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Nederland Luxemburg
First posted in January 2002; last revised on February 1st 2013






The territories which make up Belgium today, since the Late Middle Ages, have been among the most densely populated in Europe, as the cities of Flanders and Brabant were centers of a flourishing textile industry, those of Liege and Namur of a mining and metal industry, and Brugge and Antwerpen competed for the position of the main trading hub on the Atlantic coast. The land was politically fragmented, the most important polities were the Duchy of Brabant, the County of Flanders, the Princebishopric of Liege, the Duchy of Luxemburg, the County of Hainaut, the County of Namur, the Duchy of Limburg, the Abbey of Stavelot.
In the 15th century the Dukes of Burgundy acquired a number of these territories, which the Burgundian administration collectively referred to as "les Pays-Bas" (= the Low Countries / Netherlands); Brussels rose to the position of capital of these Burgundian Netherlands. Following the death of Duke Charles the Bold in 1477, the Burgundian Netherlands were inherited by the Habsburg Dynasty, and upon the partition of the Habsburg territories in 1556 the Netherlands was allocated to the Spanish line.
The policies of Philip II. of Spain - aiming at centralization of the administration, at raising taxation and at suppressing Protestantism - caused the Dutch Revolt, in the course of which the Dutch Republic established independence, while the Southern Netherlands (i.e. Flanders, Brabant (both except their northern parts), Artois, Hainaut, Namur, Luxemburg and part of Limburg) remained under Spanish rule (and Catholicism was enforced). From the 1660es onward Spain was incapable of defending the Spanish Netherlands against French expansionism, and step by step territory was lost to France. The European powers formed alliances which fought the French repeatedly in order to prevent further French expandion. In 1713 the Spanish Netherlands became the Austrian Netherlands; in 1794/1797 these were annexed by France. In 1815, the territory of Belgium was allocated to the newly-formed Kingdom of the United Netherlands.
Cultural issues (language and religion) and conflicts regarding trade policy in 1830 caused Belgium to declare independence, which in 1839 was guaranteed in a treaty by the European powers.


Belgium, as separate from the (northern) Netherlands was defined by its Catholicism, as separate from France by the European powers which (in 1830) were unwilling to accept a French annexation. Belgium was not the 19th century type nation state created on the base of a popular movement; it lacked a national language; the population is divided in a Flemish (Dutch) speaking majority living in the north and a Walloon (French) speaking minority living in the north, capital Brussels forming a majority French speaking island surrounded by Flemish-speaking territory. Only in the 1970s did Belgium see a political reorganization creating administrative units based on the language.

WHKMLA files on the history of Belgium : since 1990 ; 1969-1990 ; 1949-1969 ; Belgian Forces in Korea ; 1945-1949 ; 1940-1945 ; 1929-1940 ; 1918-1929 ; 1914-1918 ; 1890-1914 ; 1870-1890 ; 1848-1870 ; 1830-1848

WHKMLA files on the history of what was to become Belgium 1815-1830 ; Belgium under French Administration : Consulate, 1799-1813 ; Belgium under French Administration : Directorate, 1795-1799 ; The Habsburgian Netherlands : the Brabant Revolution 1789-1790

For the History prior to 1789 see History of the Austrian Netherlands 1713-1789

Provinces (since 1830) : Antwerpen, Brabant, East Flanders, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, West Flanders

Historical Territories : Duchy of Brabant, County of Flanders, Duchy of Luxemburg, Duchy of Limburg, Princebishopric of Liege, County of Hainaut, County of Namur

Demographic History : Belgium
Historical Atlas : Belgium Page

Students' Paper : You, In Sun, The Contribution of British Entrepreneurs to the Industrial Revolution on the European Continent (2011)
Students' Paper : Lee, Eun Soo, Battleground Belgium (2008)






E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
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Biography Others
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P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others



WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Index Mundi, from Wikipedia; from Eurodata; from CIA World Factbook Country : Belgium
historical J.E. Tennent, Belgium, vol.1, vol.2, 1841, GB
H.R. Addison, Belgium as she is , 1843, GB
Great Britain, Naval Intelligence Division : A manual of Belgium and the adjoining territories, n.d. (c. WW II), posted on Internet Archive
Links, General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World, from BUBL
List of Belgium-Related Topics, from Wikipedia
Links, on History from Virtual Library History; from Virtual Library Labour History; from Virtual Library Women's History; from Virtual Library Economic and Business History; Archeonet.BE
European History Primary Sources : Belgium, from Virtual Library History
Historical Dictionaries Online Dictionary of Political Vocabulary, posted by the Belgian Parliament, in Dutch, in French
List of terms and biographies on Belgian History, by Pieter Vervat, in Dutch
Organizations Commission Royale d'Histoire, Belgique
Academie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique
Article : Associations de Genealogie en Belgique, from Wikipedia French edition
