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Literature on the History of North Africa
Egypt 641-1250 al-Andalus
First posted on January 27th 2012







Umayyad Maghreb . Kairouan was established in 671 by the Umayyad Caliphate as a forward army camp, in their drive to wrest the province of Africa out of the hands of the Byzantine Empire. This was accomplished with the conquest of Carthago in 695. By 710 Umayyad forced had reached the Atlantic coast. In Morocco's Rif Mountains, the Emirate of Nekor was established as a vassall of the Umayyad Caliphate (until 1019). In 711 an Arab army crossed over to Spain where it conquered the Visigothic Kingdom.

Berber Revolt . In 740-742 a Berber revolt eliminated Umayyad influence west of Kairouan. When the Abbasid Dynasty ousted the Umayyad Dynasty in 750, it was unable to restore Caliphate control over the Maghreb west of Kairouan. Neither was the Umayyad Dynasty establishing itself in al-Andalus able to extend her control across the Straits of Gibraltar.

Rustamid Center . The Rustamid Dynasty, having evolved out of the Berber Revolt, ruled the central Maghreb 761-909. Capital Tahert.

Idrisid Morocco . 789-985, capital Fez, Zaidi. In 917-926 the Idrisids were defeated by the Fatimids and withdrew to mountain strongholds, never again to control Morocco. The Emirate of Nekor, as well as Sijilmassa and the Barghawata Confederacy (Tamesna) were able to retain their independence.

Ifranid West . 790-1068, capital Tlemcen, Sufri.

Aghlabid Ifriqiya . 800-909, capital Kairouan, Sunni; a dynasty of Abbasid governors. In 827 the conquest of Sicily was begun. In 909 overthrown by the Fatimids.

Fatimid Maghreb . The Fatimid Dynasty was proclaimed in 909, then with its capital at Mahdia. By the early 920s it had established control over practically the entire Maghreb. In 969 Egypt (with Syria and the Hejaz) was conquered and the capital moved to Cairo. The Fatimid Dynasty declared Shi'a Islam official religion (in contrast to the Sunni Abbasid Caliphate) and claimed the title of Caliph for themselves.

Zirid East . In 973 the Fatimid governor of Kairouan abandoned the Shi'a interpretation of Islam in favour of the Sunni interpretation, and (nominally) recognised the Abbasid ruler as Caliph. The Zirid Dynasty ruled from 973 to 1152; a branch of the dynasty ruled part of al-Andalus (Granada).
The Fatimid Dynasty responded by moving the Banu Hilal, a tribe of Bedouins, from the Arab peninsula into the Sahara desert. They employed Bedouin warfare against the Zirid Dynasty. The Banu Hilal are credited with having greatly expanded the Arab-speaking parts of the Maghreb, and having pushed the Berber-speaking population into isolated pockets of territory.

Hammadid Center . The Hammadid Dynasty, an offshoot of the Zirid Dynasty, ruled eastern Algeria from 1040 to 1157, capital Bejaia, Sunni.

Almoravid West . In 1040 the Berber Almoravid Dynasty began to take control of the western Maghreb. Their capital of Marrakech was established in 1062. In 1086 an Almoravid army defeated allied Christian kings, temporarily halting the Reconquista. al-Andalus was under Almoravid control 1086-1147; in the western Maghreb it held on until 1163.

Contested East . In 1148 the Norman Kingdom of Sicily began a campaign with the aim of conquering Ifriqiya; it ended in a defeat at the hands of the Almohads in 1160.
Almohad West . The Almohad Dynasty was established in 1121, by 1160 it had defeated the Normans in Ifriqiya and by 1163 had defeated the Almoravids and taken control of the western Maghreb. Their capital was first at Tinmel, then at Marrakech, then at Sevilla; official religion Sunni Islam. The Almohads also took control of Moorish al-Andalus, but lost it in 1212, and soon after they lost Morocco to the Marinids (1215). The Almohad Dynasty lasted until 1269.

