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Dutch Republic Liege
First posted on February 4th 2010








From 1395 to 1477 the Dukes of Burgundy pursued the policy of "collecting" the various territories of the Netherlands under their rule, creating a polity which established institutions of central administration, the court in Brussels, the Grand Council in Mechelen (Malines), the university in Leuven (Louvain), while the various territories (the Duchies of Brabant, Limburg, Luxemburg, the Counties of Artois, Hainaut, Namur, Flanders, Zeeland, Holland) maintained a considerable degree of autonomy, defended by their territorial parliaments (Staten / Estates).
In 1477 Charles the Bold, the last of the Burgundian Dukes, died. His daughter Margaret married future Emperor Maximilian of Habsburg, and after her death the Burgundian Netherlands became the Habsburg Netherlands. Meanwhile the Habsburg administration continued the policy of "collecting" Dutch territories under their rule, adding Gelre, Utrecht, Overijssel, Drenthe, Groningen and Friesland to the list.
In 1556 Emperor Charles V., upon his retirement, divided the Habsburg possessions (which under him had been greatly increased) among his brother Ferdinand and his son Philip, thus creating the Austrian and the Spanish lines of the Habsburg Dynasty. The Netherlands were allocated to the Spanish Line.
King Philip II. resided in Madrid. In regard to the Netherlands, he pursued a policy of enforcing new taxation, of fighting Protestantism and of infringing on territorial priviliges. These policies provoked the Dutch Revolt, which evolved into the Durch War for Independence (1579-1648). It resulted in the Netherlands being split in the Northern Netherlands (Dutch Republic) and the Southern or Spanish Netherlands. The Spanish Netherlands (also referred to as "the Southern Netherlands), as of 1648, comprised of Flanders (except Dutch-occupied Staats Vlaanderen), Brabant (except for Dutch-occupied Noord Brabant), the Spanish-held parts of Limburg and Gelre, all of Artois, Hainaut, Namur and Luxemburg. The territory of the Spanish Netherlands was disected by the Prince-Bishopric of Liege, which isolated the territories of Limburg, Gelre and Luxemburg from the bulk.
From 1667 onward, the Spanish Netherlands became one of the prime targets of French expansionism; with Spain no longer being capable of defending its territories, the European powers created alliances to counter the French. In 1713, Spain ceded the Spanish Netherlands to Austria, the Spanish Netherlands thus becoming the Austrian Netherlands.

The Spanish Netherlands, 1600-1713
Reformation : Suppression of Protestantism
Unification of the Netherlands : The Habsburg Period, 1515-1580
Unification of the Netherlands : The Burgundian Period, 1384-1515
Middle Ages : The Netherlands before the Burgundians, 1300-1490
Middle Ages : The Netherlands and the Sea

Demographic History : Belgium
Historical Atlas : Belgium Page


Students' Paper : Lee, Eun Soo, Battleground Belgium (2008)
Students' Paper : Kang, Jun-suk, Comparative Urban History : Brugge, Antwerpen and Amsterdam (2008)







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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles current Southern Netherlands, from Wikipedia
Article Zuidelijke Nederlanden, Spaanse Nederlanden, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Article Pays-Bas Meridionaux, Pays-Bas Espagnols, from Wikipedia French edition
Article : Paises Bajos Espanoles, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
historical
Links, on History from Virtual Library History; Archeonet.BE
Category : History of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Timeline of Belgian History, from timelines.ws, detailed
Timeline of Burgundian and Habsburg acquisitions in the Low Countries, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History Note : for publications which cover the Spanish Netherlands as a chapter in the history of Belgium, see under Belgium
Southern Netherlands, from Wikipedia
Article Zuidelijke Nederlanden, Spaanse Nederlanden, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Article Pays-Bas Meridionaux, Pays-Bas Espagnols, from Wikipedia French edition
Article : Paises Bajos Espanoles, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