Association Francophone des Musees de Belgique
De Vlaamse Museumvereniging
Universiteit Gent, Vlaamse Geschiedkundige Kring
Vlaamse Vereniging voor Leraren Geschiedenis (VVLG) , from Euroclio
Academie Royale d'Archeologie de Belgique
Centre National d'Histoire des Sciences
Timelines Timeline of Belgian History, from timelines.ws, detailed; from BBC News
Accounts of History General, Modern History of Belgium, from Expatica.com, a History in 6 parts; from Portal Belgium.be, Alex Progressive Geschiedenis (of Belgium, in Dutch)
from Wikipedia, from Wikipedia Dutch edition, from Wikipedia French edition
General, Historical H. van de Voorde, Geschiedenis van België, school book, 1841, in Dutch, GB
H. Conscience, Geschichte von Belgien, 1843, in German, GB; Geschiedenis van België, 2nd ed. 1859, in Dutch, GB
J.J. de Smet, Histoire de la Belgique, 6th ed. vol.1, 1847, vol.2, 1847, in French, GB
L. Hymans, Belgische geschiedenis voor het volk, 1864, in Dutch, GB
Theodore Juste, Histoire de Belgique: depuis les temps primitifs jusqu'a la fin du regne de Leopold Ier, vol.1, 1868, vol.2, 1868, vol.3, 1868, in French, GB
A. Young, History of the Netherlands (Holland and Belgium), 1884, IA
H. Pirenne, Histoire de Belgique, vol.1 Des origines au commencement du XIVe siecle, 1902, vol.2 Du commencement du XIVe siecle a la mort de Charles le Temeraire, 1902, vol.3, De la mort de Charles le Temeraire a l'arrivee du Duc d'Albe dans les Pays-Bas (1567), 1902, vol.4, La revolution politique et religieuse, le regne d'Albert et d'Isabelle, le regime espagnol jusqu'a la paix de Munster, 1902, vol.5, La fin du regime espagnol, le regime Autrichien, la revolution Brabançonne, et la revolution Liegeoise, 1902, vol.6, La conquete Française, le Consultat et l'Empire, le royaume des Pays-Bas, la revolution Belge, 1902, vol.7, De revolution de 1830 a la guerre de 1914, 1902, IA
D.C. Boulger, The History of Belgium, vol.1 Caesar to Waterloo, 1902, vol.2 1815-1865: Waterloo to the death of Leopold I, 1902, IA
L. van der Essen, A Short History of Belgium 1915, IA
E. Cammaerts, A History of Belgium from the Roman Invasion to the Present Day 1921, IA
Specific Periods De Belgische Revolutie, in Dutch
Histoire parlementaire du traite de paix du 19 avril 1839 entre la Belgique et la Hollande, 1839, in French, GB
Historiography Category : Belgian Historians, from Wikipedia
Article : History of Belgium : Historiography, from Citizendium
R.J. Chapman, A Challenge to Thought Control: The Historiography of Leon Degrelle , Journal for Historical Review 1986
E. Aerts, L. de Mecheleer, R. Wellens, L'age de Gachard. L'archivistique et l'histographie en Belgique (1830-1885)
R. Aubert, L'Historiographie Contemporaine en Belgique depuis 1945, Aperçu Thematique, BTNG-RBHC XXV 1994-1995 pp.213-221
Politics General Political Resources on the Net : Belgium; Governments on the WWW : Belgium
Article Politics of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Category Politics in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Kiezerslijsten (voters' lists), from VVF Nationaal Centrum, in Dutch
Political Parties, Movements De politieke partijen in Belgie (The political parties in Belgium), from Cultuurkunde van Belgie at Univ. Vienna, in Dutch; Inleiding tot de Geschiedenis van de Belgische Arbeidersbeweging (Introduction in the History of the Belgian Workers' Movement), from Socialisme.be, in Dutch
Guy Vanschoenbeek, Socialisten : Gezellen zonder Vaderland ? De Belgische Werkliedenpartij en haar Verhouding tot het 'Vaderland Belgie' 1895-1940 (Socialists - Fellows without Fatherland ? The Belgian Workers Party and her Relation to Fatherland Belgium, 1895-1940), in Dutch
M. Bots. Beknopte geschiedenis van de Liberale Partij (History of the Liberal Party), from Liberaal Archief, in Dutch
Article : History of the Walloon Movement, from Wikipedia
Political History De grote politische stakingen in Belgie (The great political strikes in Belgium), by VONK, in Dutch
Schets Evoltie van de Belgische Kieswetgeving, from Directie van de Verkiezingen (Survey Evolution of Belgian Election Legislation, from Election Commission)
De Strijd voor het Vrouwenstemrecht (the Struggle for Women's Suffrage), posted by Sofie de Graeve, in Dutch
L. Hymans, Histoire parlementaire de la Belgique, vol.1 1874, vol.2 1874, vol.3 1874, vol.4 1874, vol.5 1874, Index 1880, IA
T. Juste, Histoire du Congres national de Belgique, ou de la fondation de la monarchie 1850, IA
A. Heus, Histoire populaire de l'intolerance de l'Inquisition et de la liberte en Belgique 1894, IA
Foreign Relations Category : Bilateral Relations of Belgium, from Wikipedia; Categorie : Relations bilaterales de la Belgique, from Wikipedia French edition; Categorie : Bilaterale verhoudingen van België, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Websites of Belgian Embassies, from diplomatie.be
Canada-Belgium Relations, from Government of canada
A short history of the relations between Belgium and Israel, from Embassy of Belgium in Tel Aviv
C.F. Littell, The neutralization of states; a study in diplomatic history and international law, 1920, IA; pp.36-45 on Belgium
Military The Military Article Military of Belgium; Category Military History of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Het Belgische Leger 1830-1914 (The Belgian Army 1830-1914), in Dutch, many subfiles; Historiek van de Belgische Marine (History of the Belgian Navy), from www.mil.be, in Dutch, subchapters
De Belgische Cavallerie tot 1914, in Dutch/French, posted by Werner Huysmans
