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Literature on the History of North Africa
Egypt Tunisia
First posted on July 4th 2002; last revised on September 12th 2010

From the 16th century onward, Barka, A HREF = "xtripolitania.html">Tripolitania and Fezzan were tributary to the Ottoman Empire. In 1835, Barka and Tripolitania (with Fezzan) were turned into Ottoman provinces. In 1912 the Ottoman Empire ceded Barka (now called Cyrenaica) and Tripolitania (with Fezzan) to Italy. In 1932 Cyrenaica and Tripolitania (with Fezzan) were merged to form the Italian colony of Libya. In several border agreements signed by Italy with France and the United Kingdom, the territory of Libya was expanded.
In 1943 British forces occupied Cyrenaica and Tripolitania, French forces Fezzan-Ghadames. In 1951 reunited Libya was released into independence, as a kingdom. A coup d'etat in 1969 terminated the monarchy and introduced the republic. Since 1969, Muammar al Qaddafi rules Libya. Oil was found in Libya in the 1950es; Libya is the wealthiest country on the African continent.

Timelines : Libya (since 1934), Fezzan, Barka / Cyrenaica, Tripolitania
Historical Atlas, Libya Page
List of Wars : Libya Page

Students' Paper : Lee, Seungwoo : Environmental History of North Africa (2009)
Students' Paper : Yu, Jiyoon : African Decolonization and Cold War Politics in the United Nations. The Soviet Union and the Case of Libya 1947-1951 (2006)

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Country Profiles Current from BBC News; from World Desk Reference; from Nations Encyclopedia
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Libya
Article Libya, from Wikipedia
Encyclopedia of the Orient : Libya
CIA World Factbook; click for Libya
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Libya Page, from African Studies at UPenn
Category : Libya, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Libya, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionaries
Organizations Society for Libyan Studies
Timelines Timeline, from BBC News; from timelines.ws; from Tripolini
Accounts of History current Article : History of Libya, from Wikipedia
History of Libya, from Country and People of Libya; from World Rover
Libya through the Ages, from Libya Online
Specific Periods
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Libya
Governments on the WWW : Libya
Country Profile : Libya, from ISS
Article : Politics of Libya, from Wikipedia
Category : Politics of Libya, from Wikipedia
Military Wars of Libya, 1800-1999, from ACED
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Libya, from ODM; by Jean Paul le Blanc
L'Attaco a Tripoli (1941), from Cronologia
1911, La Guerra Ital0-Turca (o nel Libia), from Cronologia
African Paramilitary Groups : Fighting Islamic Group (FIG)
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Libya : Italian Conquest, 1911-1931, Revolt against Gaddhafi 2011
Economy & Finances Article : Economy of Libya, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Libya, from Wikipedia
Global Currency History : Libya; Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Libya; Peter Symes, The ibyan Currency Commission
Libyan Oil Industry, from Source Watch
Company Histories : National Oil Corporation, Occidental Petroleum Corporation, from Funding Universe
History, from National Oil Corporation, Libya
Article Central Bank of Libya, from Wikipedia
E.G.H. Joffe, Social & economic development of Libya, 1982, IA
Social History Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Libya, by R. Winslow
E.G.H. Joffe, Social & economic development of Libya, 1982, IA
Ethnography Languages of Libya (9), from Ethnologue
Worldwide Refugee Information : Libya
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Libya
Reports on Libya, from U.S. Committee for Refugees
Italy : African Colonies (mostly on Libya), pp.3109-3120 in vol.4B of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Islam in Libya, from Mathaba
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Libya, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Libya, from Jewish Virtual Library; The Last Jews of Libya, Libya, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Libya, International Religious Freedom Report 2003, from U.S. Department of State
History of Regions see Fezzan, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania
Local History History of Tripoli, from Wikipedia, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
History of Benghazi, from Wikipedia, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Institutions Article Libyan Airways, from Wikipedia
Libya, from Airline History
Structurae : Libya; search Lighthouse Explorer for Libya
Culture Online Publications on the History of Libyan Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Biographies List of Libyans, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Others German P.O.W.s held in Libya, from Kriegsgefangen.de, text in English
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History by Country : the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, from Relief Web
Libya, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Article Libya at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Michael E. Pukrop, The Aozou Strip. Uranium and Libya-Chad Conflict, ICE Case Studies 1997
E. Geleskul, The History of the Libyan Nuclear Program : Reasons for Failure