Marinid West . The Marinid Dynasty ruled the western Maghreb (Morocco, Algiers) 1215-1465, capital Fes, Sunni. Ally of the Emirate of Granada. The fall of Ceuta to the Portuguese in 1415 was the first establishment of a Portuguese outpost on the Maghreb coast; more followed. The Portuguese regarded this warfare part of the crusade movement.

Wattasid West . The Wattasid Dynasty ruled Morocco from 1472 to 1554. Capital Fez, Sunni.

Ziyyanid Center . The Ziyyanid Dynasty ruled much of Algeria from 1235 to 1556. Capital Tlemcen, Sunni.

Hafsid East . The Hafsid Dynasty (originally Almohad governors) ruled the eastern Maghreb from 1229 to 1574. Capital Tunis, Sunni.

Historical Atlas, North Africa Page

Students' Paper : Lee, Seungwoo : Environmental History of North Africa (2009)






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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article : Maghreb, from Wikipedia
Historic El Bekri, Description de l'Afrique septentrionale, French trsl. McGuckin Slane, 1913, Gallica
C. Picard, L'inventaire des ports et de la navigation au Maghreb d'apres les relations des auteurs arabes et medievaux, Comptes-rendus des seances de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres Annee 2003 Volume 147 Numero 1 pp.227-251, in French, Persee
A. Miquel, La description du Maghreb dans la geographie d'al-I?'akhri, Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1973 Volume 15 Numero 15-16 pp.231-239, in French, Persee
Links on History
Historical Dictionaries Wikimazigh, Encyclopedie du Monde Amazigh (Berbere), in French
P. Lambert, Dictionnaire illustre de la Tunisie, 1912, in French, Gallica
Organizations Maghreb Studies Association, American Institute for Maghrib Studies, Centre d'Etudes Maghrebines a Tunis
Societe Historique Algerienne of 1856
Association Marocaine pour la Recherche Historique
Societe d'Histoire des Juifs en Tunisie
Timelines
Accounts of History current Article : Maghreb : History, from Wikipedia
historical of the World of Islam A complete history of the Arabs: from the birth of Mohammed to the reduction of Baghdad , 1761, GB
G. Weil, Geschichte der Chalifen vol.1 : Vom Tode Mohammeds bis zum Untergange der Omejjaden, mit Einschluss der Geschichte Spaniens, vom Einfalle der Araber bis zur Trennung vom ?tlichen Chalifate, 1846, vol.2 : Die Abbasiden bis zur Einnahme von Bagdad durch die Bujiden. 132-334 d. H.: 749-945 n. Chr., 1848, vol.3 : Von der Einnahme von Baghdad bis zum Untergange des Chalifats von Baghdad, 945-1258, 1851, in German, GB
of the Maghreb L. Pechot, Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord avant 1830, pr?d? de la g?graphie physique et politique de la Tunisie, de l'Algerie et du Maroc vol.1 1914, vol.2 1914, vol.3 1914, in French, IA
A. Laroui, The history of the Maghrib, an interpretive essay , 1977, trsl. from the French by R. Manheim, IA
E. Mercier, Histoire de l'Afrique septentrionale (Berberie) depuis les temps les plus recules jusqu'a la conquete Française, vol.1 1888, vol.2 1888, in French, Gallica
G. Faure-Biguet, Histoire de l'Afrique septentrionale sous la domination musulmane 1905, in French, Gallica
I. Hamet, Histoire du Maghreb, 1923, in French, Gallica
M. Kably, Pouvoir universel et pouvoirs provinciaux au Maghreb dans la premiere moitie du XIIIe siecle, Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1993 Volume 68 Numero 68-69 pp.215-224, in French, Persee
Morocco J. Braithwaite, The History of the Revolutions in the Empire of Morocco 1729, IA
L. de Chenier, Recherches historiques sur les Maures: et histoire de l'empire de Maroc, vol.1 1787, vol.2 1787, vol.3 1787, in French, IA; The present state of the empire of Morocco. Its animals, products, climate, soil, cities, ports, provinces, coins, weights, and measures. With the language, religion, laws, manners, customs, and character, of the Moors; the history of the dynasties since Edris; the naval force and commerce of Morocco; and the character, conduct, and views, political and commercial, of the reigning emperor vol.1 1788, vol.2 1788, vol.3 1788, IA