The Netherlands, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1911 edition, scroll down for extensive article on Spn. Netherlands
Specific Periods Article : Reorganisation religieuse des Pays-Bas espagnols, from Wikipedia French edition
Nestor Considerant, Histoire de la revolution du XVIme siecle dans les Pays-bas (1860; earlier in 1851 published under the title : Etudes sur la revolution du XVIme si?cle dans les Pays-bas espagnols, in French, posted on Internet Archive
E.E. Gossart, Espagnols et Flamands au XVIe siecle. L'etablissement du re?gime espagnol dans les Pays-Bas et l'insurrection, 1905, Espagnols et Flamands au 16e siecle : la domination espagnole dans les Pays-Bas a la fin du regne de Philippe II, 1906, posted on Internet Archive
Military Note : for publications which cover the Spanish Netherlands as a chapter in the history of Belgium, see under Belgium
De Bello Belgico (on Dutch Revolt)
Category Military History of Belgium, from Wikipedia
The War of the Grand Alliance (1688-1697) and the Battle of Steenkerke 1692, from Iain Kerr's Home Page
The Battle of Blenheim 1704, Chapter XI from Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World, by Edward Shepherd Creasy, posted by Pierre Sandboge
Economy & Finances Note : for publications which cover the Spanish Netherlands as a chapter in the history of Belgium, see under Belgium
A Global History of Currencies : Belgium
Histoire de la Numismatique et de la Monnaie en Belgique; Tot de Laatste Frank (Until the Last Franc), by K. Driessens, history of money in Belgium, in Dutch, richly illustrated
Spanish Netherlands, Coin History 1598-1621, by Marc Nollet
Antwerp : the Stock Exchange, from Trabel
Articles Brussels-Charleroi Canal : History, Category : Canals in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Belgium Index, from Showcaves, lists a number of historic mines
History of Gem Cutting Regions : Antwerp, from khulsey.com
A Short History of Lace, from Lace - Tapestries (on Belgian lace); Medieval Cloth Trade in Flanders & Artois, from The Other Side
Belgian Breweries - Their History, Their Beers, from European Beer Guide
Paul Servais, Common Lands and Social Transformations : the Ardenne between 1750 and 1900, IEHC 2006
Heidi Deneweth, The Economic Situation and its Influence on Building and Re-Building Work in Bruges during the 16th-18th Centuries, IEHC 2006
David G. Schwartz, A New Deal. Bruges Burghers and Venetian Merchants Invent Mercantile Gambling, IEHC 2006
Wilfrid Brulez, L'Exportation des Pays-Bas vers l'Italie par voie de terre, au milieu du XVIe siecle, Annales. Economies, Societes, Civilisations 1959 pp.461-491
God en Goud. De situatie van de lombarden in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden van de zestiende eeuw. (God and Gold. The situation of the Lombards in the Southern Netherlands in the 16th Century.) by Sebastien Conard, diss. Gent 2004, in Dutch
Bruno Blonde, Ilja van Damme, Consumer and Retail "Revolutions", Perspectives from a Declining Urban Economy. Antwerp in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century, IEHC 2006
Michael Limberger, Private Money, Urban Finance and the State : Antwerp in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, IEHC 2006
Ethnography Languages of Belgium, from Ethnologue
Le francais en Wallonie et a Bruxelles aux XVIIe. et XVIIIe. siecles (French language in Wallonia and Brussels in the 17th, 18th Century), by Daniel Drioxhe, goes beyond title; in French, explains how French became the dominant language in Belgium
Article Languages of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Article Demographics of Belgium, from Wikipedia
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Belgium, from Kirken i Norge
The Various Christian Communities in Belgium, from Wederkerigheid, with contact addresses, brief histories etc.; Alden Oreck, Jewish Virtual History Tour : Belgium, from Jewish Virtual Library
Article Religion in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Category Religion in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Jansenius and Jansenism, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1911 edition
Heksenprocessen in de kasselrij Oudenaarde (Witch trials in the castle district of Oudenaarde), by J. Monballyu, in Dutch, most cases destcribed between 1570 and 1640
