, 1737 pp.12-13, 13-15, 1738 pp.12-13, 13-15, 1741 p.7, 8-9, 1742 p.10, 1745 -, 1746 p.15, 1747 p.14, 1749 p.14, in German, GB
Neues genealogisch-schematisches Reichs- und Staats-Handbuch, Kayserlich Römische Gubernatores 1748 p.110, 1750 pp.132-133, 1752 pp.158-159, 1756 pp.175-176, 1758 pp.173-174, 1759 pp.179-180, 1760 pp.183-185, 1761 pp.180-181, 1762 pp.184-186, 1764 p.180, 1765 p.204, Ndl. Dept. p.197, in German, GB
M. Gottlieb Schumanns genealogisches Handbuch : Kaiser : Niederlande 1758 p.10, 1760 p.10, in German, GB
Europäisches genealogisches Handbuch : Kaiser : Niederlande 1756 p.10, 1766 p.15, 1768 p.15, 1770 p.16, 1772 p.14, 1774 pp.13-14, 1776 p.14, 1780 p.14, 1782 pp.13-14, 1784 p.14, 1786 p.13, 1788 p.13, in German, GB
J.Ch. Poncelin de la Roche Tilhac, Etat des Cours de l'Europe et des Provinces de France pour l'annee ... vol.1 MDCCCLXXXIV 1783 pp.249-258, vol.2 MDCCCLXXXV, 1785, pp.278-285, in French, GB
General, entries on A.N. Medical Register for the Year 1783 pp.185-186, GB
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Photos of Belgian historical monuments, by Jean Servais Henri Colemonts
Archival Deposits Nationaalarchief (NL) : Inventaris van het archief van de Legatie in de Oostenrijkse Nederlanden, 1717-1810
Inventaire des manuscrits de l'ancienne Bibliothèque Royale des Ducs de Bourgogne [ à Bruxelles]: n°1-18000 1836; lists titles written in the 18th century
Belgium, Catalogue de la Bibliothèque du Dépôt de la guerre, 1847, GB
Belgium, Catalogue de la bibliothèque de la Chambre des Représentants, 1836, GB
L.P. Gachard, Inventaire des archives des Chambres des comptes vol.1 1837, vol.2 1845, vol.3 1851, in French, GB
L.P. Gachard, Inventaire des cartes et plans, manuscrits et gravés, qui sont conservés aux archives générales du royaume, 1848, in French, GB
Nationaal Archief Den Haag : Legatie Oostenrijkse Nederlanden, 1717-1810
Constitutions, Laws Charles Albert Duc de Lorraine, De blyde incomste van Haere Coninglycke Majesteyt Maria Theresia, koninginne van Hongarien ende van Bohemien, &c. &c. als hertoginne van Brabant, verleent ende besworen den 20. aprilis 1744, posted on Internet Archive
Albrecht Kasimir, Duke of Sachsen-Teschen, De blyde inkomste van syne keyserlycke ende coninglycke majesteyt Josephus den II., Roomsch Keyser, Conninck van Hongarien ende van Bohemen, &c. &c. als Hertogh van Brabant, verleent ende besworen de 17 July 1781, posted on Internet Archive
Liste chronologique des édits et ordonnances des Pays-Bas Autrichiens, de la Principauté de Liége et de la Principauté de Stavelot et de Malmédy vol.1 1851, vol.2 1853, vol.3 1858, vol.4 1860, in French, GB
Instructions générales pour les tribunaux de justice établis aux Pays-Bas, 1787, in French, GB
J.M. Wouters, Livre des placcarts, édits, reglemens, tarifs, ordonnances et decrets emanees depuis l'an MDCLXX pour la perception & conservation des Droits de tonlieu, d'entree, de sortie, de transit & autres, appartenant a sa Majeste Imperiale & Catholique, Prince Souverain des ces Pays-Bas, 1737, in French, GB
Treaties Traite de la Barriere 1715, GB
Traité de la nouvelle convention pour l'execution de celuy de la barriere des Pays-Bas Austrichiens 1719, GB
Document Collections Electronic Primary Documents : Belgium, from Eurodocs; from psm-data; from Historische Teksten (in Dutch)
Scans of Print Editions Legenden en Sagen van Belgie, in Dutch
Recueil des representations faites a S.M.I. par les representans & etats des dix provinces des Pays-Bas autrichiens assembles, vol.1 1787, vol.2 1787, vol.3 1787, vol.4 1787, vol.5 1787, vol.6 1787, vol.7 1787, vol.8 1787, vol.9 1787, vol.10 1787, vol.11 1787, vol.13 1787, vol.14 1787, vol.16 1787, vol.17 1787, posted on Internet Archive