Article : History of Morocco : Early Islamic Morocco, from Wikipedia
Maroc, from Memo, in French
of Algeria J. Morgan, A complete history of Algiers. To which is prefixed, an epitome of the general history of Barbary, from the earliest times, vol.1 1739, vol.2 1739, IA
J.J.E. Roy, Histoire de l'Alg?ie depuis les temps les plus anciens jusqu'a nos jours 1859, in French, GB
of Tunisia Article : History of Early Islamic Tunisia, from Wikipedia
of Tripolitania
Historiography A. Hannoum, Historiographie et legende au Maghreb : la Kahina ou la production d'une memoire, Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales Annee 1999 Volume 54 Numero 3 pp.667-686, in French, Persee
Chronique des Almohades & des Hafçides attribuee a Zerkechi, French trsl. by E. Fagnan, 1895, Gallica
Specific Periods Kingdom of Africa Article : Kingdom of Africa, from Wikipedia
Aghlabids Alternative spellings : Aghlebites
Article : Aghlabids, from Wikipedia
Article : Aghlabides, from Wikipedia French edition
Almohads Article : Almohad Caliphate, from Wikipedia
Article : Almohades, from Wikipedia French edition
P. Buresi, La reaction ideologique almoravide et almohade ?l'expansion occidentale dans la peninsule Iberique (fin XIe-mi XIIIe siecles), Actes des congr? de la Societe des historiens medievistes de l'enseignement superieur public Annee 2002 Volume 33 Numero 33 pp.229-241, in French, Persee
R. Bourouiba, La doctrine almohade, Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1973 Volume 13 Numero 13-14 pp.141-158, in French, Persee
Almoravids Article : Almoravid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : Almoravides, from Wikipedia French edition
P. Buresi, La reaction ideologique almoravide et almohade ?l'expansion occidentale dans la peninsule Iberique (fin XIe-mi XIIIe siecles), Actes des congr? de la Societe des historiens medievistes de l'enseignement superieur public Annee 2002 Volume 33 Numero 33 pp.229-241, in French, Persee
Barghawata (Tamesna) Article : Barghawata Confederacy, from Wikipedia
Berber Revolt Article : Berber Revolt, from Wikipedia
Fatimids Alternative spellings : Fatimites
Article : Fatimid(s), from Encyclopedia of the Middle East, from Encyclopedia of the Orient, from Wikipedia; from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
The Rise and Decline of the Fatimid Empire, from Ismaili.Net
De Lacy O'Leary, A Short History Of The Fatimid Khalifate, 1923, IA
Chapter 5 : North Africa & Egyptian Period, from Ismaili.Net
Hafsids Article : Hafsid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : Hafsides, from Wikipedia French edition
The Hafsids 1228-1574, from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
Hafsid Caliphate, from Global Security
Abd al Aziz Daoulatli, Les relations entre le sultan Qala'un et l'Ifriqiya, d'apres deux documents egyptiens (680 Hg/1281 J.C. -689 Hg/ 1290 J.C.), Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1974 Volume 17 Numero 17 pp.43-62, in French, Persee
H. Bresc, Malte et l'Afrique (1282-1492), Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1994 Volume 71 Numero 71 pp.63-74, in French, Persee
Hammadids Article : Hammadid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : Hammadides, from Wikipedia French edition
Banu Hilal Article : Banu Hilal, from Wikipedia
Article : Hilaliens, from Wikipedia French edition
R. Idris, De la realite de la catastrophe hilalienne, Annales. ?onomies, Soci??, Civilisations Annee 1968 Volume 23 Numero 2 pp.390-396, in French, Persee
J. Poncet, Le mythe de la "catastrophe" hilalienne , Annales. Economies, Societes, Civilisations Annee 1967 Volume 22 Numero 5 pp.1099-1120, in French, Persee
