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Literature on the History of the Middle East
First posted on November 23rd 2011

In 1250 a Cairo coup resulted in the Ayyubid Sultanate being replaced by the Mamluk Sultanate (of Cairo, to distinguish it from the contemporary Mamluk Sultanate of Delhi). The term "Mamluk" (Turkish, meaning slave) has been applied to it by others; the official name was "Dawla al-Turkiyya" (State of Turkey).
The Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo expanded, conquering the Crusader States (Kingdom of Jerusalem, Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli) in 1291, the (Christian) Kingdom of Makuria (northern Sudan, capital Dongola) in 1312, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia in 1375.
The Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo extended over Egypt, Northern Sudan, Barqa (Eastern Libya), Greater Syria, Cilicia and the Hejaz.
Egypt played an important role in international trade, connecting the Indian Ocean Basin with the Mediterranean; Alexandria served at its main port; main trading partner was the Republic of Venice.
The appearance of Portuguese merchants in the Indian Ocean marked the beginning of the Mamluk decline; in 1517, the Mamluk Sultanate was conquered and annexed by the Ottoman Empire. Barqa became an Ottoman vassall in 1521. The territory of the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo was divided into Ottoman Egypt, Ottoman Syria, Ottoman Hejaz and the vassall state of Barqa.

Historical Atlas, Egypt Page

Students' Paper : Kim, Doyeong : Alexandria: A Center of Interregional Trade and Host to Foreign Merchants (2012)
Students' Paper : Kang, Jun-suk : A History of Textiles in Egypt (2009)
Students' Paper : Lee, Seungwoo : Environmental History of North Africa (2009)
Students' Paper : Kim, Hong, Mamluk Egypt and its Decline (2008)

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Country Profiles Current Article : Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), from Wikipedia
The Mamluks (1250-1517), from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
Article : Mameluke, from Encyclopedia of the Middle East
Article : Mamluks, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Article : Mamluks, from Jewish Virtual Library
Historic Al-Makrizi, Histoire des Sultans Mamlouks vol.1 1845, IA; vol.2 1845, trsl. into French by M. Quatremere, GB
Links on History Virtual Library History : Egypt
Category : Mamluk Egypt, from Wikipedia
Eternal Egypt
Historical Dictionaries Chicago Online Encyclopedia of Mamluk Studies
Encyclopedia Coptica
Organizations Middle East Documentation Center, Univ. of Chicago; edits Mamluk Studies Review
Historical Society of Jews from Egypt
St. Mark Foundation of Coptic History Studies
Accounts of History current Article : Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), from Wikipedia
The Mamluks (1250-1517), from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
Article : Mameluke, from Encyclopedia of the Middle East
Article : Mamluks, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Article : Mamluks, from Jewish Virtual Library
Articles History of Muslim Egypt, from Wikipedia
Article : Dawla al-Turkiyya (State of Turkey), from Wikipedia
historical J. Wilson, The history of Egypt : from the earliest accounts of that country till the expulsion of the French from Alexandria vol.1 1805, vol.2 1805, vol.3 1805, GB
Historiography A. Elbendary, The historiography of protest in late Mamluk and early Ottoman Egypt and Syria, IIAS Newsletter Spring 2007
Specific Periods Article : Bahri Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : Burji Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Arnold van Wickeren, Geschiedenis van Portugal en van de Portugezen overzee, Deel 4 chapter 2 subch.1 Egypte en Venetië na het verlies van hun handel in specerijen, Deel 4 chapter 3 subch.5 De zeeslag voor Chaul (1508), deel 5 chapter 5 subch.2 : De Egyptisch-Turkse Dreiging, Deel 5 chapter 5 subch.5 : De expeditie naar Aden en de Rode Zee., Deel 6 chapter 6 subch.3 : Albergaria's mislukking in de Rode Zee., in Dutch, from Colonial Voyage