Aktenstüke, zur Geschichte der Österreichischen Niederlande gehörig vol.1, 1787, vol.2, 1787, vol.3, 1787, vol.4, 1787, GB
Brieven over de onlusten in de Oostenrijksche Nederlanden, 1790, in Dutch, GB
A. Wolf (ed.), Leopold II und Marie Christine: ihr Briefwechsel 1781 - 1792, 1867, GB
Joseph Hansen, Rheinische Akten zur Geschichte des Jesuitenordens, 1542-1582, 1896, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Camille Wampach (ed.), Urkunden- und Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der altluxemburgischen Territorien bis zur burgundischen Zeit., 10 volumes 1935-1955, in German, posted by Luxemburgensia Online
Prosper Cuypers van Velthoven, Documents pour servir a l'histoire des troubles religieux du xvime siecle dans le Brabant 1858, posted on Internet Archive
L.P. Gachard, Lettres écrites par les souverains des Pays-Bas aux États de ces provinces depuis Philippe II jusqu'à François II (1559-1794) 1851, GB
Individual Documents on the Ostend Company J. Barbeyrac, Defense du droit de la Compagnie hollandoise des Indes Orientales, contre les nouvelles pretentions des habitans des Pays-Bas Autrichiens, 1725, GB
P. MacNeny, Refutation des argumens avancés de la part de M.rs les directeurs des Compagnies d'Orient & d'Occident des Provinces-Unies, contre la liberté du commerce des habitants des Païs-Bas, sujets de Sa Majesté Imperiale & Catholique dans les climats éloignés, à pretexte des articles 5. & 6. du Traité de Munster, 1723, GB
Demonstration de l'injuste & chimerique pretention que les directeurs de la Compagnie des Indes en Hollande forment afin de revoquer, ou du moins rendre inutile l'octroy que Sa Majesté ... a accordé à ses sujets des Païs-bas Autrichiens pour l'etablissement d'une compagnie de commerce & de navigation aux Indes Orientales & Occidentales ... 1724, GB
The importance of the Ostend-Company consider'd, 1726, GB
on the Barrier Treaty Remarques sur le Traite de la Barriere, n.d., in French, GB
on the Blockade of Antwerpen The Emperor's claims: being a description of the city of Antwerp and the river Schelde, with a concise history of the Austrian Netherlands ... With a preface, containing different views of the Emperor's design and an admonition to the British government, relative to their behaviour in the contest, 1785, GB
on Joseph II.'s administration de Raucour, Digression Sur Les Vrais Intérêts Des Pays-Bas Autrichiens, 1787, in French, GB
Lettres anti-secrètes sur les Pays-Bas Autrichiens, etc. par les ennemis des brochures 1784, in French, GB
Mémoire Sur Le Projet De L'Abolition Des Douanes Dans Les Pays-Bas, 1788, in French, GB
Veydt, Essai sur les douannes et sur l'intérêt national du commerce des Pays-Bas 1788, in French, GB
Réflexions sur la nécesité de l'existence des douanes dans les Pays-Bas Autrichiens et sur l'influence sur le Commerce en général des mêmes Pays, 1788, GB
Supplique des corps religieux des Pay-Bas autrichiens aux États de ces mêmes, 1788, in French, GB
Catalogue des pièces qu'il est permis de représenter sur les théatres des Pays-Bas Autrichiens 1788, GB
J.B. Lebroussart, De l'éducation belgique ou Réflexions sur le plan d'études, adopté par sa majesté pour les collèges des Pays-Bas Autrichiens, suivies du développement du même plan dont ces réflexions forment l'apologie, 1783, in French, GB
on the Brabant Revolution Les réclamations belgiques couronnées par la victoire & la liberté, par le triomphe de la religion & des lois, 1790, in French, GB
other Requete presentée a sa majesté imperiale et catholique, par les deputez des Pais-Bas Autrichiens , 1716, GB