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Regnal Chronologies : Northern Africa, scroll down for Cyrenaica, Fezzan, Libya, Tripoli
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Libya, from Wikipedia; Deutsche Botschafter in Tripolis, from Wikipedia German edition
U.S. Ambassadors to Libya, from NNDB; Canadian Ambassadors to Libya, from MOFA Canada; Chinese Ambassadors to Libya, from PRC MOFA
Lists of Apostolic Vicars Apostolic Vicariate of Benghazi, Apostolic Vicariate of Derna, Apostolic Prefects of Misurata, Apostolic Vicariate of Tripoli, from Catholic Hierarchy
Statistical Data Responsible Institution
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics, Libya, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
Election Results from Psephos (none since the 1960es)
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
The History of Egypt and the Maghrib, from World History Archives, scroll down for Tunisia
Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Libya", search all issues; 441 Libya articles, GB
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Universal Collections
Items on Libya
License plates from Libya, from Francoplaque; from License Plates of the World
Airline Timetable Images : Libya
Archival Deposits Libya Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Search CIA Released Documents for Libya
Search Foreign Relations of the United States for Libya
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Libya, from ILO, 29 docs. since 1952
Constitution of 1951-1969, posted by I. Ighneiwa
Constitution of 1969, from ICL
Treaties Australian Treaty Series : Bilateral Treaties - Libya
Document Collections Sources on Libyan History, in English translation, from Libya, Our Home
1994 judgment by International Court of Justice in border dispute between Chad and Libya, from International Court of Justice Contentious Cases
The Green Book, 1980. IA
Historical Maps responsible institutions Survey Department of Libya, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections click here
Libya Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Libya, Maps of the History of Libya, Wikimedia Commons
David Rumsey Map Collection : Libya
Libya, Modern
Libya, Contemporary Ethnic Map of Libya 1974, from Bits of News
Map of the Rebellion in Libya, Day by Day (Interactive Map), NYT April 29 2011
detail, Modern Cyrenaica, WW II
Map featuring the Aouzou Strip, Wikipedia
detail, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique ?l'?helle de 1:2 000 000 06. Tripoli 1887, 06. Tripoli 1888, 06. Tripoli 1896, 07. Ben Ghazi 1886, 07. Ben Ghazi 1888, 07. Ben Ghazi 1896, 12. Mourzouk 1887, 13. Kebabo 1886, 13. Kebabo 1888, 13. Kebabo 1896, Gallica
U.S. Army Map Service, Africa 1:2.000.000, sheet 3 Tunis (1969), 4 Banghazi (1969), 8 Sabhah (1969), 9 Dakhla Oasis (1969), PCL, UTexas
U.S. Army Map Service, North Africa 1:250,000 1954-, Cyrenaica 1:100,000, 1940s, incomplete series of 33 maps; Tripoli 1:100,000, 1936-, incomplete set of 31 maps, Tripolitania City Plans, 4 maps 1943, PCL, UTexas
Barca 1906, Fezzan 1906, Tripoli and Tunis 1888, Tripoli 1906, Probert Encyclopedia
Tripoli 1827, Makanaka
Tripoli 1929, 1:18.000, Citta Italiane, Anni 20
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives Search AHA Archives Wiki for Libya
Musea Lists, Links Category : Museums in Libya, from Wikipedia
Libya : Libraries and Museums, from Nations Encyclopedia
Musea Museum Websites
Monuments World Heritage List, scroll down for Libya; from UNESCO World Heritage
Libya List, from Showcaves
Libraries Libya, from Directory of Libraries in North Africa
Libya : Libraries and Museums, from Nations Encyclopedia
Libraries in Libya, from LibDex
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Libya, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Coin Catalogue of Libya, from Numismaticon
Libya Coins, from World Coin Gallery
Stamps Libia / Tripoli di Barberia Stamps 1912, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer; Postal Services and Stamps of Libya, from Libyana