Wars Category Military History of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Wars of Belgium 1800-1999, from Armed Conflict Events Data; Military History Encyclopedia on the Web : Belgium
Decorations, Insignia Orders, Decorations and Medals of Belgium, from ODM; Hendriks Medaljehoekje, site on Belgian medals; Bill's Belgian Medals
Belgian Militaria by Albert and Peter Verstraeten; Belgian Military Insignia, from Histoire Militaire, comment in French
Economy & Finances General Article Economy of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Category Economy of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Moments in Time Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Belgien, vol.4 1844 pp.13-46, posted by DTBSWS, in German
Belgium, Ministry of Industry and Labour, Belgium, its institutions, industries and commerce (1904), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods Jan Blomme, Peter Scholliers, De Economische Geschiedenis van België tijdens de nieuwste tijd Onderzoektrends in de jaren tachtig, NEHA Bulletin 7.1 1993 pp.5-38, in Dutch
J.F. Abbeloos, Belgium's Expansionist History between 1870 and 1930: Imperialism and the Globalisation of Belgian Business, MPRA 2008
Industrial History : Belgium, from European Route of Industrial Heritage
E,J, van Bruyssel, Histoire du commerce et de la marine en Belgique vol.1 1861, vol.2 1861, vol.3 1861, IA
H. van Houtte, Histoire economique de la Belgique a la fin de l'ancien regime 1920, IA
Currency & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Belgium
Histoire de la Numismatique et de la Monnaie en Belgique; Tot de Laatste Frank (Until the Last Franc), by K. Driessens, history of money in Belgium, in Dutch, richly illustrated
Ottomar Haupt, Währungs-Politik und Münz-Statistik, Berlin : Walther & Apolant 1884, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Belgien, Lateinische Union, in German
A History of Banking in all the Leading Nations, P. de Essars, vol.3 : The Latin Nations, Part IV : Belgium, 1896, IA
Economic Institutions Article Brussels Stock Exchange, from Wikipedia; Antwerp : the Stock Exchange, from Trabel
Laureyssens, Julienne M. Growth of Central Banking: The Societe General des Pays-Bas and the Impact of the Function of General State Cashier on Belgium's Monetary System (1822-30). Business and Economic History, 2d ser., 14 (1985): 125-38.
Charles A. Conant, The National Bank of Belgiumj (1910), posted on Internet Archive
Mining & Metal Industry Belgium Index, from Showcaves, lists a number of historic mines; De Eeuw van het Zwarte Goud (The Century of Black Gold), from HBVL, on the history of the Limburg mining industry (since 1901), in Dutch
Barbezat, Daniel. Belgian Domestic Steel Cartels and the Re-Rollers, 1933-38. Business and Economic History, 2d ser., 18 (1989): 218-27.
Paul Servais, Common Lands and Social Transformations : the Ardenne between 1750 and 1900, IEHC 2006
Textile Industry A Short History of Lace, from www.lace.tapestries.com
Belgium, from European Textile Network (historical sites)
Linnen in Vlaanderen, from Libeco, in Dutch
Others The Story of Belgian Chocolate, by Ml. Hendricks; Homage to Belgian Chocolate, by Greta Inowrocki (historical account)
History of Gem Cutting Regions : Antwerp, from khulsey.com
Belgian Breweries - Their History, Their Beers, from European Beer Guide
De agro-alimentaire nijverheid in België (1890-1980), from Centrum Agrarische Geschiedenis, in Dutch
Social History Ontwikkeling van het Kinderwelzijn in Vlaanderen (Development of Child Welfare in Flanders), by Eric Zwysen, in Dutch
History of the Belgian Social Security System, from fgov.be, in French (1907-)
Annelies Cattrysse, The positie van de vrouw op de (Belgische) arbeidsmarkt (The position of the (Belgian) woman on the labour market), thesis Cath. Univ. Leuven 2004
Claire Quetelet, De evolutie van de levensverwachting in Belgie, 18de - 20ste eeuw (The Evolution of Life Expectancy in Belgium, from the 18th to the 20th century), thesis Univ. Gent 2005, in Dutch
United States. War Labor Policies Board, Report on Labor Situation in Belgium (c.1919), posted on Internet Archive
E. Young, Labor in Europe and America; a special report on the rates of wages, the cost of subsistence, and the condition of the working classes in Great Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, and other countries of Europe, also in the United States and British America 1875, IA
L. Varlez, Belgique: Economie social, 1901, in French, IA
E. Engle, Die Lebenskosten belgischer Arbeiter-Familien, früher und jetzt 1895, IA
Ethnography Languages of Belgium, from Ethnologue
Le francais en Wallonie et a Bruxelles aux XVIIe. et XVIIIe. siecles (French language in Wallonia and Brussels in the 17th, 18th Century), by Daniel Drioxhe, goes beyond title; in French, explains how French became the dominant language in Belgium
Die Flämische Nationalbewegung, by Lode Wils, in German
Article Languages of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Article Demographics of Belgium, from Wikipedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Belgium
Laurence Schram, Case Studies : The Transit Camp for Jews in Mechelen: The Antechamber of Death , from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Belgium, pp.151-380 in vol.1B of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion General Article Religion in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Category Religion in Belgium, from Wikipedia
The Various Christian Communities in Belgium, from Wederkerigheid, with contact addresses, brief histories etc.