Historical Maps click here
Atlas of Belgium, from Wikimedia Commons
City Panoramas 1750, from Historic Maps, Gent, Ostende
Map : Southern Netherlands 1740 (Moll), from Wikimedia Commons
Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique : Les cartes de Ferraris, 1777
Map : Provinces des Pays Bas, divisées suivant les Traités d'Utrecht, de Rastatt et d'Anvers Faits en 1713, 1714 et 1716 (de Fer), Gallica
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General
Religious
Economic J. Chr. Nelckenbrecher, Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen ..., Berlin : Wever 1769, in German, entries Antorf oder Antwerpen, posted by DTBSWS
Of the Trade Britain carries with the Austrian Netherlands, p.573 in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva, 1773, GB
Liege et Pays-Bas Autrichiens, p.405 in J.R. Ruelle, Operations des Changes des principales places de l'Europe, 1774, in French, GB
Bruxelles, pp.62-66 in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Bruxelles, Anvers et les Paysd-Bas Autriciens, pp.xxvi-xxvii in P. Giraudeau, La banque rendue facile aux principales nations de l'Europe, 1793, in French, GB
Political Austrian Netherlands, pp.31-72 in vol.6 of T. Smollett, The present state of all nations, 1769, GB
Geographical Les Pais-Bas Autrichiens, pp.349-365 in A. du Bois, La Geographie moderne, naturelle historique & politique 1736, in French, GB
Des Pais-Bas Autrichiens, pp.126-127 in vol.2 : Geographie of Expilly, La polychrographie en six parties 1756, in French, GB
Historical The Present State of the Austrian and French Netherlands, pp.222-248 in vol.2 of T. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations 1745, GB
Parliamentary Debates
Postal Routes Europe Livre des Postes d'Europe 1788, in French, GB
H.A.O. Reichard, Guide des voyageurs en Europe vol.1 1793, in French, GB
France C. Estienne, La guide des chemins de France, 1552, 1679, 1679, in French, GB
L.P. Daudet, Nouveau guide des chemins du royaume de France, 1724, in French, GB
Itineraire complet de France, 1788, GB
Dictionnaire des Postes, 1754, in French, GB
Liste generale des postes de France 1756, 1773, 1777, 1778, 1785, 1787, 1791, in French, GB
Tour Guides A short description of the particular provinces of the Austrian and French Netherlands, pp.47-58 in vol.1 of T. Nugent, The Grand Tour 1749, GB
Description de la ville de Bruxelles 1782, GB
Travelogues J. Macky, A journey through the Austrian Netherlands: containing the modern history and description of all the provinces, towns, castles, palaces, etc. of that fruitful, populous country, 1732, GB
A. Butler, Travels through France & Italy, and part of Austrian, French, & Dutch Netherlands : during the years 1745 and 1746 (1803), posted on Internet Archive
J.B. Descamps, Voyage pittoresque de la Flandre et du Brabant, avec des reflexions ... 1769, in French, posted on Internet Archive
Briefe eines reisenden Franzosen, über den gegenwärtigen Zustand der Oesterreichischen Niederlande 1785, vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive
Philip Thicknesse, A Year's Journey Through the Pais Bas, or Austrian Netherlands 1786, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives State Archives in Belgium, from arch.arch.be
Österreichisches Staatsarchiv, Wien
Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Belgium, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages
Historical Research in Europe, listing of archives; click Atlas Search, Belgium, 90 entries
Musea Lists, Links Category : Museums in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Musea, from research.be
Links from Vrije Universiteit Brussel (musea etc.)
