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First posted on March 23rd 2002; last revised on January 7th 2011

The County of Luxemburg (within the Duchy of Lotharingia) was first mentioned in 963. In 1308, Count Heinrich von Luxemburg was elected Roman king, in 1312 crowned Emperor; he died in 1313. His son Johann in 1310 was crowned King of Bohemia and established the Luxemburg Dynasty in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (capital Prague, until 1437). Johann's son Karl in 1348 was elected Roman king (Karl IV., -1378); the Luxemburg dynasty (centered on Prague) held on to the crown and the claim on the title of Emperor until 1437. In 1434, the County of Luxemburg was elevated to Duchy of Luxemburg.
In 1443 the Luxemburgian line extinguished, and the Duchy of Luxemburg was added to the Burgundian Lands. Following the death of Burgundian Duke Charles the Bold in 1477, the bulk of the Burgundian inheritance, including the Duchy of Luxemburg, fell to the Habsburg Dynasty. When the Habsburg possessions were partitioned in 1558, the Duchy of Luxemburg, together with the other Habsburg territories in the Netherlands, fell to the Spanish line.
Under Habsburg rule, the Inquisition made sure that the population remained Catholic. While the Duchy of Luxemburg was one of the larger territories of the Habsburg Netherlands, it was also one of the poorest. During the Dutch Revolt and War of Independence (1579-1648), Luxemburg did not get involved in the rebellion and Luxemburg was a secure Spanish stronghold.
From 1659 to 1713, Luxemburg was part of the Spanish Netherlands, and threatened by French expansionism. In 1659 Spain already ceded part of Luxemburg territory (Thionville) to France. From 1713 to 1797, Luxemburg belonged to the Austrian Netherlands. From 1795/1797 to 1814/1815 Luxemburg was part of France.. In 1815, parts of Luxemburg territory were ceded to France. and to Prussia. From 1815 to 1839, Luxemburg was part of the Kingdom of the United Netherlands. The secession of Belgium in 1830/1839 caused the partition of Luxemburg into the Belgian province by that name, and into the Grand Duchy, which was declared an independent state in personal union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Luxemburg, historically a part of the Holy Roman Empire (until 1806), in 1815 joined the German Federation. French efforts in 1867 to annex Luxemburg were foiled when Bismarck sent Prussian troops to occupy the fortress of Luxemburg; the international status of Luxemburg was confirmed by treaty. In 1890 the Personal Union of Luxemburg and the Netherlands was dissolved, and Luxemburg became an independent Grand Duchy.
The development of transportation technology and machinery made possible the flourishing of the Luxemburg mining and steel industry in the later half of the 19th century.
In 1914 and again in 1940, Luxemburg was invaded and occupied by German troops; in 1944/1945 the Battle of the Bulge was fought partly on Luxemburg territory. After World War II, Luxemburg joined Benelux, NATO and the ECSC/EEC/EC/EU.

For areas the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg lost in 1659, 1815 respectively 1839 see Alsace-Lorraine 1871-1914, Luxembourg (Belgian Province, 1839-), Rheinprovinz (Prussia/Germany 1815-1945), Saarland (Saargebiet, Germany 1919-), Rheinland-Pfalz (FRG, 1946-)

Military History : The Luxemburg Peasants' War 1798
Historical Atlas : Luxemburg Page