J.F. de Jonghe, Belgium Dominicanum, 1719, in Latin, GB
Entry : Antwerp (Belgium), Flanders (Belgium), from GAMEO
History of Regions before the Dutch secession Articles Seventeen Provinces, County of Flanders, Duchy of Brabant, County, Duchy and Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, Duchy of Guelders, County of Holland, County of Zeeland, Duchy of Limburg, County of Namur, County of Artois, County of Hainaut, from Wikipedia
Articles Zeventien Provinciën, Graafschap Vlaanderen, Graafschap Zeeland, Graafschap Holland, Hertogdom Brabant, Hertogdom Luxemburg, Staten van Limburg en de Landen van Overmaas, Graafschap Namen, Graafschap Artesië, Graafschap Henegouwen, Heerlijkkeid Friesland, Doornik en het Doornikse, Heerlijkheid Utrecht, Heerlijkheid Overijssel, Heerlijkheid Groningen, Hertogdom Gelre, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Articles Dix-Sept Provinces, Duche de Brabant, Duche de Limbourg, Duche de Luxembourg, Duche de Gueldre, Comte de Flandre, Comte d'Artois, Comte de Hainaut, Comte de Zelande, Comte de Namur, Principaute d'Utrecht, from Wikipedia French Edition
Petit Histoire du Nord, from Region Nord-Pas du Calais
Flanders in the Spanish Empire, from History of Flanders
History of Regions from the Dutch secession Articles Seventeen Provinces, County of Flanders, Duchy of Brabant, County, Duchy and Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, Duchy of Guelders, Duchy of Limburg, County of Namur, County of Artois, County of Hainaut, from Wikipedia
Articles Zeventien Provinciën, Graafschap Vlaanderen, Hertogdom Brabant, Hertogdom Luxemburg, Staten van Limburg en de Landen van Overmaas, Graafschap Namen, Graafschap Artesië, Graafschap Henegouwen, Doornik en het Doornikse, Hertogdom Gelre, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Articles Dix-Sept Provinces, Duche de Brabant, Duche de Limbourg, Duche de Luxembourg, Duche de Gueldre, Comte de Flandre, Comte d'Artois, Comte de Hainaut, Comte de Namur, from Wikipedia French Edition
Petit Histoire du Nord, from Region Nord-Pas du Calais
Flanders in the Spanish Empire, from History of Flanders
Local History H. Pirenne, Belgian Democracy : it's early history, 1915, IA
Geschiedenis van Brussel, from Digitaal Brussel, in Dutch
Marcel Huon, Parochiekroniek van O.L.Vrouwparochie van Diest (Parish Chronicle of St. Mary's in Diest), posted by Pierre Trouillez; while local history, a lot of details on Belgian history in general; scroll down, in Dutch
Articles : Aalst : History, Antwerp : History (Antwerpen), Ath : History, Bastogne : History, Bruges : History (Brugge), Brussels : History, Charleroi : History, Ghent : History (Gent), Liege : History, Mons : History, Namur : History, Ostend : History (Oostende), Ypres : History (Ieper), from Wikipedia
De Oostenrijkers in Brussel (1700-1790), from Digitaal Brussel
Institutions Article : Grand conseil des Pays-Bas a Malines, from Wikipedia French edition; Grote Raad van Mechelen, from Wikipedia Dutch edition, Great Council of Mechelen
Articles Universiteit Leuven, from Wikipedia Dutch edition, Ancienne Universite de Louvain (1425-1797), from Wikipedia French edition, Old University of Louvain, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Belgium
Culture Articles Flemish Language, Walloon Language : History, from Wikipedia
Article Flemish Literature, from Wikipedia
Biographies click here
List of Belgians, from Wikipedia; Biographies of Belgian and Luxemburgian Saints, from Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon, in German; Famous Belgians, 247 English-language biographies; Dictionnaire des Personalites, from Brabant Wallon
Belgian painters, from Olga's Gallery
The Archdukes in Brussels, Albrecht and Isabella 1598-1621, article by Pauline Croft, Royal Museums for Art and History, Brussels
Biographie Nationale [Belgium], vol.2 1868, vol.3 1872, vol.5 1876, vol.12 1893, vol.17 1903, in French, posted on Internet Archive; volumes 1 - 44 as well as Nouveau Biographie Nationale vol.1 - 8, 1866 -2005 posted by Academie Royale de Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique
Special Topics Notable events in the meteorological history of the Province of Antwerp, from meteo.be; in Dutch; other provinces clickable
