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Literature on the History of the Middle East
Maghreb 671-1510
First posted on January 25th 2012







Umayyad Egypt . Egypt had been a province of the Byzantine Empire. In 639-641 it was conquered and annexed by the Caliphate which soon came under the Umayyad Dynasty, ruling from Damascus. The center of administration of Egypt was moved from Alexandria to al-Fustat, a suburb of modern Cairo. In response to heavy taxation, Egypts Christian Coptic population revolted in 725, 739 and 750.

Abbasid Egypt . In 750 the Umayyad Dynasty was ousted by the Abbasid Dynasty, and the capital moved from Damascus to Baghdad. In 831-832 the last major Coptic rebellion took place.

Tulunid Egypt . In 869 the Tulunid Dynasty (hitherto Abbasid governors of Egypt) declared independence. Capital : al-Qatta'i.

Abbasid Egypt . In 905 an Abbasid army reconquered Egypt.

Ikhshidid Egypt . Egypt remained Abbasid until the Ikshidid Dynasty took control in 935, which was ousted by the Fatimids (since 909 centered in Ifriqiya) in 969.

Fatimid Egypt . The Shi'ite Fatimid Dynasty founded Cairo ("the City Victorious") as the new capital, and established al-Azhar, by many regarded the world's oldest university. By 969 the Fatimids controlled Egypt, Barqa, the entire Maghreb, the Hejaz and Syria; the Fatimids claimed the title of Caliph.
Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (996-1021) is regarded the 16th Imam by the Ismailis. The Druzes of Syria, Lebanon and Israel revere him as an incarnation of God. The destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem at his command is regarded one of the factors which brought about the crusades.
The Zirid Dynasty ruling the Maghreb defied Fatimid sovereignty in 1049. In 1068 the Seljuqs conquered Cairo; in 1074 they were expelled. In 1099 the First Crusade conquered Jerusalem; a number of Christian crusader states were established on the Syrian coast. In 1167 Saladin established military control of Egypt; in 1171 he took the throne, ending the Fatimid Dynasty.

Ayyubid Egypt . Saladin in 1171 established the new dynasty, which lasted until 1250. Egypt became the target of the Fifth Crusade 1218-1221 and of the Seventh Crusade 1248-1254. While the latter was ongoing, the Ayyubid Dynasty in 1250 was replaced by the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo.

Historical Atlas, Egypt Page

Students' Paper : Kim, Doyeong : Alexandria: A Center of Interregional Trade and Host to Foreign Merchants (2012)
Students' Paper : Kang, Jun-suk : A History of Textiles in Egypt (2009)
Students' Paper : Lee, Seungwoo : Environmental History of North Africa (2009)