Catholic Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Belgium, from Kirken i Norge
Belgium, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
Patron Saint Index : Antwerp
Societe des Bollandistes, History
Article : Beguinages flamands, from Wikipedia French edition
La Belgique Judiciaire, De la suppression des anciens beguinages, 1862, in French, GB
E.H. Michelsen, Modern jesuitism; or, The movements and vicissitudes of the Jesuits in the nineteenth century, in Russia, England, Belgium, France, Switzerland, and other parts 1855, IA
Article : Basilica of Our Lady of Scherpenheuvel (early 17th century pilgrimage site), from Wikipedia
Protestant 150 Jaar Protestants Leven in Belgie (150 Years Protestants' Life in Belgium), a text published in 1980; posted by E. M. Braekman, in Dutch
Historique, from Site du Protestantisme Belge
Jewish Alden Oreck, Jewish Virtual History Tour : Belgium, from Jewish Virtual Library; Belgium, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Muslim Article : Islam in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Historique du Conseil, from Le Conseil Sup?ieur des Musulmans de Belgique, in French
History of Regions general Geschiedenis (History), from Provincie Oost-Vlaanderen, has chapters on the history of political parties, in Dutch
Provinces, Arrondissements of Belgium, from www.statoids.com
Article Provinces of Belgium; Category : Subdivisions of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Walloon Region History of Wallonia, from Gateway to the Walloon Region; from Wikipedia French edition; from Wikipedia English edition; from Wikipedia Dutch edition; from Institut Destree, in French
Histoire - Historiographie : Quelle Wallonie, from Institut Destree, in French
Flemish Region Article : Fremish Region, from Wikipedia, Vlaams Gewest, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Local History Marcel Huon, Parochiekroniek van O.L.Vrouwparochie van Diest (Parish Chronicle of St. Mary's in Diest), posted by Pierre Trouillez; while local history, a lot of details on Belgian history in general; scroll down, in Dutch
Articles : Aalst : History, Antwerp : History (Antwerpen), Ath : History, Bastogne : History, Bruges : History (Brugge), Brussels : History, Charleroi : History, Ghent : History (Gent), Liege : History, Mons : History, Namur : History, Ostend : History (Oostende), Ypres : History (Ieper), from Wikipedia
Institutions Transportation Category : Transport in Belgium, from Wikipedia
CANALS : Articles Brussels-Charleroi Canal : History, Ghent-Terneuzen Canal : History, Category : Canals in Belgium, from Wikipedia; List of Waterways : Belgium, from Wikipedia
RAILROADS : The Belgian Railroad System, by Mario Boone; Article Nationale Maatschappij der Belgische Spoorwegen (History of the National Belgian Railroads), from Wikipedia Dutch edition; from B-Rail, in Dutch; Edward Dobson, An Historical, Statistical, and Scientific Account of the Railways of Belgium from 1834 to 1842 (1843), posted on Internet Archive
Article : Iron Rhine, from Wikipedia
AIRLINES : History of Flight : Belgium, from Flight 100; Belgium, from Airline History; A Short History of Aviation in Belgium, from BAHA
Academic Institutions Category : Education in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Category : Research Institutes in Belgium, from Wikipedia
The Royal Belgian Academy of Sciences, from MacTutor
Edifices Structurae : Belgium; Search Lighthouse Explorer for Belgium
Broadcasting Radio Vlaanderen Internationaal, History, in English; History of Broadcasting in Belgium, from The Broadcast Archive
Article : Television in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Culture Articles Flemish Language, Walloon Language : History, from Wikipedia
Article Flemish Literature, from Wikipedia
A Brief History of Belgian Pop Music, from The Belgian Pop and Rock Archives
Articles Sport in Belgium, Belgium at the Olympics, Football in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Article : Belgian Cuisine, from Wikipedia
The Belgiam War Press, CEGES / SOMA
A. Heymans, De ecclesiastica librorum aliorumque scriptorum in Belgio prohibitione 1849, in Latin, GB
Biographies Standard Works of Reference Biographie Nationale [Belgium], vol.2 1868, vol.3 1872, vol.5 1876, vol.12 1893, vol.17 1903, in French, posted on Internet Archive; volumes 1 - 44 as well as Nouveau Biographie Nationale vol.1 - 8, 1866 -2005 posted by Academie Royale de Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique
J. Pauwels de Vis, Dictionnaire biographique des Belges: hommes et femmes, morts et vivants ... Suivi d'une notice sur diverses puissances de l'Europe, avec la chronologie de leurs souverains single vol., 1848, in French, GB
Web Compilations, General List of Belgians, from Wikipedia
List of terms and biographies on Belgian History, by Pieter Vervat, in Dutch
Specialized Compilations Biographies of Belgian and Luxemburgian Saints, from Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon, in German; Famous Belgians, 247 English-language biographies; Dictionnaire des Personalites, from Brabant Wallon
Belgian painters, from Olga's Gallery
Nobel Laureates by Country : Belgium, from Wikipedia
Others Notable events in the meteorological history of the Province of Antwerp, from meteo.be; in Dutch; other provinces clickable