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Military History Economic History Ethnography
History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook Country : Luxembourg
Links, General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World
Links, on History from Virtual Library History; from Virtual Library Women's History; from European Navigator
Portals Portail Grand Duche de Luxembourg
Geschichte Luxemburgs, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Timeline of Luxemburg history from timelines.ws, data collected from US newspapers; from BBC News
Accounts of History general Over a thousand years of history, from ONT; Geschichte Luxemburgs, from Spiegel Almanach, in German; Histoire du Luxembourg, by Marie-Lan Nguyen, detailed
The Nationhood of Luxemburg, by Gilbert Trausch
Tout savoir sur le Luxembourg - histoire, monarchie et symboles nationaux, from Le Gouvernement de Grand Duche de Luxembourg
from Wikipedia
THEWES, Guy. A propos... Histoire du Grand-Duche de Luxembourg (20 pages, illustrated, in French 2008)
Article : History of Luxemburg, from Wikipedia; Article : Geschichte Luxemburgs, from Wikipedia German ed.
Article : Luxemburg, in GenWiki, in German
Accounts of History on Specific Periods Pit Peporte, The creation of medieval history in Luxembourg, thesis Edinburgh 2008
Politics Article Politics of Luxembourg, from Wikipedia
Political Resources on the Net : Luxemburg
C.F. Littell, The neutralization of states; a study in diplomatic history and international law, 1920, IA; pp.45-53 on Luxemburg
Military The Luxembourg Army, from National Museum of Military History, history
Economy & Finances Currency & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Luxembourg
Monetary History, from Banque Centrale du Luxembourg
Economy & Finances Economic Institutions Historique, from Chambre de Commerce de Luxembourg
History, from Luxemburg Stock Exchange
Economy & Finances Mining & Metal Industry History of Arcelor; History of Arcelor Mittal
Luxembourg, from Showcaves
Company History : Arbed S.A., from Funding Universe
Economy & Finances Others Luxemburg Breweries : Styles, History, Beers, from European Beer Guide
Article Arbed, from Wikipedia; History of History, from RTL Group
Company History : Societe Luxembourgeoise de Navigation Aerienne S.A., Cargolux Airlines International S.A., from Funding Universe
Luxemburg Grossfürstentum Luxemburg, pp.120-121 in A. Judeich, Die Grundentlastung in Deutschland, 1863, in German, GB
Ethnography Languages of Luxembourg, from Ethnologue; Languages in Luxemburg, from www.gouvernement.lu
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Luxembourg
Luxemburg, pp.3373-3382 in vol.5A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Luxemburg, from Kirken i Norge
Die Kirche im Grossherzogtum Luxemburg, ein geschichtlicher Überblick, by Georges Heilinghausen (The Church in the Grand Duchy of L., a historical survey), in German
Luxembourg, from Jewish Virtual History Tour; Luxembourg, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Die Muslime und der Islam im Grossherzogtum Luxemburg - Geschichte, öffentlich-rechtlicher Status, Gruppen und Demografie, in German
Alexis Pauly, State and Church in Luxemburg, 2001
Local History currently in Luxemburg History of Luxembourg (City), from Wikipedia
Article : Echternach, from Wikipedia
Local History which used to belong
to Luxemburg
Article : Thionville, from Wikipedia, from Wikipedia German ed.
Article : Arlon, from Wikipedia, from Wikipedia German ed.
Article : Bastogne, from Wikipedia, from Wikipedia German ed., from Wikipedia French ed.
Institutions History of Radio Luxembourg, from Wikipedia; History, from RTL Group
History of the National Library of Luxembourg
History of GLCCA (Luxembourg Air Traffic Control); Luxembourg, from Airline History
Structurae : Luxembourg
Culture Article Luxembourgisch Language, from Wikipedia
Biographies Standard Works of Reference Biographie nationale du pays de Luxembourg, from Luxemburgensia Online
Biographie Luxembourgeoise: histoire des hommes distingues originaires de ce pays considere a l'epoque de sa plus grande etendue vol.1, 1860, vol.2, 1861, in French, GB
Web Compilations, General Famous Luxembourgers, from Nations Encyclopedia
Specialized Compilations Biographies of Belgian and Luxemburgian Saints, from Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon, in German; lists 5 Lux. places
Others Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Luxembourg
Category : Disasters in Luxembourg, from Wikipedia
Articles Luxembourg at the Olympics, Sport in Luxembourg, from Wikipedia