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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article : History of Medieval Egypt, from Wikipedia
Historic
Links on History Virtual Library History : Egypt
Category : Medieval Egypt, from Wikipedia
Eternal Egypt
Historical Dictionaries Encyclopedia Coptica
Organizations Institute of Ismaili Studies
Historical Society of Jews from Egypt
St. Mark Foundation of Coptic History Studies
International Association of Egyptologists
Timelines
Accounts of History current Article : History of Medieval Egypt, from Wikipedia
historical of the World of Islam A complete history of the Arabs: from the birth of Mohammed to the reduction of Baghdad , 1761, GB
G. Weil, Geschichte der Chalifen vol.1 : Vom Tode Mohammeds bis zum Untergange der Omejjaden, mit Einschluss der Geschichte Spaniens, vom Einfalle der Araber bis zur Trennung vom ?tlichen Chalifate, 1846, vol.2 : Die Abbasiden bis zur Einnahme von Bagdad durch die Bujiden. 132-334 d. H.: 749-945 n. Chr., 1848, vol.3 : Von der Einnahme von Baghdad bis zum Untergange des Chalifats von Baghdad, 945-1258, 1851, in German, GB
of Egypt J. Wilson, The history of Egypt: from the earliest accounts of that country till the expulsion of the French from Alexandria vol.1 1805, vol.2 1805, vol.3 1805, GB
S. Lane Poole, History of Egypt, vol.6 : in the Middle Ages, 1901, IA
S. Rappoport, History of Egypt From 330 B.C. To the Present Time vol.11 : The Roman, Chriustian and Arabic Periods, n.d., IA
Historiography Abu Umar Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Kindi, The history of the governors of Egypt, Engl. trsl. 1908, IA
Specific Periods Abbasids The Abbasids, from Egypt State Information Service
Tulunids Article : Tulunids, from Wikipedia; from Egypt State Information Service; The Tulunides, from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
Ikhshidids The Eksheeds, from Egypt State Information Service; Article : Ikhshidid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Fatimids Article : Fatimid(s), from Encyclopedia of the Middle East, from Encyclopedia of the Orient, from Wikipedia; from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
The Rise and Decline of the Fatimid Empire, from Ismaili.Net
De Lacy O'Leary, A Short History Of The Fatimid Khalifate, 1923, IA
Chapter 5 : North Africa & Egyptian Period, from Ismaili.Net
Ayyubids Article : Ayyubid(s), from Encyclopedia of the Middle East, from Lexicon of the Orient, from Wikipedia, from Egypt State Information Service
Article : Saladin in Egypt, from Wikipedia
Politics H. Mahamid, Isma'ili Da'wa and Politics in Fatimid Egypt., Nebula 2006
H. Mahamid, Persians in Fatimid Egypt (II) Their Role in the Da'wah and Ismaili Doctrines
Y. Lev, Army, Regime, and Society in Fatimid Egypt, 358-487/968-1094, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol.19, No.3 (Aug. 1987), pp.337-365
Military Article : Muslim conquest of Egypt, 639-641, from Wikipedia
Article : Crusader Invasions of Egypt 1154-1169, from Wikipedia
Article : Fifth Crusade, from Wikipedia
Article : Seventh Crusade, from Wikipedia
H. Mahamid, Persians in Fatimid Egypt (I) Their Role in the Army
Y. Lev, Army, Regime, and Society in Fatimid Egypt, 358-487/968-1094, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol.19, No.3 (Aug. 1987), pp.337-365
Y. Lev, The Fatimid Navy and the Crusades 1099-1171, Tropis vol.II 1987
Economy & Finances Money & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Egypt; Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Egypt
Measuring the Medieval Islamic Economy : Measures and Weights : Egypt, Wages : Egypt, Commodities Prices : Egypt, Coinage, scroll down for Egypt and Syria 851-1517
M. Cizakca, Tax-Farming and Resource Allocation in Past-Islamic Societies; reference to Medieval Egypt, Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empire
Trade G. Heyd, Le colonie commerciali degli Italiani in Oriente nel medio evo vol.1 1866, vol.2 1868, in Italian, GB
W. Heyd, Geschichte des Levantehandels im Mittelalter vol.1 1879, vol.2 1879, in German, IA
W. Heyd, Histoire du commerce du Levant au moyen-age vol.1 1885, vol.2 1886, in French, IA
G.B. Depping, Histoire du commerce entre le Levant et l'Europe depuis les croisades jusqu'a la Fondation des Colonies d'Amerique, 1830, in French, IA
H. Mahamid, Persians in Fatimid Egypt Their Role in Commerce, the Economy and Trade
Manufacturing : Textiles Article : Gossypian Barbadense (Egyptian Cotton), from Wikipedia; History, from egyptian-cotton.com
The Textile Industry in Egypt, 10 articles, from Eternal Egypt
Manufacturing : Glass A Brief History of Islamic Glass, from Coming Museum of Glass
Mining and Metalworking Article : Mining Industry of Egypt, from Wikipedia
Manufacturing : Pottery Crafts, from Eternal Egypt
Transportation Transportation, from Eternal Egypt
Social History Yacov Lev. State and Society in Fatimid Egypt, 1991, Chapter 4 : The Ruling Circles, a) The Royal Family, frim Internet Medieval Sourcebook
Y. Lev, Army, Regime, and Society in Fatimid Egypt, 358-487/968-1094, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol.19, No.3 (Aug. 1987), pp.337-365
Ethnography The History of the Coptic Language, from St. Shenouda
H. Mahamid, Persians in Fatimid Egypt (I) Their Role in the Army, (II) Their Role in the Da'wah and Ismaili Doctrines, Their Role in Commerce, the Economy and Trade