Military Category : Wars involving Mamluk Egypt, from Wikipedia
Article : Mongol invasions of Syria, from Wikipedia
Article : Battle of Ain Jalut 1260, from Wikipedia
Article : First Battle of Homs 1260, from Wikipedia
Article : Second Battle of Homs 1281, from Wikipedia
Article : Mongol Raids into Palestine, from Wikipedia
Article : Ninth Crusade 1271-1272, from Wikipedia
Article : Siege of Acre (1291), from Wikipedia
Article : Ottoman-Mamluk War 1485-1491 from Wikipedia
Article : Portuguese-Mamluk Naval War 1505-1517, from Wikipedia
Article : Ottoman-Mamluk War 1516-1517, from Wikipedia
The Invasion of Syria by Tamerlane (1400-1) and Ibn Taghri Birdi's description of the life of Tamerlane, De Re Militari
J.M. Smith, The Mamluk Faris
A Mamluk Manual of War from the Fourteenth Century, posted by De Re Militari
A. Fuess, Rotting Ships and Razed Harbours : The Naval Policy of Mamluk Egypt , De Re Militari
Economy & Finances Money & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Egypt; Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Egypt
Article Egyptian Pound, from Wikipedia
B.J. Walker, Popular responses to mamluk fiscal reforms in Syria , Bulletin d'etudes orientales 2009
F.J.A. Ruiz de Galaretta, Pouvoir et finance en Mediterranee pre-moderne: le deuxieme Etat mamelouk et le commerce des epices (1382-1517) 2009, in French, GB
Trade G. Heyd, Le colonie commerciali degli Italiani in Oriente nel medio evo vol.1 1866, vol.2 1868, in Italian, GB
W. Heyd, Geschichte des Levantehandels im Mittelalter vol.1 1879, vol.2 1879, in German, IA
W. Heyd, Histoire du commerce du Levant au moyen-age vol.1 1885, vol.2 1886, in French, IA
G.B. Depping, Histoire du commerce entre le Levant et l'Europe depuis les croisades jusqu'a la Fondation des Colonies d'Amerique, 1830, in French, IA
Manufacturing : Textiles Article : Gossypian Barbadense (Egyptian Cotton), from Wikipedia; History, from egyptian-cotton.com
The Textile Industry in Egypt, 10 articles, from Eternal Egypt
Manufacturing : Glass A Brief History of Islamic Glass, from Coming Museum of Glass
Mining and Metalworking Article : Mining Industry of Egypt, from Wikipedia
Manufacturing : Pottery Crafts, from Eternal Egypt
Transportation Transportation, from Eternal Egypt
Social History H. Mahamid, The Construction of Islamic-Educational Institutions in Mamluk Gaza., Nebula 2007
S. Schmitz, Der schwarze Tod in Ägypten : Strategien der Krisenbewältigung bei nomadischen und sesshaften Bevölkerungsgruppen im 14. und 15. Jahrhundert, pp.47-60 in P. Masius (ed.), Katastrophen machen Geschichte, 2010, in German, GB
A.N. Poliak, Feudalism in Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and the Lebanon, 1250-1900 1939, IA
Ethnography The History of the Coptic Language, from St. Shenouda
Religion General
Jewish Virtual Jewish History Tour : Egypt, Syria from Jewish Virtual Library; Egypt, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Orthodox Article : Church of Alexandria, from OrthodoxWiki
Article : Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
Coptic Article : Church of Alexandria (Coptic), from OrthodoxWiki
The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church Of Egypt, from St. Takla
Article : Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
Article : Coptic History, from Wikipedia
J.M. Neale, A history of the Holy Eastern church: the Patriarchate of Alexandria, 1850, GB
T.Y. Malaty, The Coptic Calendar and Church of Alexandria, n.d., GB
History of the Copts, from copts.net
Catholic Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Egypt, from Kirken i Norge
Coptic Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria, from Opus Libani
Maronites The Maronites and Lebanon, A Brief History, scroll down to "Under the Mamluk Sword"
Druze Druze History, from Druze Heritage Foundation
History of Regions Geographic Regions : Egypt History of the Sinai Peninsula, from Wikipedia
History of the Nile Delta, from Wikipedia
E.A. Wallis Budge, A Short History of the Egyptian People, 1914, GB