Claire Quetelet, De evolutie van de levensverwachting in Belgie, 18de - 20ste eeuw (The Evolution of Life Expectancy in Belgium, from the 18th to the 20th century), thesis Univ. Gent 2005, in Dutch
Category Disasters in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Thomas de Wolf, De Visie van Reizigers op Brabant en Mechelen, ethesis 2004
Ph.J.B. O'Kelly, Receuil analytique des edits, placards, et ordonnances heraldiques des Pays-Bas Espagnols et Autrichiens, 1865, posted on Internet Archive
Albert Waddington, La republique des Provinces-Unies, la France & les Pays-Bas espagnols de 1630 a 1650 1895, posted on Internet Archive

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies, scroll down for Belgium
Titles of European Rulers : Belgium
Liste des souverains des Pays-Bas espagnols et autrichiens, Liste des gouverneurs des Pays-Bas espagnols et autrichiens, Liste des ministres plenipotentiaires des Pays-Bas autrichiens, from Wikipedia French edition
Lists of Ambassadors to Brussels List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Belgium (1600-) 1830-, from Wikipedia
Lists of Bishops Lijst van Aartsbisschoppen van Mechelen, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
List of Bishops of Ghent, from Wikipedia
Lijst van Bisschoppen van Antwerpen, van Brugge, van Ieper (Ypres), van Namen (Namur), from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Belgium, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Economic Statistical Data Spanish Netherlands : Prices and Wages, from Pierre Marteau
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten (Newspapers), from Belgica
Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers], scroll down for Belgium
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Photos of Belgian historical monuments, by Jean Servais Henri Colemonts
Spanish Netherlands, Pictures, by Marc Nollet
Archival Deposits L.P. Gachard, Inventaire des archives des Chambres des comptes vol.1 1837, vol.2 1845, vol.3 1851, in French, GB
L.P. Gachard, Inventaire des cartes et plans, manuscrits et grav?, qui sont conserv? aux archives g??ales du royaume, 1848, in French, GB
Constitutions, Laws Regelgeving in de Nederlanden, database of documents on regional and local law history, site in Dutch, as are most documents, a few in French
Treaties K. Martens, Recueil manuel et pratique de traites, conventions et autres actes diplomatiques, : sur lesquels sont etablis les relations et les rapports existant aujourd'hui entre les divers etats souvernains du globe, depuis l'annee 1760 jusqu'a l'epoque actuelle, vol.1 : index, list of treaties until 1760, docs 1761-1814, 1846, posted on Internet Archive
M. Tetot, Repertoire des Traites de Paix, de Commerce, d'Alliance etc., Conventions et autres Actes conclus entre tous les Puissances du Globe, principalement depuis la Paix de Westphalie jusqu'a notre jours, I : Tableau Chronologique 1493-1866, 1866, posted on Internet Archive
Document Collections Primary Documents : Belgium, from Eurodocs; from psm-data; from Historische Teksten (in Dutch); Documents relatifs au duche de Bouillon, 1484-1825, from Heraldica, many document excerpts pertaining to Bouillon, in French
Joseph Hansen, Rheinische Akten zur Geschichte des Jesuitenordens, 1542-1582, 1896, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Camille Wampach (ed.), Urkunden- und Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der altluxemburgischen Territorien bis zur burgundischen Zeit., 10 volumes 1935-1955, in German, posted by Luxemburgensia Online
Prosper Cuypers van Velthoven, Documents pour servir a l'histoire des troubles religieux du xvime siecle dans le Brabant 1858, posted on Internet Archive
Legenden en Sagen van Belgie, in Dutch
Ch.15 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Belgicarum, pp.353-390 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
L.P. Gachard (ed.), Actes des ?ats g??aux de 1600 [et 1632], vol.1 1849, vol.2 1853, GB
L.P. Gachard (ed.), Actes des Etats G??aux de 1632 vol.1 1853, vol.2 1866, GB
Liste chronologique des ?its et ordonnances des Pays-Bas Autrichiens, de la Principaut?de Li?e et de la Principaut?de Stavelot et de Malm?y vol.1 1851, vol.2 1853, vol.3 1858, vol.4 1860, in French, GB
