Tanger as described in Historic Encyclopedias



Pierer 1857-1865, Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, Meyer 1902-1909





Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Tanger
Tanger, city in the Sultanate of Morocco, on the western exit of the Straits of Gibraltar, on a bay which forms a good port, has mostly curved streets, low houses with flat roofs, mosque, Cathlic chapel with Franciscan monastery, several synagogues, an old dilapidated fort (Kasbah) and 6,000 inhabitants. But it is Morocco's leading port and has vivid communication with Gibraltar, which imports most of its essential items from here.
Tanger, called Tingis or Tinge by the Romans, is a very old city, according to some founded by Antaios, to others by Sophax, son of Heracles and the widow of Antaios, even bfore the arrival of the Phoenicians. Under Augustus it received its own constitution, under Emperor Claudius a Roman colony; it was the capital of Mauritania Tingitana and a center of trade. The Visigoths conquered it from the Romans in he 5th century, but they lost it o the Arabs in the 8th century, which from here waged war against Christian Spain. Near Tanger in 1292 naval victory of Castilian admiral Zacharias against King Abu Yussuf of Morocco. In 1437 the Portuguese undertook an unsuccessful attack on Tangiers; they conquered it only in 1471, but ceded it to England in 1662 (as dowry on the occasion of the marriage of Charles II. with Infanta Catherine). The English abandoned it in 1684 because of its expensive maintenance, and they razed the fortifications. The Moors refortified the city; in 1743 it came to Morocco. In 1790 it was bombared by the Spaniards, on August 6th 1844 by the French fleet under the Prince of Joinville, and on September 10th 1844 peace between France and Morocco was concluded here.

source in German, posted by Zeno


Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, Article : Tanger (1891)
Tanger, Arab Tandja, fortified seaport in Morocco, on the western entry to the Sound of Gibraltar, 22 km east of Cape Espartel, is situated in amphitheatric shape on the slope of a barren limestone mountain on a spacious bay. A port in the proper sense of the word is lacking; persons and goods are transported from the ships by small boats and carriers to the land. But the roadsted provides good anchoring and protects he largest vessels against winds except for those from the northwest and the east. The ciy is defended by an old city wall and a large, dilapidated fort (the Kasba), has very small, crooked streets and ugly houses with flat roofs. The population is about 20,000, of whom 400 are Europeans, the latter merchans, and here live the families of European ambassadors and consuls. Tanger is connected by a regular ferry with Gibraltar, which imports most of its necessities from Tanger. The industry, which overall is without importance, includes the processing of woolen textiles, mats and leatherwares, which, while highly regarded in Europe, are of lower quality than those produced in other parts of Morocco.
The Roman Tingis, which was located in the immediate vicinity of the present Tanger, was an age-old city. Emperor Claudius made it a Roman colony and the capital of Province Tingitana. It was conquered and settled in succession by the Vandals, Byzantines and Arabs, and in 1471 fell into the hands of the Portuguese. As dowry of the Portuguese Infanta Catherine on he occasion of her marriage with Charles II. in 1662 it came to England. The English defended it against the Moors until 1680, but razed the fortifications in 1684 because the maintenance proved too costly, and abandoned it to the Moors, which newly fortified the city. Tangier was bombarded in 1690 by a Spanish fleet and in 1844 by a French fleet under the Prince of Joinville.

source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg


Meyers Grosses Conversations-Lexikon 1902-1909, Article : Tanger
Tanger, seaport in Morocco on the Straits of Gibraltar, built in the shape of an amphitheatre on the slope of a barren limestone mountain range, surrounded by strong old city walls with three city gates, has a partially dilapidated citadel, irregular steep, but partially electrically lighted streets, mosques, a Franciscan monastery with chapel, synagogues, a Catholic and a Protestant church, several banks, European hotels, a hospital, a German, French, Spanish and British post office, he two latter ones with telegraph stations, is seat of the diplomatic corps for Morocco (for Germany an emissary), of the minister of Morocco for foreign affairs, has 20,000 inhabitants (according to other sources 36,000), among them 8,000 Jews, 6,000 Europeans (mostly Spaniards), 6,000 Muslims (a few negro slaves). The police formed of natives, according to the Algeciras Act (1906) is placed under Franco-Spanish supervision. The port, despite heavy Krupp guns hardly protected, is small, of shallow depth, exposed to winds from the north; the rather spacious roadstead theatens to silt up, the necessary construction of a pier in 1905 was entrusted to a German company. Still Tanger is Morocco's most important sea port. It is visited by German (4 lines), British, French, Spanish and Italian steamers. Imports (cottonwares, raw silk, cloth, sugar, wine, alcoholic spirits, tea, food, ironwares and glasswares, tobacco, candles, bricks, in 1903 of a total value of 9.78 million Mark. Exports (oxen, eggs, beans, linseed, slippers, woolwares, goatskins, dates, wax, poultry, total value 9.28 million Mark (1905 11.6 million respectively 6 million Mark). In 1903 the port was visited by 1041 steamers (74 German) of 515,165 tons and 288 sailboats of 7403 tons. In 1905 the tonnage of the ships was 707,957. Since 1873 Tanger is seat of a German consul general.
Tanger in Roman times was called Tingis and under Claudius became the capital of the province Tingitana (Western Mauretania). The Visigoths conquered the city in the 5th century, the Arabs in the 8th century and the Portuguese in 1471. 1662 it was ceded to Charles II. of England s part of the dowry of Infanta Catherine of Bragança, but because its mainenance was costly, it was abandoned in 1684, when the Moors again took possession. On August 6th 1844 it was bombarded by a French fleet, after which peace was concluded there between France and Morocco. Tanger remained rather untouched by the Moroccan troubles since 1805 (see Morocco) until September 1907.
See : Cousin, Tanger, Paris 1902.

source in German, posted by Zeno





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First posted on April 14th 2009

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