J. Wilson, The history of Egypt: from the earliest accounts of that country, till the expulsion of the French from Alexandria, in the year 1801 vol.1 1805, vol.2 1805, vol.3 1805, GB
J.J. Marcel, A. Ryme, P. d'Avennes, Egypte: depuis la conquete des Arabes jusqu a la domination française 1848, in French, GB
Geographic Regions : Hejaz Article : Hejaz : History, from Wikipedia
Geographic Regions : Barqa Article : Barqa : History (Cyrenaica), from Wikipedia
Geographic Regions : Lebanon Lebanon : Article : History of Lebanon under Arab Rule : Mamluks 1282-1516, from Wikipedia
Geographic Regions : Cilicia Article : Ramadanids (Ramazanoglu), from Wikipedia
Geographic Regions : Palestine Palestine : R.S. Lissak, Chapter 7. The Population's Composition during the Mamluk Period (1260 - 1516): Elimination of the Christian Majority part 1, part 2
J. Kitto, The history of Palestine: from the patriarchal age to the present time 1860, GB
Geographic Regions : Sudan Article : Islamization of Sudan, from Wikipedia
Geographic Regions : Syria G. Le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems; a description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500 1890, IA
Predecessor States Article : Ayyubid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, from Wikipedia
Article : County of Tripoli, from Wikipedia
Article : Principality of Antioch, from Wikipedia
Article : Kingdom of Jerusalem, from Wikipedia
Article : Kingdom of Makuria (Dongola), from Wikipedia
Local History D.S. Margoliouth, Cairo, Jerusalem, and Damascus, three chief cities of the Egyptian sultans, 1907, IA
St.L. Poole, The Story of Cairo, 1902, Cairo; sketches of its history, monuments, and social life, 1898, IA
Article : Cairo : Foundation and Expansion, from Wikipedia
Article : History of Alexandria : Arab Rule, from Wikipedia
Article : Damascus : Mamluk Period, from Wikipedia
Article : Aleppo : Medieval Period, from Wikipedia
Article : Mecca : Medieval and Pre-Modern Times, from Wikipedia
G. Williams, R. Willis, The Holy city: Historical, topographical, and antiquarian notices of Jerusalem vol.1 1849, vol.2 1849, GB
Institutions Transport, Communication and Information (historical account), from Egypt State Information Service
Culture The Art of the Mamluk Period 1250-1517, from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
Guide to Mamluk Art, from Persian Carpet Guide
Others Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
K.M. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571: The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 1976, GB
J.L.G. Guyon, Histoire chronologique des epidemies du Nord de l'Afrique, depuis les temps les plus recules jusqu'la nos jours 1855, in French, GB

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Rulers and Heads of State of Egypt, from Wikipedia
Lists of Bishops List of Greek Orthodox Patriarchs of Alexandria, List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
List of Patriarchs of Alexandria (Greek-Orthodox), from OrthodoxWiki
Election Results from Psephos (since 2005)
Documents Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws
Document Surveys Catalogues of Oriental Manuscripts, at this site
Document Collections
Historical Maps Category : Old Maps of Egypt, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Maps of the Bahri Dynasty, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Maps of the Burji Dynasty, from Wikimedia Commons
Map : Mamluk Sultanate 1279, from Wikipedia
Map : Mamluk Sultanate, c.1300, c.1400, from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
Map : Mameluk Egypt, from Encyclopedia of the Middle East
Map of Anatolian Beyliks, from Wikipedia
Encyclopedia Entries
Religious Articles Egypt, Alexandria, Sinai, The Church of Alexandria, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1912
Article Egypt, Alexandria, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Ethnographical Egypte, pp.402-406 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Historical Chapter : Histoire Moderne d'Egypte sous le Gouvernement des Califes Fatimites, de Saladin et des Successeurs, pp.1-100 in vol.23/63 of Histoire universelle, depuis le commencement du monde jusqu'a present, Histoire Moderne, 1784, in French, GB