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies, scroll down for Luxemburg; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Titles of European Rulers : Luxembourg
Lists of Ambassadors Heads of Canadian Legation / Embassy in Luxemburg (since 1944), from MOFA Canada
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Statistics Portal, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Luxemburg, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Historical Abortion Statistics : Luxembourg, from Johnston's Archive
Population Luxemburg 1815-1914, from HGIS
Inflation Rates Historical Inflation Rates, from Index Mundi, since 2000
Election Results Election Results, from Psephos (since 1999); from IFES Election Guide (since 1999), from Electoral Geography 2.0
Luxembourg, from Elections and Electoral Systems
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes Flare, Union List of Official Gazettes : Luxembourg
Memorial du Grand Duche de Luxembourg, Memorial A 1617-, Memorial B 1854-, Memorial C 1996-, LegiLux
Hemerotheques Quotidiens et Hebdomaires, from Luxemburgensia Online; rich material particularly for the 18th century; some titles in German, some in French
Eluxemburgensia, newspapers 1848-1950
Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers], scroll down for Luxemburg
Modern Newspapers links from World Newspapers
Online Yearbooks - Luxemburg Entries
Propaganda Films George C. Marshall Motion Pictures
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Bibliotheque nationale de Luxembourg, Luxemburgensia Online : Cartes Postales
Systematic Collections
(Historical) Luxemburg Postcards, posted by Gary Little
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons : Luxemburg
Universal Collections
Items on Luxemburg
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports, scroll down
Luxembourg Tourist Posters, from Luxembourg Centrral
Airline Timetable Images : Luxemburg
Archival Deposits Archives Nationales du Grand Duche de Luxembourg, Les documents historiques d'avant 1880, French language site
Constitutions Verfassungen des Grossherzogtums Luxemburg (Constitutions of the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg), from verfassungen.de, in German
Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Luxemburg, from ILO, 75 docs. since 1920
Internet Law Library : Luxemburg
M.N.J. Leclercq, Coutumes des pays, duch?de Luxembourg et comt?de Chiny vol.2 1869, in French, Gb
Luxembourg p.131 in C. Berroyer, Biblioth?ue des coutumes, 1699 (bibliography of law codes), in French, GB
LegiLux, portail juridique du Gouvernement du Grand-Duch?de Luxembourg sur Internet
Treaties General Treaty Collections European Navigator, many documents mainly on post WW II / European Integration
Bilateral Treaty Collections Luxemburg, pp.694-741 in vol.9 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1972, GB
Document Surveys British Library, Social Sciences Collection Guides, Luxembourg Government Documents
Document Collections European History Primary Sources : Luxemburg
from Eurodocs; from psm-data
Joseph Hansen, Rheinische Akten zur Geschichte des Jesuitenordens, 1542-1582, 1896, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Camille Wampach (ed.), Urkunden- und Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der altluxemburgischen Territorien bis zur burgundischen Zeit., 10 volumes 1935-1955, in German, posted by Luxemburgensia Online
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Map Agencies, Administration du Cadastre et de la Topographie (ACT)
The National Geoportal of Luxembourg
collections click here
Gary Little, Antique Maps of Luxemburg, from Luxembourg Central
Discus Media : The 1900 Collection, Maps of Yesteryear, Luxembourg
Category : Old Maps of Luxembourg, Maps of the History of Luxembourg, Wikimedia Commons
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Luxembourg
Luxemburg, hindsight Map of the Duchy of Luxemburg in 1789, by Thomas Hoeckmann
Luxemburg, contemporary Historical Maps : Luxembourg, Germany [!], from History Map
Map Ducatus Luxemburg c.1750 by Seutter, posted by Garwood & Voigt, commercial site
Luxemburg 1922, 1932, 1938, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article Luxemburg, from EB 1911
Article Grossherzogtum Luxemburg (Grand Duchy of Luxemburg), from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Article Luxemburg, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Article Luxemburg, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
De Conventu Luxemburgensi pp.283-300 in B. de Jonghe, Belgium Dominicanum, 1719, in Latin, GB
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Luxemburg, posted by DTBSWS
Grossherzogtum Luxemburg und Limburg, pp.407-408 in A. Moser, Die Capitalanlage in Werthpapieren der Staaten, Creditvereine und Actiengesellschaften des In- und Auslandes, 1862, in German, GB
Geographical Die Königreiche Belgien, Niederlande und Grossherzogtum Luxemburg, pp.87-107 in F. von Rudtorffer, Militär-Geographie von Europa, 1839, in German, GB
Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, p.252 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Parliamentary Debates Chambre des Deputes du Grand Duche de Luxembourg, Compte-Rendu des Seances, 2002-
Institutions Archives Lists of Archives Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Luxembourg, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 1 entry
Historical Research in Europe, listing of archives; click Atlas Search, Luxemburg, 7 entries
Archives Individual Archives Archives Nationales de Luxembourg
Musea, Monuments Musee d'Histoire de la Ville de Luxembourg, Musee Nationale d'Histoire Militaire Diekirch, Musee National d'histoire et d'art, Luxembourg (MNHA)
Tentative List : Luxemburg, World Heritage List, scroll down for Luxembourg; from UNESCO World Heritage List
Libraries Bibliotheque Nationale de Luxembourg
Libraries in Luxembourg, from LibDex, 6 entries
History of the Luxemburg National Library, from The European Library
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Luxemburg, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Search Coin Archives for Luxemburg
Search Early Dated Coins for Luxemburg
Luxembourg, from Medieval Coinage
Stamps Rare Luxemburg Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Luxemburg Stamps 1852-1881, from Stamps Catalogue 1852-1881 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Luxemburg survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database Bibliographie Nationale Luxembourgeoise (1988-)
general bibliographies Michel Pauly, Cours d'introduction a l'Histoire luxembourgeoise I et II, Bibliographie pratique et sommaire par periodes historiques
M. Pauly, Bibliographie s?ective d'Histoire luxembourgeoise
Gary Little Luxembourg Bibliography (brief, emphasizes English language publications)
University of Sheffield Library, Luxembourg Collection
specialist bibliographies
serial publications Archives Nationales de Luxembourg, Publications
Publications, from Musee National d'histoire et d'art, Luxembourg
relevant to L.
Gesellschaft fuer Rheinische Geschichtskunde, Publikationen
Rheinland-Pfälzische Landesbibliographie, Pfaelzische Bibliographie (-1927), posted on dilibri
Belgian Bibliography, from the Royal Library at Brussels, in Dutch, in French
E-Thesis, Licentiaatsverhandelingen on-line (doctoral theses online; Belgian, on history only, in Dutch)
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
with relevance to L. GenWiki Digitale Bibliothek
Digitale Texte im Seminar für Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, Univ. Köln; many 19th century texts, mostly in German
Belgica, Digital Library of the Kingdom of Belgium
on Luxemburg Luxemburgensia Online
Online Journals full text online Verein für Luxemburger Geschichte, Litteratur und Kunst : Ons Hemecht Vol.9 1903, Vol.12 1906, in German, posted on Internet Archive
General Accounts
Historical Dictionaries Harry C. Barteau, Historical Dictionary of Luxembourg, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1996

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