Religion General
Muslim General Egypt and North Africa, from P. von Sivers, The History of Islam in Africa, 2000, posted by NITLE
Muslim Sunni
Shi'a
Ismaili H. Mahamid, Isma'ili Da'wa and Politics in Fatimid Egypt., Nebula 2006
H. Mahamid, Persians in Fatimid Egypt (II) Their Role in the Da'wah and Ismaili Doctrines
F. Daftary, The Ismaili da'wa Outside the Fatimid dawla
Jewish Virtual Jewish History Tour : Fatimids, Egypt, Syria from Jewish Virtual Library
Egypt, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
J. Mann, The Jews in Egypt and in Palestine under the Fatimid Caliphs 1920, IA
Orthodox Article : Church of Alexandria, from OrthodoxWiki
Article : Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
J.M. Neale, A history of the Holy Eastern church : The Patriarchate of Alexandria, 1847, GB
Al-Armani Abu Salih, The Churches and Monasteries of Egypt and some neighbouring Countries , n.d.
Coptic Article : Church of Alexandria (Coptic), from OrthodoxWiki
The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church Of Egypt, from St. Takla
Article : Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
Article : Coptic History, from Wikipedia
J.M. Neale, A history of the Holy Eastern church: the Patriarchate of Alexandria, 1850, GB
T.Y. Malaty, The Coptic Calendar and Church of Alexandria, n.d., GB
History of the Copts, from copts.net
Catholic Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Egypt, from Kirken i Norge
Coptic Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria, from Opus Libani
Maronites The Maronites and Lebanon, A Brief History, scroll down to "Under the Mamluk Sword"
Druze Druze History, from Druze Heritage Foundation
Article : Druze : History, from Wikipedia
History of Regions Geographic Regions : Egypt History of the Sinai Peninsula, from Wikipedia
History of the Nile Delta, from Wikipedia
E.A. Wallis Budge, A Short History of the Egyptian People, 1914, GB
J. Wilson, The history of Egypt: from the earliest accounts of that country, till the expulsion of the French from Alexandria, in the year 1801 vol.1 1805, vol.2 1805, vol.3 1805, GB
J.J. Marcel, A. Ryme, P. d'Avennes, Egypte: depuis la conquete des Arabes jusqu a la domination française 1848, in French, GB
Geographic Regions : Hejaz Article : Hejaz : History, from Wikipedia
Geographic Regions : Barqa Article : Barqa : History (Cyrenaica), from Wikipedia
Geographic Regions : Lebanon
Geographic Regions : Palestine Palestine : R.S. Lissak, Chapter 4 : Population and Arab Settlement under Arabic- Muslim Occupation,640 - 1099, Chapter 5 : Cultural Arabization without Islamization of Jews under Arab - Muslim Occupation, Chapter 6 : The Population's Composition During the Crusaders' Period (1099 - 1260 ) part 1, part 2
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Geographic Regions : Syria G. Le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems; a description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500 1890, IA
Predecessor States
Local History D.S. Margoliouth, Cairo, Jerusalem, and Damascus, three chief cities of the Egyptian sultans, 1907, IA
St.L. Poole, The Story of Cairo, 1902, Cairo; sketches of its history, monuments, and social life, 1898, IA
Article : Cairo : Foundation and Expansion, from Wikipedia
Article : History of Alexandria : Arab Rule, from Wikipedia
Article : Damascus : Mamluk Period, from Wikipedia
Article : Aleppo : Medieval Period, from Wikipedia
Article : Mecca : Medieval and Pre-Modern Times, from Wikipedia
G. Williams, R. Willis, The Holy city: Historical, topographical, and antiquarian notices of Jerusalem vol.1 1849, vol.2 1849, GB
Article : Al-Qatta'i, from Wikipedia
Institutions Transport, Communication and Information (historical account), from Egypt State Information Service
The Roda Island Nilometer, from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
Article : al-Azhar University, from Wikipedia
Culture Tulunid Building Style : Tulunid, from ArchNet
Fatimid Early Medieval Dynasties in The West: Fatimids, Ayyubids, from Islamic Arts & Architecture
The Art of the Fatimid Period (909-1171), from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
O. Grabar, Fatimid Art, Precursor or Culmination, Institute of Ismaili Studies
S. Mazot, Architecture of the Fatimid 2012
Building Style : Fatimid, from ArchNet
Egypt until 1060, Egypt 1060-1171 from Central Islamic Lands in R. Ettinghausen, The Art and Architecture of Islam: 650-1250, 1987, posted by NITLE
Ayyubid The Art of the Ayyubid Period (ca. 1171-1260), from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
Early Medieval Dynasties in The West: Fatimids, Ayyubids, from Islamic Arts & Architecture
Terry Allen, Ayyubid Architecture 1999
Biographies Ibn Khallikan [1211-1282], Ibn Khallikan's biographical dictionary, Wikipedia Article, English trsl. vol.1 1868, vol.2 1843, vol.3 1868, GB
Middle Eastern Natural Philosophers, from GLPS2 Wiki
Others Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
K.M. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571: The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 1976, GB
J.L.G. Guyon, Histoire chronologique des epidemies du Nord de l'Afrique, depuis les temps les plus recules jusqu'la nos jours 1855, in French, GB