History of the Belgian Vegetarian Societies, from IVU
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Belgium
200 Years of Freemasonry in Antwerp, by Christian David Rom (1984)
Category Disasters in Belgium, from Wikipedia

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies, scroll down for Belgium; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Titles of European Rulers : Belgium
History of the Belgian Dynasty illustrated by stamps, from Nielse Hobby- en Postzegelclub, in Dutch
List of Prime Ministers of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Article Monarchy of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Categorie : Lijsten van Belgische Ministers, Lijst van Belgische Ministers van Staat, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Lists of Ambassadors to Belgium List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Belgium (1600-) 1830-, from Wikipedia
La France en Belgique, Liste chronologique des ambassadeurs (1831-), from Ambafrance
Liste der deutschen Botschafter : Brüssel, from Wikipedia German edition (1920- )
Lijst van apostolische nuntii voor Belgie (1830-), from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Ambassador of Russia to Belgium (1853-), from Wikipedia
Embajadores de Mexico en Belgica (1828-), from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
Chinese Ambassadors to the Belgium (1973-), from PRC MOFA
Lijst van Japanse diplomatieke vertegenwoordigers in België (1873-), from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Article : United States Ambassadors to Belgium (1832-), from Wikipedia
Canadian Ambassadors to Belgium 1938-, from MOFA Canada
Lists of Ambassadors of Belgium List of Belgian Ambassadors to the United States, from Wikipedia
Article : Belgian Ambassafor to the Holy See, from Wikipedia
Lijst van Belgische diplomatieke vertegenwoordigers in Japan (1868-2009), from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Lists of Bishops Lijst van Aartsbisschoppen van Mechelen, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
List of Bishops and Prince-Bishops of Liege, from Wikipedia
List of Bishops of Ghent, from Wikipedia
Lijst van Bisschoppen van Antwerpen, van Brugge, van Hasselt, van Ieper (Ypres), van Namen (Namur), from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Statistics Belgium
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Belgium, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Historical Abortion Statistics : Belgium, from Johnston's Archive
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Federal Reserve (U.S.) : Foreign Exchange Rates, Historic
Inflation Rates Historical Inflation Rates, from Index Mundi, since 2000
Global Rates : Inflatie Belgie, graph has data since 1955
Election Results from Psephos (since 1995); from IFES Election Guide (since 1997); from Electoral Grography
Belgian Elections since 1830, in French and Dutch
Schets van de evolutie der belgische kieswetgeving (Survey of the Evolution of Belgian Electoral Law), from Directie van Verkiezingen, in Dutch
Belgium, from Elections and Electoral Systems
Kiessysteem (Electoral System), Kiesresultaten (Election results, since 1995), from Belgische Senaat
Article Elections in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Lijphart Election Archives Publications : Belgium
List of Elections held in Belgium since 1830, from Bormshuis, in Dutch
ODIS Election Results 1836-2006, Dutch language site
IPU Parline Database, Belgium, Chambre des Representatives, Historical Archive of Parliamentary Election Results 1968-2007
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes Flare, Union List of Official Gazettes : Belgium
Belgisch Staatsblad / Moniteur Belge : see Wikipedia Article (Dutch edition) : Belgisch Staatsblad recent issues, in Dutch / French
Hemerotheques Kranten (Newspapers), from Belgica
Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers], scroll down for Belgium
Specific Newspapers Gazette van Gend, 1796, 1798, 1806, 1819, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1824, 1825, 1833, 1836, 1837, GB
Selected Articles The History of the Kingdom of Belgium, from World History Archives (Selection of Recent Newspaper Articles on Belgium, in English)
Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, articles pertaining to WW I and its impact on Belgium, compiled by Geschiedkundige Heruitgeverij, in Dutch, vol.1, Aug. 1-8 1914, in Dutch; index online
Digitale Krantenarchief Aalst
Syndicale Pers Online
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Indexes and Guides to Western European Periodicals: Language Specific-Dutch, from Wess Web
Staatskalender Belgien : Staatskalender : Digitalisate, from GenWiki
Online Yearbooks - Belgium Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Entry : Belgium vol.1 1864 pp.22-35, GB, vol.2 1865 pp.24-39, GB, vol.3 1866 pp.28-44, GB, vol.4 1867 pp.30-47, GB, vol.5 1868 pp.30-47, GB, vol.6 1869 pp.30-47, GB
Newsreels Actualites Cinematographiques Belgavox, 1945-1994, described by Wikipedia French edition
Propaganda Films George C. Marshall Motion Pictures
Films on History/Society Several Belgian Film Archives linked by National Film Preservation Board (U.S.)