Musea Museum Websites Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and of Military History, Brussels, Belgium
Monuments Category : Monuments and memorials in Belgium, from Wikipedia
UNESCO World Heritage Site, List (search for Belgium), Tentative Lists : Belgium
Libraries Libraries in Belgium, from LibDex
History of the Belgian National Library, from The European Library
Royal Library of Belgium, site in French / Dutch
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Collection of 71 Coins from France, Brabant etc., 12th to 21st century, from Money Museum
Munten Catalogus der Oostenrijkse Nederlanden 1740-1794, from Belgian Coins; pdf version
Search Coin Archives for Austrian Netherlands
Coins and Medals, from Belgica
Les Pieces des Pays-Bas Autrichiens, from Numista
Others Oostenrijkse Grenspalen in de Nederlanden : Limburgse Grensstreek, from Grensmarkeringen

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Belgium. Bibliography on Belgian History, from Nouvelle Histoire; almost exclusively French language titles; not a single title in Flemish. detailed
Bibliography : Holdings on Belgian Studies of British Library
Belgian Bibliography, from the Royal Library at Brussels, in Dutch, in French
Suggesties voor Verhandelingen (suggestions for doctoral theses), from KADOC, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, in Dutch
Belgien, from Computatio
Belgian Editions, printed before 1801, on the Market, from BelEdiMar; a databank, not a sales site
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
on Belgium Belgica, Digital Library of the Kingdom of Belgium
Thesis Servers E-Thesis, Licentiaatsverhandelingen on-line (doctoral theses online; Belgian, on history only, in Dutch)
University of Liege, ORBi - Open Repository Bibliography; Theses et E-Prints
Online Journals full text online Tijdschrift voor Sociale en Economische Geschiedenis 2004-2009
Revue Belge d'Histoire Contemporaine, 1969-
Bibliotheque de l'Ecole des Chartes 1840-
Annuaire statistique et historique belge, 1854, 1860, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1867, in French, posted on Internet Archive
Table of Contents
Online
Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire, 1922-
Zeitschriftenmagazin : Zeitschrift des Eupener Geschichtsvereins (Bulletin de la Societe Eupenoise d'Historique) 1951-1956, posted by S. Jenks
General Accounts J.C.H. Blom and E. Lamberts, History of the Low Countries, N.Y.: Berghahn 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 949.3 B653h
Article Belgium. from Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Vol.14 (Macropaedia) pp.857-871, KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 032 B862h v.14
Eric Vanneufville, Le Coq et le Lion, book review by Malte Woydt, in German
Atlas Culturel et Historique de Belgique, Bruxelles : Elsevier 1954, richly illustrated, in French [G]
H.P.H. Jansen, Kalendarium Geschiedenis van de Lage Landen in Jaartallen (History of the Low Countries Year by Year), Utrecht/Antwerpen : Het Spektrum (1971) 4th print 1979, 271 pp., in Dutch [G]
Demetrius C. Boulger, The History of Belgium, 2 parts, Elibron Classics (1902) 2005, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 949.3 B763h
Economic, Social History J.A. van Houtte, Schets van een Economische Geschiedenis van Belgie, Leuven : Universitas 1943, 267 pp., in Dutch, [G]
Document Edition Memo from Belgium : Documents Illustrating the History of Belgium, ed. Th. Maes et al., Brussels : Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2 volumes, 1978, in total 324 documents in English translation, from the Stone Age to recent times
Historical Dictionaries Robert Stallaerts, Historical Dictionary of Belgium, London : Scarecrow 1999, 303 pp.; KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 949.3 S782h