Idrisids Alternative spellings : Edricides
Article : Idrisid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : Idrissides, from Wikipedia French edition
Article : The Shia Idrisid State in Maghrib, Shorter Shi'ite Encyclopaedia, posted by Imam Reza Network
Les Idrissides 789-926, from Qantara Patrimoine Mediterraneen , in French
Ifranids Article : Ifranid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Marinids Article : Marinid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : Merinides, from Wikipedia French edition
Portuguese Invasions Article : Morocco-Portugal Relations : Portuguese Expansion 1415-1769, from Wikipedia
B. Rosenberger, La croisade africaine et le pouvoir royal au Portugal au XVe siecle, Genese de l'Etat moderne en Mediterranee. Approches historique et anthropologique des pratiques et des repr?entations. Actes des tables rondes internationales tenues ?Paris (24-26 septembre 1987 et 18-19 mars 1988) Annee 1993 pp.329-348, in French, Persee
Categoria : Categoria:Hist?ia de Portugal em Marrocos , from Wikipedia Portuguese edition
Rustamids Article : Rustamid, from Wikipedia
Article : Rostemides, from Wikipedia French edition
The Rustamids 761-909, from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
T. Lewicki, L'Etat nord-africain de Tahert et ses relations avec le Soudan occidental a la fin du VIIIe et au IXe siecle, Cahiers d'etudes africaines Annee 1962 Volume 2 Numero 8 pp.513-535, in French, Persee
Sijilmassa Article : Sijilmassa : History, from Wikipedia
Article : Sijilmassa, from Wikipedia Portuguese edition
Wattasids Article : Wattasid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : Wattassides, from Wikipedia French edition
Ziyyanids Article Zayyanid Dynasty, Tlemcen : History, from Wikipedia
Article : Zianides, Tlemcen : Periode zianide, from Wikipedia French edition
R.L. Lawless, Tlemcen, capitale du Maghreb central. Analyse des fonctions d'une ville islamique medievale, Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1975 Volume 20 Numero 20 pp.49-66, Persee
Zirids Article : Zirid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : Zirides, from Wikipedia French edition
Politics Administration J. Berque, Cadis de Kairouan, d'apr? un manuscrit tunisien, Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1973 Volume 13 Numero 13-14 pp.97-108, in French, Persee
V. Lagardere, Le gouvernorat des villes et la suprematie des Banu Turgut au Maroc et en Andalus de 477/1075 a 500/1106, Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1978 Volume 25 Numero 25 pp.49-65, in French, Persee
Foreign Relations Abd al Aziz Daoulatli, Les relations entre le sultan Qala'un et l'Ifriqiya, d'apres deux documents egyptiens (680 Hg/1281 J.C. -689 Hg/ 1290 J.C.), Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1974 Volume 17 Numero 17 pp.43-62, in French, Persee
H. Bresc, Malte et l'Afrique (1282-1492), Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1994 Volume 71 Numero 71 pp.63-74, in French, Persee
T. Lewicki, L'Etat nord-africain de Tahert et ses relations avec le Soudan occidental a la fin du VIIIe et au IXe siecle, Cahiers d'etudes africaines Annee 1962 Volume 2 Numero 8 pp.513-535, in French, Persee
Cte de Mas Latrie, Relations et commerce de l'Afrique septentrionale ou Maghreb avec les nations chr?iennes au moyen age, 1886, in French, Gallica
K.M. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571: The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 1976, GB
Les Hafsides et l'Espagne, une histoire pathetique pt.4
Military
Economy & Finances Money & Finances C. Vanacker, Geographie economique de l'Afrique du Nord selon les auteurs arabes du IXe siecle au milieu du XIIe siecle, Annales. ?onomies, Societes, Civilisations Anne 1973 Volume 28 Numero 3 pp.659-680, in French, Persee