Filmarchives Online (Europe-wide)
Article : Cinema of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Belgium, from Cinema of the World
List of Belgian Films Pre 1960, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, from Wikipedia; Belgian Film, from IMDb
Belgian Television Archives History
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Belgische Historische Postkaarten, Fotos en Prenten, UGent
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Photos of Belgian historical monuments, by Jean Servais Henri Colemonts
Beeldbank Mechelen (Image Bank Mechelen & environs); Beeldbank Brugge, Beeldbank Gent, Beeldbank Oostende, Beeldbank Hoogstraeten, Beeldbank West-Vlaanderen, Beeldbank Waasland, Beeldbank Haven van Antwerpen, comment in Dutch
EVA, European Visual Archive, currently 16,956 digitized and commented photographs from Stadsarchief Antwerpen and London Metropolitan Archives
Gazet van Antwerpen, Een Eeuw in Beeld (A Century in Pictures, posted by the Antwerp Gazette), a rich source of images; same title, from Het Belang van Limburg
Historic Photos by Chusseau Flaviens - Belgium, from Photography Collections Online, posted by George Eastman House, Ryerson Univ., Toronto
ABLDepot, lots of illustrations on Belgian military history (mainly WW I, WW II), comment in Dutch
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons : Belgium
Universal Collections
Items on Belgium
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports, scroll down
Airline Timetable Images : Belgium
Election Posters, from SP (Socialist Party; comment in Dutch; since 1912)
Historic Postcards Belgium, from universiteitsbibliotheek Gent
Archival Deposits Digital Archive Cegesoma
Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken (Mofa, NL ; enter "Belgie" in field : "Lijst samenstellen op land of regio", 14 entries; sources posted in Dutch language
Register of the Commission for Relief in Belgium Records, 1914-1930, 1939-1947, from Hoover Institution
Guide to the Hoover Institution Archives 1980, GB ; search for Belgium
Constitutions, Laws Internet Law Library : Belgium
Wetgeving - Legislation, from e-justice
Verfassungen Belgiens (Constitutions of Belgium), from Verfassungen.de, in German; Search Prassi Italiana di Dirito Internazionale, Indice delle leggi e degli altri atti normativi, for Belgio, 75 entries, in Italian
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Belgium, from ILO, 90 docs. since 1919
Constitution de la Belgique, 1831, in French, GB
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections Base de donnees traites, from diplomatie.be (since 1987)
Recueil des traites et conventions concernant le royaume de Belgique, vol.1 1850, vol.2 1854, vol.3 1859, vol.4 1862, vol.5 1864, vol.6 1866, in French, posted on Google Books
Traites ratifies par la Belgique, from Centre de droit international, Universite libre de Bruxelles
Australian Treaty Series : Bilateral Treaties - Belgium
Ch.P. Sanger, H.T.J. Norton, England's guarantee to Belgium and Luxemburg, with the full text of the treaties, 1915, posted on Internet Archive
Belgium, pp.448-709 in vol.5 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1976, GB
Belgien, pp.31-34 in Johann Vesque von P?tlingen, Uebersicht der Verträge Oesterreichs mit den auswärtigen Staaten, 1854, in German, GB
Document Surveys British Library, Social Sciences Collection Guides, Belgian Government Documents
Document Collections European History Primary Sources : Belgium
Primary Documents : Belgium, from Eurodocs; from psm-data; from Historische Teksten (in Dutch); Documents relatifs au duche de Bouillon, 1484-1825, from Heraldica, many document excerpts pertaining to Bouillon, in French
Joseph Hansen, Rheinische Akten zur Geschichte des Jesuitenordens, 1542-1582, 1896, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Camille Wampach (ed.), Urkunden- und Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der altluxemburgischen Territorien bis zur burgundischen Zeit., 10 volumes 1935-1955, in German, posted by Luxemburgensia Online
Protocols of Conferences in London, Relative to the Affairs of Belgium pt.1 : 1830-1831, 1832, GB
Minute Books, Belgische Werkliedenpartij 1892-1940, posted by Amsab
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Map Agencies, Institut Geographique National (IGNB)
collections click here
Atlas of Belgium, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Old Maps of Belgium, Maps of the History of Belgium, Wikimedia Commons
Historic City Maps : Belgium, from Discus Media
Historical Maps, from Belgica
Belgium Maps, PCL, UTexas
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Belgium
Belgium, hindsight
Belgium, contemporary Belgian territorial claims 1919, from Wikimedia
Belgium 1875, 1890, 1904, 1906, 1922, 1932, 1938, Relief and Coalfields 1932, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary City Panoramas 1750, from Historic Maps, Gent, Ostende
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article Belgium, Flanders, Brabant, Hainaut, Namur (Prov.), Liege (Prov.), Luxemburg, Limburg, Antwerp (Prov.), Brussels, Antwerpen, Malines (Mechelen), Louvain (Leuven), Ghent, Alost (Aalst), Bruges (Brugge), Ypres (Ieper), Ostend, Charleroi, Mons, Namur, Liege, Eupen, Malmedy, from EB 1911