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Rulers and Heads of State of Egypt, from Wikipedia
List of Tulunid Emirs, Fatimid Caliphs, Ayyubid Rulers, from Wikipedia
The Abbasids, from Egypt State Information Service; has list of Abbasid Governors
Lists of Bishops List of Greek Orthodox Patriarchs of Alexandria, List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
List of Patriarchs of Alexandria (Greek-Orthodox), from OrthodoxWiki
Documents Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties
Document Surveys Catalogues of Oriental Manuscripts, at this site
Article : Cairo Geniza, from Wikipedia, from Jewish Virtual Library
Document Collections E.M. Quatremere (ed.), Memoires geeographiques et historiques sur l'Egypte, et sur quelques voisines. Recueillis et extraits des manuscrits coptes, arabes, etc., de la Bibliothe`que imperiale, vol.1 1811, vol.2 1811, in French, GB
Genizah On-Line Database (GOLD, at Univ. of Cambridge), The Friedberg Genizah Project, Princeton University Geniza Project, Penn/Cambridge Geniza Fragment Project; Bodleian Library, Cairo Genizah Collection
Historical Maps Category : Old Maps of Egypt, from Wikimedia Commons
Map : Ayyubid Emirate 1188, from Wikipedia
Map : Fatimid Caliphate 969, from Wikipedia
Map : Tulunid Emirate 868-905, from Wikipedia
Map : Ikhshidid Egypt, 935-969, from Wikipedia
Abbasid Caliphate administrative 786-809, posted by C. Smeller
The break-up of the Abbasid Caliphate 778-900, posted by Iran Politics Club
Abbasid Caliphate and Fragmentation, 786-1194, QED : Mapping Globalization
Eastern Hemisphere 700 AD, 800 AD, 900 AD, 1000 AD, 1025 AD, 1100 AD, 1200 AD, from Thomas Lessman's Atlas of World History
R. Haug, Mapping the Tulunid Dynasty
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular
Religious Articles Egypt, Alexandria, Sinai, The Church of Alexandria, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1912
Article Egypt, Alexandria, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Economic
Geographical
Ethnographical Egypte, pp.402-406 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Historical Chapter : Histoire Moderne d'Egypte sous le Gouvernement des Califes Fatimites, de Saladin et des Successeurs, pp.1-100 in vol.23/63 of Histoire universelle, depuis le commencement du monde jusqu'a present, Histoire Moderne, 1784, in French, GB
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives National Archives of Egypt
Musea Lists, Links Museums in Egypt, from Tour Egypt
Museums in Egypt, from International Council of African Museums
Musea Museum Websites
Monuments World Heritage List, scroll down for Egypt; from UNESCO World Heritage; Tentative Lists : Egypt
Egypt List, from Showcaves
Libraries Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Egyptian Universities Library
Libraries in Egypt, from LibDex
Egypt, from Directory of Libraries in North Africa
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins General Coin Catalogue of Egypt, from Numismaticon; search Coin Archives for Egypt
Digital Library Numis : Islamic Coins - North Africa, Egypt
Tulunid Tulunids and Fatimids, from David Museum
Tulunid Coins, from Oriental Coins Database, from FitzWilliam Museum, from American Numismatic Society Collection Database
Tulunids, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
R. Haug, Brief Notes on the Numismatic Evidence for the Tulunid Dynbasty
Ikhshidid Ikhshidid Coins, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Fatimid Fatimid Coins, from Oriental Coins Database
Fatimids, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Ayyubid Ayyubid Coins, 564-866 AH, from Oriental Coins Database
Ayyubids, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Egypt Egypt, from The Online Books Page
from Mideast Web
Online Publications on the History of Egyptian Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Ägypten-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Cairo, Egypt Bibliography, from NNDB
American University of Cairo Press
Publications on Coptic History, from St. Mark Foundation
St.J. Davis, Recent Work in Coptic History and Historiography : a Bibliography
on Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo Chicago Online Bibliography on Mamluk Studies
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Swiss Electronic Library; Gallica
on Egypt
Online Journals full text online Mamluk Studies Review vol.XI.1 2007, vol.XI.2 2007, vol.XII.1 2008, vol.XII.2 2008, vol.XIII.1 2009, vol.XIII.2 2009, vol.XIV 2010, vol.XV 2011,
Table of Contents
Online
Coptica, 2002-
Historiography Article : Arabic Historiography, by E.M. Choueiri, pp.40-42 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
General Accounts Middle East
on Egypt Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.18, pp.91-145 Article Egypt. KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 032 B862h v.18
Glenn E. Perry : The History of Egypt, Westport CT : Greenwood 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 962 P462h
Specific Topics
Local / Regional History Max Rodenbeck, Cairo. The City Victorious, American University in Cairo Press 1988, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 963.6216 R587c
Religious History Jill Kamil, Coptic Egypt, History and Guide, American University in Cairo Press 1987 [G]
Norman A. Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands, A History and Source Book, Philadelphia : Jewish Publication Society of America 1979, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 909.04 S857j
Historical Dictionary Arthur Goldschmidt, Historical Dictionary of Egypt, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 962 003 G623h