Trade J.J.L. Bargles, Memoire sur les relations commerciales de Tlemcen avec le Soudan sous le regne les Beni Zeyan, 1853, in French, GB
T. Mansouri, Produits agricoles et commerce maritime en Ifriqiya aux XIIe-XVe siecles, Medievales Annee 1997 Volume 16 Numero 33 pp.125-139, in French, Persee
Cte de Mas Latrie, Relations et commerce de l'Afrique septentrionale ou Maghreb avec les nations chr?iennes au moyen age, 1886, in French, Gallica
L. de Mas Latrie, Aperçu des relations commerciales de l'Italie septentrionale avec l'Algerie au moyen-age 1845, in French, Gallica
Manufacturing
Mining and Metalworking
Transportation
Social History R.I. Lawless, L'evolution du peuplement, de l'habitat et des paysages agraires du Maghreb, Annales de Geographie Annee 1972 Volume 81 Numero 446 pp.451-464, in French, Persee
Ethnography E. Ashtor, Un mouvement migratoire au haut Moyen Age : migrations de l'Irak vers les pays mediterraneens, Annales. Economies, Societes, Civilisations Annee 1972 Volume 27 Numero 1 pp.185-214, in French, Persee
P. Gourdin, Emigrer au XVe siecle : la communaute ligure des pecheurs de corail de Marsacares. I. Etude de la population et des modalites de depart, Melanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Moyen-Age, Temps modernes Annee 1986 Volume 98 Numero 98-2 pp.543-605, in French, Persee
Religion General
Muslim General Egypt and North Africa, from P. von Sivers, The History of Islam in Africa, 2000, posted by NITLE
E. Doutte, Notes sur l'islam magribin : les marabouts, 1900, in French, Gallica
Sunni
Shi'a
Kharijite Article : Kharijites, from Wikipedia
Ismaili
Jewish Virtual Jewish History Tour : Fatimids, from Jewish Virtual Library
D. Cazes, Essai sur l'histoire des Isra?ites de Tunisie 1888, in French, IA
Christian J. Lloyd, The North African Church 1880, IA
S.A. Donaldson, Church life and thought in North Africa, A.D. 200 1909, IA
L.R. Holme, The extinction of the Christian churches in North Africa 1898, IA
History of Regions Geographic Regions S.A. Boulifa, Le Djurdjura a travers l'histoire : depuis l'antiquite jusqu'a 1830, 1925, in French, Gallica
C. Amat, Le M'zab et les M'zabites, 1888, in French, Gallica
Predecessor States
Local History Article : Tiaret (Tahert), from Wikipedia
Article : Tlemcen (Tilimsan), from Wikipedia
R.L. Lawless, Tlemcen, capitale du Maghreb central. Analyse des fonctions d'une ville islamique medievale, Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1975 Volume 20 Numero 20 pp.49-66, in French, Persee
Article : Fes el-Bali, from Wikipedia
Article : Marrakech, from Wikipedia
Article : Mahdia (Mehedia), from Wikipedia
Article : Kairouan (Qayrawan), from Wikipedia
J. Despois, Kairouan, Annales de Geographie Annee 1930 Volume 39 Numero 218 pp.159-177, in French, Persee
A. de C. Motylinski, Notices historiques sur le Mzab. Gerara depuis sa fondation 1885, in French, Gallica
Institutions
Culture Early Medieval Dynasties in The West: Fatimids, Ayyubids, from Islamic Arts & Architecture
The Art of the Fatimid Period (909-1171), from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
O. Grabar, Fatimid Art, Precursor or Culmination, Institute of Ismaili Studies
S. Mazot, Architecture of the Fatimid 2012
Egypt until 1060, Egypt 1060-1171 from Central Islamic Lands in R. Ettinghausen, The Art and Architecture of Islam: 650-1250, 1987, posted by NITLE
Building Style : Aghlabid, Almohad, Almoravid, Fatimid Hafsid, Idrisid Zirid, from ArchNet
A. Cherif, Histoire de la medecine Arabe en Tunisie, 1908, IA
Biographies Ibn Khallikan [1211-1282], Ibn Khallikan's biographical dictionary, Wikipedia Article, English trsl. vol.1 1868, vol.2 1843, vol.3 1868, GB
Middle Eastern Natural Philosophers, from GLPS2 Wiki
Others Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
J.L.G. Guyon, Histoire chronologique des epidemies du Nord de l'Afrique, depuis les temps les plus recules jusqu'la nos jours 1855, in French, GB