Articles Belgien, Flandern, Brabant, Namur, Hennegau (Hainaut), Luxemburg, Lüttich (Liege), Limburg, Antwerpen, Brüssel, Ostende, Mecheln, Ypern, Brügge, Gent, Charleroi, Löwen, Eupen, Malmedy, Bastogne, Stavelot, Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Articles Belgien, Flandern, Brabant, Namur, Hennegau, Luxemburg (Prov.), Limburg, Antwerpen, Brüssel, Bastogne, Brügge, Charleroi, Gent, Eupen, Löwen, Malmedy, Mecheln, Ostende, Stavelot, Ypern, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 1894-1896, in German
Religious from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1908 edition
Belgium, from New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Antwerpen, Brüssel, Lüttich, posted by DTBSWS
Belgien, pp.473-475 in A. Moser, Die Capitalanlage in Werthpapieren der Staaten, Creditvereine und Actiengesellschaften des In- und Auslandes, 1862, in German, GB
Geographical Die Königreiche Belgien, Niederlande und Grossherzogtum Luxemburg, pp.87-107 in F. von Rudtorffer, Militär-Geographie von Europa, 1839, in German, GB
Holland and Belgium, pp.19-25 in Ch. R. Maxwell, An epitome of the military geography of Europe, 1850, GB
Belgium pp.159-165 in W. Hughes, A manual of geography, 1861, GB
Belgium, pp.254-258 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
French Region, pp.103-245 in Th. Lavallee, Physical, historical and military geography, 1868, GB
Belgium, pp.92-98 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c.1910, GB
Ethnographical Royaume de Belgique, pp.192-214 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Historical
Specialist Encyclopedias Article : Belgische Eisenbahnen, from Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopedia of Railroads) 2nd ed. 1912-1923, in German
Parliamentary Debates DATABASES
La Chambre des representants de Belgique, Annales parlementaires 1844/1845-
Senat de Belgique, Annales 1848-
SCANS OF PRINT EDITIONS
Discussions du Congres national de Belgique 1830-1831 1830-1831 vol.1, 1844, 1830-1831 vol.2, 1844, 1830-1831 vol.3, 1844, 1830-1831 vol.4, 1844, 1830-1831 vol.5, 1845, in French, GB
Annales parlementaires de Belgique, Chambre des Representants 1849-1850 1850 1850-1851, 1851, 1851-1852, 1852, 1853-1854, 1854, 1855-1856, 1856, in French, GB
Annales parlementaires de Belgique, Senat 1849-1850, 1850, 1850-1851, 1851, 1851-1852, 1852, 1852-1853 1853, 1853-1854, 1854, 1854-1855, 1855, 1855-1856, 1856, in French, GB
Minutes of Cabinet Meetings Described on WWW Virtual Library Primary Sources : Belgium, link does not work (Jan 1 2011)
Tour Guides Galignani's traveller's guide through Holland and Belgium, 1822, GB
E. Boyce, The Belgian traveller, being a complete guide through Belgium and Holland, 1827, GB
J.M.V. Audin, Guide classique du voyageur en France et en Belgique, 1834, in French, GB
The traveller's guide through Belgium, or new and complete geographical, historical, and picturesque account of that country, 1835, GB
A.F. de Tourettes, Guide pittoresque et artistique du voyageur en Belgique, 1838, in French, GB
J. Duplessy, Le Guide indispensable du voyageur sur les chemins de fer de la Belgique, 1845, in French, GB
Murray's handbook for Belgium and the Rhine, 1852, GB
Bradshaw's illustrated hand-book for travellers in Belgium, on the Rhine, and through portions of Rhenish Prussia, 1856, GB
W.H.J. Weale, Belgium, Aix-la-Chapelle and Cologne: an entirely new guide book for travellers, with numerous historical and archaeological notes, 1859, GB
K. Baedeker, Belgium and Holland: Handbook for travellers, 1869, GB
Travelogues Diary of occurrences on a journey through a part of Belgium: Holland, and up the Rhine to Mayence, and thence to Paris in the months of August and September 1828, 1829, GB
F.M. Trollope, Belgium and Western Germany in 1833, 1835, GB
Others Legenden en Sagen van Belgie, in Dutch
Exhibition Catalogues Exposition des Produits de l'Industrie Belge a Bruxelles 1841, Cataslogue, GB
Official Catalogue of the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations 1851, GB; Belgium pp.206-213
Official Catalogue of the New York Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations 1853, GB; Belgium pp.141-143
Exposition Universelle Paris 1855, Catalogue Officiel, 1855, IA, Belgium participating
Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB; Belgium pp.150-164
Official Catalogue : Dublin International Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures 1865 1865, BSB; Belgium pp.77-82
W. Hamm, Illustrirter Katalog der Pariser Industrie-Ausstellung von 1867, 1868, GB; 6 Belgium entries
International Exhibition 1876, Official Catalogue vol.1, vol.2, Belgium represented; IA
L'exposition d'Amsterdam et la Belgique aux Pays-Bas : ouvrage dedie a S.M. le Roi Leopold II avec son autorisation, 1883, in French, IA
Exposition universelle d'Anvers 1885, 1885, IA
Guide-album illustre de l'Exposition universelle Bruxelles-Tervueren 1897, IA
Exposition universelle internationale de 1900 a Paris: Section Belge. Catalogue officiel 1900, in French, IA
Belgium, Commission to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition 1915, Catalogue IA
Institutions Archives State Archives in Belgium, from arch.arch.be
Archives de la Chambre des Representants de Belgique
Liberaal Archief (Archive of the Liberal Movement in Belgium; in Dutch)
Musea Lists, Links Category : Museums in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Musea, from research.be
Links from Vrije Universiteit Brussel (musea etc.)