J.M. Wouters, Livre des placcarts, ?its, reglemens, tarifs, ordonnances et decrets emanees depuis l'an MDCLXX pour la perception & conservation des Droits de tonlieu, d'entree, de sortie, de transit & autres, appartenant a sa Majeste Imperiale & Catholique, Prince Souverain des ces Pays-Bas, 1737, in French, GB
L.P. Gachard, Lettres ?rites par les souverains des Pays-Bas aux ?ats de ces provinces depuis Philippe II jusqu'?Fran?is II (1559-1794) 1851, GB
Individual Documents Portraits of Archduke Ernst of Austria, Stadholder since 1592; Pedro Enriquez de Acevedo, Count of Fuentes, Stadholder 1595-1596, Albrecht the Pious, Archfuke of Austria, Stadholder 1596- ; Juan d'Austria, Stadholder 1576, Alessandro Farnese, from Dominicus Custos, Atrium heroicum Caesarum, regum, [...] imaginibus [...] illustr[atum]. Pars 1-4.Augsburg: M. Manger, J. Praetorius, 1600-1602, posted by MATEO, Univ. Mannheim
L'Histoire de l'Archiduc Albert, Gouverneur General et puis Prince Souverain de la Belgique, 1693, from ABU : la Bibliotheque Universelle, in French
Historical Maps click here
Atlas of Belgium, from Wikimedia Commons
Map of the Netherlands at the Death of Elizabeth I. (1603), Flanders and Brabant, 1690-1696 (features mainly places, roads etc.), Map of the Netherlands 1702, from Gardiner's Atlas of English History, 1892 posted by Livingston County MI
Historical Maps of Brabant, from Jacob Aertsz, De Vyerige Colom, posted on the Brabant Homepage
Interactive map, featuring the French-Spanish border in Artois-Flanders after the Treaties of 1659, 1668, 1678, 1713, from Region Nord-Pas de Calais
Map : Pays-bas espagnols, 1648, from Region Nord-Pas de Calais
Peeter Heyns, Le Miroir du Monde, Amsterdam 1598, based on Ortelius, clickable maps : Brabantia, Flandria Maritima, Flandria, Flandria Imperialis, Flandris Liberae Territorium, Gives, Hornia, Lvczenburgum, Hannonia et Namur, Mechliniae Territorium, Wasia; posted by MATEO, Univ. Mannheim
Documents Parliamentary Debates Deutsche Reichstagakten, vol.1 : 1376-1387, 1867, vol.2 : 1388-1397, 1874, vol.3 : 1397-1400, 1877, vol.4 : 1400-1401, 1882, vol.5 : 1401-1405, 1885, vol.6 : 1406-1410, 1888, vol.7 : 1410-1420, 1878, vol.8 : 1421-1426, 1883, vol.9 : 1427-1431, 1887, vol.10 : 1431-1433, 1906, vol.11 : 1433-1435, 1898, vol.12 : 1435-1437, 1901, Jüngere Reihe, vol.1 1893, vol.2 1893, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives State Archives in Belgium, from arch.arch.be
Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Belgium, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages
Historical Research in Europe, listing of archives; click Atlas Search, Belgium, 90 entries
Musea Lists, Links Category : Museums in Belgium, from Wikipedia
Musea, from research.be
Links from Vrije Universiteit Brussel (musea etc.)
Musea Museum Websites Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and of Military History, Brussels, Belgium
Monuments Category : Monuments and memorials in Belgium, from Wikipedia
UNESCO World Heritage Site, List (search for Belgium), Tentative Lists : Belgium
Libraries Libraries in Belgium, from LibDex
History of the Belgian National Library, from The European Library
Royal Library of Belgium, site in French / Dutch
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Ensign c.1520-1701, from FOTW
Coins Collection of 71 Coins from France, Brabant etc., 12th to 21st century, from Money Museum
Search Coin Archives for Spanish Netherlands
Coins and Medals, from Belgica
Spanish Netherlands, Coin Catalogue 1598-1621, by Marc Nollet
Spanish Netherlands, Jeton Catalogue 1598-1621, by Marc Nollet
List of coins issued for the Spanish Netherlands under Albrecht and Isabel, Philip IV., Pt.1, Philip IV., Pt.2, Philip IV., Pt.3, Philip IV., Pt.4, Charles II., Pt.1, Charles II., Pt.2, Philip V., Charles III., in Dutch, no images

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
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Belgian Bibliography, from the Royal Library at Brussels, in Dutch, in French
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ODIS, Onderzoekssteunpunt Databank Intermediaire Structuren Vlaanderen 19e -20e eeuw (Research support databank intermediary structures Flanders, 19th-20th century); rich source of information
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Online
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