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen List of Rulers, Aghlabid, Almohad, Almoravid, Fatimid, Hafsid, Hammadid, Idrisid, Ifranid, Marinid, Rustamid, Wattasid, Zayyanid, Zirid, Dynasty, from Wikipedia
I. Mladjov, Rulers of Algeria -1555, Rulers of Morocco, Rulers of Tunisia -1957
Lists of Bishops
Documents Image Databanks
Archival Deposits
Laws
Treaties Antiguos tratados de paces y alianzas entre algunos reyes de Aragon y Diferentes Principes Infieles de Asia y Africa, desde el Siglo XIII hasta el XV, (136 pp.), (118 pp.), 1786, GB
L. de Mas Latrie (ed.), Traites de paix et de commerce et documents divers concernant les relations des chretiens avec les Arabes de l'Afrique septentrionale au Moyen Age, 1866, Gallica
Document Surveys Catalogues of Oriental Manuscripts, at this site
Document Collections Extraits inedits relatifs au Maghreb (histoire et geographie, trsl. into French by E. Fagnan, 1924, Gallica
Documents pour servir a l'etude du Nord-Ouest Africain, vol.1 1894, Gallica
Individual Documents Ibn Abd al-Hakam, 9th c., Wikipedia Article, The history of the conquest of Egypt, North Africa and Spain , trsl. into English by C.C. Torrey, 1922, IA
Al Bakri (1014-1094), Wikipedia Article, Description de l'Afrique septentrionale, French trsl. McGuckin Slane, 1913, Gallica
Ibn Idhari, Muhammad (1312), Wikipedia Article, Histoire de l'Afrique et de l'Espagne, intitulee Al-bayano 'l-Mogrib, trsl. into French by R.P.A. Dozy, 1848, IA
Al Nuwayri (-1333) : Wikipedia Article, Histoire de la province d'Afrique et du Maghreb, trsl. by McGuckin Slane, Journal Asiatique 1841 pp.98-135, in French, GB
Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) : Wikipedia Article, Histoire de l'Afrique sous la dynastie des Aghlabites, et de la Sicile sous la domination Musulmane, French trsl. by A.N. de Vergeres, 1841, Gallica ; Histoire des Berberes et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale, French trsl. McGuckin Slane, vol.1 1852, vol.2 1854, vol.3 1856, vol.4 1856, GB ; Histoire des Beni 'Abd el-Wad: rois de Tlemcen vol.1 1904, in French, IA
Abu Zakariya Yahya al-Wattasi (-1448), Wikipedia Article, Chronique, trsl. into French by E. Masqueray, 1878, Gallica
Abou Mohammed Salah ben Abd el-Halim of Granada, Roudh el-kartas; histoire des souverains du Maghreb (Espagne et Maroc) et annales de Fes, trsl. into French by A. Beaumier, 1860, IA
El-Tenessy Abou-Abd' Allah-Mohammed Ibn Abd' El-Delyl, Histoire des Beni Zeiyan, rois de Tlemcen, trsl. by J.J. Barges, 1852, in French, GB
Complement de l'histoire des Beni-Zeiyan, rois de Tlemcen, ouvrage du cheikh Mohammed Abd'al Djalil al-Tenessi, trsl. by J.J. Barges, in French, 1887, IA
Historical Maps Atlasses, Collections H. Mager, Atlas d'Algerie et Tunisie, 1901, in French, Gallica
North Africa
Overview, Modern
Eastern Hemisphere 700 AD, 800 AD, 900 AD, 1000 AD, 1025 AD, 1100 AD, 1200 AD, 1300 AD, 1400 AD, 1500 AD, from Thomas Lessman's Atlas of World History
Euratlas Periodis, Europe in the year 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500
Historical Maps by Dynasty
Modern
Map : Aghlabid Dynasty 800-909, from Wikipedia
Map : Almohads 1200, from Wikipedia
Map : Almoravids, from Wikipedia; Almoravid Empire, from Wikipedia
Map : Fatimid Caliphate 969, from Wikipedia
Map : Hafsids 1400, from Wikipedia
Map : Hammadids 1100, from Wikipedia