Musea Museum Websites Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and of Military History, Brussels, Belgium
Royal Museum for Central Africa
Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis
Le Musee Lanchelevici, La Louviere, Belgium
Monuments Category : Monuments and memorials in Belgium, from Wikipedia
UNESCO World Heritage Site, List (search for Belgium), Tentative Lists : Belgium
Libraries Libraries in Belgium, from LibDex
History of the Belgian National Library, from The European Library
Royal Library of Belgium, site in French / Dutch
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Belgium, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Collection of 71 Coins from France, Brabant etc., 12th to 21st century, from Money Museum
Coins of modern Belgium, from Coin Pictures
Search Coin Archives for Belgium
Coins and Medals, from Belgica
Stamps Rare Belgian Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Belgium. survey of bibliographies Overview of Bibliographies : Bibliographie, from Universite de Liege in French; strong on Belgium, historic predecessors and adjacent regions
general bibliographies Bibliographie de l'histoire de Belgique, IA
Pirenne, Bibliographie de l'histoire de Belgique, 2nd ed. 1902, IA Gallica
pp.183-302 in Robert Stallaerts, Historical Dictionary of Belgium, London : Scarecrow 1999, 303 pp.; print, KMLA Library R 949.3 S782h
annual bibliographies Revue Belge de philologie et d'histoire (magazine site, access through Persee) : Bibliographie de l'histoire de Belgique - Bibliografie van de geschiedenis van België. since 1922; every issue has a "bibliographique" section; online issues until 2007 (as of Apr. 7 2012). Persee
specialist bibliographies Centre Jean Gol, Bibliographie du Liberalisme en Belgique
C.V. de Bavay, Bibliographie : histoire de la Revolution belge de 1830 , 1873, Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique, Belgica
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jewish Resistance Library, Bibliography - Belgium
Suggesties voor Verhandelingen (suggestions for doctoral theses), from KADOC, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, in Dutch
ODIS, Onderzoekssteunpunt Databank Intermediaire Structuren Vlaanderen 19e -20e eeuw (Research support databank intermediary structures Flanders, 19th-20th century); rich source of information
serial publications Commission Royale d'Histoire : Publications
Academie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Publications
Academie Royale d'Archeologie de Belgique, Publications
CRISP, Centre de Recheche et d'Information Socio-Politiques Catalogue-en-ligne
Musee Royal d'Armee et d'Histoire Militaire, Publications
Centre National d'Histoire des Sciences (CNHS), Publications
Archives d'Etat de Belgique, Publications
Royal Museum for Central Africa, RMCA Publications
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
on Belgium Belgica, Digital Library of the Kingdom of Belgium
La Digitheque des Bibliotheques de l'Universite Libre de Bruxelles
Thesis Server E-Thesis, Licentiaatsverhandelingen on-line (doctoral theses online; Belgian, on history only, in Dutch)
University of Liege, ORBi - Open Repository Bibliography; Theses et E-Prints
Online Journals full text online Revue belge de Philologie et d'Histoire 1922-2007, Persee
Tijdschrift voor Sociale en Economische Geschiedenis 2004-2009
Revue Belge d'Histoire Contemporaine, 1969-
Bibliotheque de l'Ecole des Chartes 1840-
Annuaire statistique et historique belge, 1854, IA, 1855, GB, 1856, GB, 1857, GB, 1858, GB, 1860, IA, 1861, IA, 1862, IA, 1863, IA, 1864, IA, 1865, IA, 1866, GB, 1867, IA, in French
Table of Contents
Online
Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire, 1922-
Zeitschriftenmagazin : Zeitschrift des Eupener Geschichtsvereins (Bulletin de la Societe Eupenoise d'Historique) 1951-1956, posted by S. Jenks
General Accounts J.C.H. Blom and E. Lamberts, History of the Low Countries, N.Y.: Berghahn 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 949.3 B653h
Article Belgium. from Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Vol.14 (Macropaedia) pp.857-871, KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 032 B862h v.14
Eric Vanneufville, Le Coq et le Lion, book review by Malte Woydt, in German
Dorothy Loder, The Land and People of Belgium, Philadelphia : Lippincott (1957) revised edition 1973 [G]
Atlas Culturel et Historique de Belgique, Bruxelles : Elsevier 1954, richly illustrated, in French [G]
H.P.H. Jansen, Kalendarium Geschiedenis van de Lage Landen in Jaartallen (History of the Low Countries Year by Year), Utrecht/Antwerpen : Het Spektrum (1971) 4th print 1979, 271 pp., in Dutch [G]
Demetrius C. Boulger, The History of Belgium, 2 parts, Elibron Classics (1902) 2005, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 949.3 B763h
Economic, Social History J.A. van Houtte, Schets van een Economische Geschiedenis van Belgie, Leuven : Universitas 1943, 267 pp., in Dutch, [G]
Document Editions Memo from Belgium : Documents Illustrating the History of Belgium, ed. Th. Maes et al., Brussels : Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2 volumes, 1978, in total 324 documents in English translation, from the Stone Age to recent times
Historical Dictionary Grande Encyclopedie de la Belgique et du Congo, Bruxelles, Vol.1, 1938, illustrated, 676 pp., in French; not actually an encyclopedia, but a country study; in contradiction to the title, not on the Congo.
Robert Stallaerts, Historical Dictionary of Belgium, London : Scarecrow 1999, 303 pp.; KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 949.3 S782h