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Libya survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies T. Monastiri, Bibliographie bilingue de la Libye 1991
pp.85-108 in L. Hahn, Historical Dictionary of Libya, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1981 [G]
Bibliography, from Library of Congress, Country Studies : Libya
Clio, Voyages Culturels : Bibliografie Libye
Libya, from The Online Books Page
annual bibliographies Giga-Informationssystem, Bibliographie Libyen 2003-2008, 2009-2010
specialist bibliographies V. Roumani-Denn, Selected Bibliography on the Jews of Libya
serial publications
general bibliographies
Libya entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Libyen-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Bibliographie de l'Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord des originmes a la fin du Moyen-Age
Bibliographie Maghreb (1), (2), (3) from Haldun Overblog
Temehu. Bibliography. A List of Books About the Berbers, Berber history, language and culture.
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
International Boundary Studies
on Libya
Online Journals full text online
Table of Contents
Libyan Studies
Historiography Article : African Historiography - North Africa (Maghreb), by E. Ann McDougall and Mohamed Lahbib Noubi, pp.8-11, Article : Arabic Historiography, by E.M. Choueiri, pp.40-42 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.24, pp.976-981 Article North Africa : Libya. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.24
Dirk Vandewalle, A History of Modern Libya, Cambridge : UP 2006 [G]
Jamil M. Abun-Nasr, A History of the Maghrib, Cambridge : UP 1971 [G]
Special Topics Chapter 11 : Libya, or a child learning to walk, pp.163-182, in : John Gunther, Inside Africa, NY : Harper & Bros. (1953) 1955 [G]
The Second Libyan Campaign, 18 November 1941 to 10 February 1942, in : Jasper H. Stembridge, The Oxford War Atlas Volume II, 1 September 1941 to 1 January 1943, Oxford : UP 1943 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Lorna Hahn, Historical Dictionary of Libya, Metuchen N.J.: Scarecrow 1981 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Article : Libya, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.76-77, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.76-77, 4th ed. 1984 pp.76-77 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Italian Colonial Empire 1942 pp.367-368, 1943 pp.369-370, 1944 pp.369-370, 1945 pp.376-377, 1946 pp.408-409, 1947 pp.426-427, 1948 pp.413-414, 1949 pp.364-365, 1950 pp.387-388, Libya 1951 p.425, 1952 p.424, 1953 pp.420-421, 1954 p.425, 1955 pp.467-468, 1956 p.405, 1957 p.467, 1958 p.407, 1959 pp.402-403, 1960 p.396, 1961 p.402, 1962 p.402, 1963 p.521, 1964 p.507, 1965 pp.488-489, 1966 p.467, 1967 p.480, 1968 p.480, 1969 p.465, 1970 pp.469-470, 1971 p.451, 1972 p.417, 1973 pp.414-415, 1974 p.414, 1975 pp.439-440, 1976 pp.463-464, 1977 pp.459-460, 1978 pp.495-497, 1979 pp.489-491, 1980 pp.491-492, 1981 pp.492-493, 1982 pp.493-494, 1983 p.487, 1984 pp.485-486, 1985 pp.492-493, 725, 1986 pp.487-488, 723, 1987 pp.456-458, 691, 1988 pp.415-416, 643, 1989 pp.415, 644, 1990 pp.432-433, 659, 1991 pp.412-413, 643, 1992 pp.387, 643, 1993 pp.389, 653, 1994 pp.388-389, 654, 1995 pp.438-439, 654, 1996 pp.436-437, 654, 1997 pp.445-446, 652, 1999 pp.466-467, 647, 2002 pp.458, 658
Statesman's Year-Book Libya, 1937 pp.1082-1085, 1942 pp.1043-1045, 1943 pp.1039-1041, 1960-1961 pp.1218-1223, 1970-1971 pp.1131-1135, 1973-1974 pp.1141-1145, 1975-1976 pp.1129-1132, 1976-1977 pp.1128-1133, 1978-1979 pp.788-793, 1979-1980 pp.792-797, 1980-1981 pp.795-800, 1981-1982 pp.798-803, 1982-1983 pp.799-804, 1983-1984 pp.792-797, 1984-1985 pp.793-797, 1985-1986 pp.795-799, 1986-1987 pp.795-799, 1987-1988 pp.799-803, 1988-1989 pp.801-805, 1989-1990 pp.810-814, 1990-1991 pp.811-815, 1991-1992 pp.812-816, 1992-1993 pp.892-896, 1993-1994 pp.887-891, 1994-1995 pp.881-885, 1995-1996 pp.877-881, 1996-1997 pp.826-830, 1997-1998 pp.839-843, 1998-1999 pp.899-903, 2000 pp.1025-1029, 2001 pp.1001-1005, 2002 pp.1043-1047, 2003 pp.1045-1049, 2004 pp.1051-1055, 2005 pp.1057-1061, 2006 pp.1057-1062, 2007 pp.794-798, 2008 pp.790-794
(New) Int'l Yearbook 1914 p.413, 1916 p.380, 1918 p.369, 1919 pp.383-384, 1920 p.396, 1921 p.419, 1922 p.418, 1923 p.421, 1924 p.423, 1925 p.388, 1926 p.433, 1928 p.410, 1929 p.464, 1930 p.433, 1931 p.463, 1932 pp.452-453, 1933 p.443, 1934 p.377, Libya 1935 p.395, 1938 pp.410-411, 1939 p.437, Events of 1940 p.411, 1941 p.332, 1942 pp.378-379, 1943 pp.336-337, 1944 p.351, 1945 pp.335-336, 1947 pp.567-569
Americana Annual 1927 p.501, 1928 p.456, 1930 p.445, 1931 pp.446-447, 1932 pp.413-414, 1933 p.437, 1934 p.339, 1935 p.406, 1936 p.409, 1937 pp.413-414, 1938 p.392, 1939 p.442, 1940 pp.454-455, 1943 p.434, 1944 p.403, 1945 p.434, 1946 pp.453-454, 1947 pp.415-416, 1957 pp.458-459, 1961 pp.430-431, 1962 pp.439-440, 1963 pp.396-397, 1964 pp.393-394, 1965 p.412, 1967 pp.416-417, 1968 pp.412-413, 1969 p.423, 1970 p.421, 1971 p.412, 1972 p.411, 1973 p.412, 1974 p.348, 1976 p.345, 1988 pp.326-327, 1989 pp.330-331, 1990 pp.322-323, 1992 p.329, 1993 pp.327-328, 1994 pp.328-329, 1998 p.320, 2006 p.234
Other Article : Libya, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1935 p.332, 1936 p.308, 1937 p.311, 1938 p.315, 1940 p.345, 1941 p.295, 1942 p.262, 1943 p.265, 1944 pp.180-181, 1946 pp.262-264, 1952 p.246, 1961 pp.188-189 [G]

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