Tour Guides, Travelogues The travels of Ibn Batuta, trsl. by S. Lee, 1829, GB
The adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim traveler of the fourteenth century, by R.E. Dunn, 1986, GB; pp.41-80 on the Mamluks
The travels of Ludovico di Varthema in Egypt, Syria, Arabia Deserta and Arabia Felix, in Persia, India, and Ethiopia: A.D. 1503 to 1508 ed. by J.W. Jones, G.P. Badger, 1863, GB
Journey overland to India and Abyssinia, by Covilham and de Payva, pp.288-291 in vol.2 of R. Kerr, A general history and collection of voyages and travels, 1824, GB; Pero da Covilhao, from Discoverers Web; Article : Pro de Covilha, from Wikipedia
Institutions Archives National Archives of Egypt
Musea Lists, Links Museums in Egypt, from Tour Egypt
Museums in Egypt, from International Council of African Museums
Musea Museum Websites
Monuments World Heritage List, scroll down for Egypt; from UNESCO World Heritage; Tentative Lists : Egypt
Egypt List, from Showcaves
Libraries Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Egyptian Universities Library
Libraries in Egypt, from LibDex
Egypt, from Directory of Libraries in North Africa
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes The Mamluks, from David Collection; click on 'coins'
Coin Catalogue of Egypt, from Numismaticon; search Coin Archives for Egypt
L. Loewe, Notice of a Mamluk Coin, Struck by Command of the Sultan Melik Dhaher Rokn-ed-Din Bibars Bondokdari, The Numismatic chronicle and journal of the Numismatic Society, Volume 19 pp.71-84 1857, GB
J.R. Anderson, A Mamluk Coin from Kulubnarti, Sudan, British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 10 (2008) : pp.65-71
Digital Library Numis : Islamic Coins - North Africa, Egypt, several entries on Mamluk Egypt
Mamluk Coins, 648-922 AH, from Oriental Coins Database
Mamluks - Bahri, Mamluks - Burji, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Egypt Egypt, from The Online Books Page
from Mideast Web
Online Publications on the History of Egyptian Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Ägypten-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Cairo, Egypt Bibliography, from NNDB
American University of Cairo Press
Publications on Coptic History, from St. Mark Foundation
St.J. Davis, Recent Work in Coptic History and Historiography : a Bibliography
on Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo Chicago Online Bibliography on Mamluk Studies
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Swiss Electronic Library; Gallica
on Egypt
Online Journals full text online Mamluk Studies Review vol.XI.1 2007, vol.XI.2 2007, vol.XII.1 2008, vol.XII.2 2008, vol.XIII.1 2009, vol.XIII.2 2009, vol.XIV 2010, vol.XV 2011,
Table of Contents
Coptica, 2002-
Historiography Article : Arabic Historiography, by E.M. Choueiri, pp.40-42 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
General Accounts Middle East
on Egypt Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.18, pp.91-145 Article Egypt. KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 032 B862h v.18
Glenn E. Perry : The History of Egypt, Westport CT : Greenwood 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 962 P462h
Specific Topics
Local / Regional History Max Rodenbeck, Cairo. The City Victorious, American University in Cairo Press 1988, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 963.6216 R587c
Religious History Jill Kamil, Coptic Egypt, History and Guide, American University in Cairo Press 1987 [G]
Norman A. Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands, A History and Source Book, Philadelphia : Jewish Publication Society of America 1979, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 909.04 S857j
Historical Dictionary Arthur Goldschmidt, Historical Dictionary of Egypt, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 962 003 G623h

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