Map : Idrissides, 8th-10th Century, from Wikipedia
Map : Ifranid, from Wikipedia
Map : Marinid Dynasty 1258-1420, from Wikipedia
Map : Rustamid Dynasty 776-909, from Wikipedia
Map : Wattasid Morocco, from Wikipedia; Map : Wattasid Dynasty 1420-1547, from Wikipedia
Map : Zayyanids 1300-1500, from Wikipedia
Map : Zirids 1000, from Wikipedia
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular
Religious
Economic
Geographical
Ethnographical
Historical
Tour Guides, Travelogues J.C. Garcin, Ibn Hawqal, l'Orient et le Maghreb, Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1983 Volume 35 Numero 35 pp.77-91, Persee
Institutions Archives
Musea Lists, Links List of Museums in Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, from Wikipedia
Museums of Algeria
Museums of Morocco
Museums of Tunisia
Musea Museum Websites
Monuments UNESCO World Heritage Centre : Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia
Libraries Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, from Directory of Libraries in North Africa
Bibliotheque de la Source, Rabat
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Hafsid Flag, from Wikipedia; Hafsid Flag 2, from Wikimedia Commons
Marinid Emblem, from Wikipedia
Flag of Tlemcen (Abdalwadid), from FOTW
Coins General search Coin Archives for Maghreb, name of dynasty
Digital Library Numis : Islamic Coins - North Africa, Egypt
Histoire de la monnaie, from Bank al-Maghreb, in French
O. Codrington, A manual of Musalman numismatics, 1904, IA
Aghlabid Aghlabid Dynasty, Oriental Coins Database
Aghlabids, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Almoravid Almoravids, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Fatimid Fatimid Coins, from Oriental Coins Database
Fatimids, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Hafsid Hafsid Dynasty, from Oriental Coins Database
Hafsids, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Hafsid Dinar, from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage, from David Collection
Idrisid Idrisid Dynasty, from Oriental Coins Database
Idrisids, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Marinid Marinid Dynasty, from Oriental Coins Database
Marinids, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Wattasid Wattasid Dynasty, from Oriental Coins Database
Zirid Zirid Dynasty of Ifriqiya, of Qayrawan, from Oriental Coins Database
Zirid Emirate of Qayrawan, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Ziyyanid Ziyyanid Dynasty, from Oriental Coins Database

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on the Maghreb V.C. Chauvin, Bibliographie des ouvrages arabes ou relatifs aux Arabes, publi? dans l'Europe chr?ienne de 1810 ?1885 1892, IA
Annuaire de l'Afrique du Nord, Bibliographie Arabe 1966, 1967, 1968,
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Swiss Electronic Library; Gallica
on the Maghreb
Online Journals full text online Persee (Digital Library of Academic Journals, Mainmtained in France)
Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Mediterran? 1966-1999, Persee
Revue Africaine 1856-1961
Annuaire de l'Afrique du Nord 1962-2009
Table of Contents
Online
Historiography Article : Arabic Historiography, by E.M. Choueiri, pp.40-42 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
General Accounts North Africa
on the Maghreb
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionary