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Literature on the History of the Middle East
Ottoman Syria
First posted on November 23rd 2011

Early Ottoman Rule, 1517-1805 . In 1517, the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo was conquered and annexed by the Ottoman Empire. Syria, Hejaz and Barqa were separated from Egypt; Egypt was administrated as an Ottoman Eyalet. For much of the time under Ottoman rule neglected, in 1798-1799 it became a stage for the Anglo-French conflict.

Egypt of Mehmet Ali and the Khedives, 1805-1882 . In 1805 a new governor, Muhammad Ali, began a policy of reforms, using foreign, mainly French advisors; he developed Egypt into a quasi-independent state. Egypt was of great strategic value, as the land route from the Mediterranean to Suez (explored since 1785) provided a route to India much shorter than the sea route around the Cape; in 1859-1869 the Suez Canal was constructed. Egypt economically rose to importance because of the cultivation of (American) cotton. In 1821 Egypt conquered the Sudan; by 1833 Egypt established control over the Hejaz and Syria in a war with the Ottoman Empire. In 1843, Syria and the Hejaz were lost again, to the Ottoman Empire. In 1866 relations between the Ottoman Empire and Egypt were formalized : Egypt was elevated from Eyalet (province) to Khedivate and remained only nominally dependent on the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire ceded the ports of Suakin (Sudan) and Massawa (Eritrea) to Egypt; Egypt extended her authority along the western coast of the Red Sea, down to Cape Guardafui. An Egyptian invasion into Abyssinia 1875 failed. Excessive expenses by the Khedives (Muhammad Ali's successors) resulted first in the sales of Egypt's Suez Canal shares, then in state bankrupcy, in response to which the British protectorate over Egypt was established (1882).

British Protectorate, with Recognition of Ottoman Suzerainty, 1882-1914 . The British interest in Egypt primarily was of stratefic nature - control of the Suez Canal. Britain was interested in Egypt proper; when a rebellion broke out in the Egyptian Sudan, it showed little interest in supporting the Egyptian administration in suppressing the latter. When Egypt withdrew her garrisons from Berbera and Zeila, British forces moved in and held the territory as British Somaliland. When, in 1898, it was in the British interest to occupy the Sudan, Egypt was asked to contribute to the costs and the Sudan was declared an Anglo-Egyptian Condominium (until 1956).
During World War I, in 1914 the Ottoman Empire declared war on Britain; in turn Britain no longer recognized Ottoman suzerainty over Egypt. The Ottoman Empire was abolished in 1924.

Timelines : Egypt 1805-1922
Historical Atlas, Egypt Page

Students' Paper : Kim, Doyeong : Alexandria: A Center of Interregional Trade and Host to Foreign Merchants (2012)
Students' Paper : Kang, Jun-suk : A History of Textiles in Egypt (2009)
Students' Paper : Lee, Seungwoo : Environmental History of North Africa (2009)
Students' Paper : Lee, Joo Hyung, Progress outside of Europe, as Reflected in 19th Century Encyclopedias : Egypt and Persia (2009)

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Country Profiles Current Article : Egypt Eyalet, from Wikipedia
Article : Khedivate of Egypt, from Wikipedia
Historic before 1805 B. de Maillet, Description de l'Egypte: contenant plusieurs remarques curieuses sur la geographie ancienne et moderne de ce pais, sur ces monumens anciens, sur les mİĞurs ... vol.1 1735, vol.2 1740, in French, GB
Savary, Letters on Egypt : Containing, a Parallel between the Manners of its Ancient and Modern Inhabitants, its Commerce, Agriculture, Government and Religion, with the Descent of Louis IX. on Damietta, 2nd edition, vol.1, 1787, vol.2, 1787, GB
G. Baldwin, Political recollections relative to Egypt, 1802, GB
1805-1881 Th. Waghorn, Egypt as it is in 1837, 1837, GB
Egypt: a familiar description of the land, people and produce, 1839, GB
J.G. Wilkinson, Modern Egypt and Thebes 1843, GB
P.N. Hamont, L'Egypte sous Mehemet-Ali: populations, gouvernement, institutions publiques, industrie, agriculture, principaux evenements de Syrie pendant l'occupation egyptienne, Soudan de Mehemet-Ali vol.1 1843, in French, GB
A. Sacre, L'Egypte et Ismail pacha, 1865, in French, IA
1882-1914 G.W. Vyse, Egypt : Political, Financial, And Strategical, 1882, IA
D.M. Wallace, Egypt and the Egyptian question, 1883, IA
K. von Malortie, Egypt: native rulers and foreign interference, 1883, IA
E. Hennebert, Les Anglais en Egypte: L'Angleterre et le Madhi Arabi et le Canal de Suez, 1884, in French, IA
J.E. Bowen, The conflict of East and West in Egypt, 1887, IA
Z.A., The Emancipation of Egypt, 1905, IA
Evelyn Baring, Modern Egypt, vol.1, 1916, vol.2, 1909, IA
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Egypt, from Wikipedia
on History Virtual Library Labour History : Egypt
Virtual Library History : Egypt
Category : History of Egypt, from Wikipedia
Eternal Egypt
Historical Dictionaries Encyclopedia Coptica
Organizations Historical Society of Jews from Egypt
St. Mark Foundation of Coptic History Studies
Timelines Timeline, from BBC News; from timelines.ws
British Empire Map Room : Egypt, with timeline, narrative history
from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Accounts of History current from Wikipedia
historical S. Rappoport, History of Egypt from 330 B.C. to the Present Time vol.10, vol.11, n.d., vol.12, n.d., IA
A. Colvin, The Making of Modern Egypt, 1906, IA
Specific Periods Articles History of Ottoman Egypt, History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, History of Modern Egypt, from Wikipedia
George Alfred Henty, At Aboukir and Acre, A Story of Napoleon's Invasion of Egypt (1899), posted by Gutenberg Library Online
D. Mills, The English in Africa (1900), posted on Internet Archive, chapter I : The English in Egypt, pp.14-38
A.E.P.B. Weigall, A history of events in Egypt from 1798 to 1914, 1915, IA
E.B. Malet, Egypt 1879-1883, 1909, IA
H.F. Wood, Egypt under the British, 1896, IA
A. Milner, England in Egypt, 1902, IA
J. Blanchard, Egypt Under Ismail Pacha : Being Some Chapters of Contemporary History, 1879, IA
W.S. Blunt, Secret history of the English occupation of Egypt; being a personal narrative of events, 1922, IA
W.F. Rae, Egypt to-day; the first to the third Khedive, 1892, IA
W.F. Mieville, Under queen and khedive; the autobiography of an Anglo-Egyptian official, 1899, IA
W.H. Yates, The modern history and condition of Egypt, its climate, diseases, and capabilities; exhibited in a personal narrative of travels in that country: with an account of the proceedings of Mohammed Ali pascha, from 1801-1843, vol.1, vol.2, 1843, IA
E. Gouin, L'Egypte au XIXe siecle: Histoire militaire et politique, anecdotique et pittoresque de Mehemet-Ali, Ibrahim-Pacha, Soliman-Pacha (colonel Seves) 1847, in French, GB
Politics D. Urquhart, The Sultan Mahmoud, and Mehemet Ali Pasha, 1835, IA
Military Orders, Decorations and Medals of Egypt, by Jean Paul le Blanc
Th. Walsh, Journal of the late campaign in Egypt, 1803, GB
Ch. Norry, An account of the French expedition to Egypt, 1800, GB
J.P. Morier, Memoir of a campaign with the Ottoman army in Egypt, from February to July 1800, 1801, GB
R.Th. Wilson, History of the British Expedition to Egypt, 1803, IA
J.M. Burgoyne, A Short History of the Naval and Military Operations in Egypt from 1798 to 1802, 1885, IA
Th. Archer, The War in Egypt and the Soudan, vol.1, 1886, vol.2, 1886, vol.3, 1886, IA
A. Vingtrinier, Soliman-Pacha, colonel Seve, generalissime des armees egyptiennes; ou, Histoire des guerres de l'Egypte de 1820 - 1860. Avec un portrait, 1886, in French, IA
A Narrative of the Expedition to Dongola and Sennaar: Under the Command of His Excellence Ismael Pasha, undertaken by Order of His Highness Mehemmed Ali Pasha, Viceroy of Egypt, By An American In The Service Of The Viceroy, 1822, IA
S. Lusignan, A history of the revolt of Ali Bey, against the Ottoman Porte 1783, in French, GB
Muslim Heritage : Ottoman Maritime Arsenals (Suez)
Economy & Finances General C. Vimercati, Constantinopoli e l'Egitto : studii statistici-politici-commerciali , 1849, in Italian, IA
G.M. Fenn, The Khedive's country; the Nile Valley and its products, 1904, IA
Currency & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Egypt; Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Egypt
Article Egyptian Pound, from Wikipedia
J.C., Histoire financiere de l'Egypte depuis Said pacha; 1854-1876, 1878, in French, IA
Trade Egypt, pp.330-331 in vol.3 of E. Flagg, Report on the Commercial Relations of the United States with All Foreign Nations, 1857, GB
P. Masson, Histoire du commerce fran?is dans le Levant au XVIIIe si?le 1911, in French, IA
P. Masson, Histoire du commerce franc?ais dans le Levant au XVIIe sie`cle 1896, in French, IA
F.E.G. Saint-Priest, M?oires sur l'ambassade de France en Turquie et sur le commerce des Fran?is dans le Levant 1877, in French, IA
F.V. de Forbonnais, Questions sur le commerce des François au Levant 1755, in French, GB
H.A.S. Dearborn, A memoir on the commerce and navigation of the Black Sea and the trade and maritime geography of Turkey and Egypt vol.1 1819, vol.2 1819, GB
L. Simonin, Underground Life: or, Mines and miners, 1869, GB; p.256 lists Alexandria, Suez as coaling stations
Textile Industry Egyptian Textile Workers : From Craft Artisans Facing European Competition to Proletarians Contending with the State, by Joel Beinin
Article : Gossypian Barbadense (Egyptian Cotton), from Wikipedia; History, from egyptian-cotton.com
The Textile Industry in Egypt, 10 articles, from Eternal Egypt
Tignor, Robert. British Textile Companies and the Egyptian Economy. Business and Economic History, 2d ser., 16 (1987): 53-67.
Mining & Metalworking Company Histories : Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation, Article : Mining Industry of Egypt, from Wikipedia
Other Crafts Crafts, from Eternal Egypt
Suez Lyonnaise des Eaux, from Funding Universe
Egypt, from Mbendi International Services
Transportation Transportation, from Eternal Egypt
J. Capper, Observations on the passage to India, through Egypt: Also by Vienna through Constantinople to Aleppo, and from thence to Baghdad, and directly through the Great Desert to Bassora, 1785, GB
Th. Waghorn, Messrs. Waghorn & Co.'s Overland Guide to India : By Three Routes to Egypt, 1846, IA; J. Barber, The overland guide-book; a complete vademecum for the overland traveller, to India via Egypt, 1850, IA
F.Ph. Voisin, Le Canal de Suez, 1902, 1904, 1906, IA; W. Rathbone, Great Britain and the Suez Canal, 1882, Great Britain, Egypt, and the Suez Canal, 1884, IA
Ch.L. Kennedy, The Gates of the East: Ten Chapters on the Isthmus of Suez Canal, 1857, IA
J. Charles-Roux, L'isthme et le canal de Suez: Historique-etat actuel , 1901, in French, IA
J.E. Nourse, The Maritime Canal of Suez : From Its Inauguration, November 17, 1869, to the Year 1884, G.P.O. 1884, IA
Social History Egyptian Women (historical account), from Egypt State Information Servce
Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Egypt, by R. Winslow
G. de Nerval, The Women of Cairo, vol.1, 1930, vol.2 (by C. Elphinstone), 1930, IA
St.L. Poole, Cairo; sketches of its history, monuments, and social life, 1898, IA
M.L. Whately, Scenes from Life in Cairo: A Glimpse Behind the Curtain , 1883, IA
E. de Leon, The khedive's Egypt; or, The old house of bondage under new masters, 1877, IA
A.N. Poliak, Feudalism in Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and the Lebanon, 1250-1900 1939, IA
Ethnography Languages of Egypt (11), from Ethnologue
Article Languages of Egypt, from Wikipedia
Category : Languages of Egypt, from Wikipedia
The History of the Coptic Language, from St. Shenouda
Religion General Article Religion in Egypt, from Wikipedia, Category : Religion in Egypt, from Wikipedia
Judaism Virtual Jewish History Tour : Egypt, from Jewish Virtual Library; Egypt, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Christianity Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Egypt, from Kirken i Norge
Article : Coptic History, from Wikipedia
The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church Of Egypt, from St. Takla
History of the Copts, from copts.net
Coptic Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria, from Opus Libani
Article : Church of Alexandria, from OrthodoxWiki
Article : Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
Article : Church of Alexandria (Coptic), from OrthodoxWiki
Article : Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
J.M. Neale, A history of the Holy Eastern church: the Patriarchate of Alexandria, 1850, GB
T.Y. Malaty, The Coptic Calendar and Church of Alexandria, n.d., GB
History of the Copts, from copts.net
Al-Armani Abu Salih, The Churches and Monasteries of Egypt and Some Neighbouring Countries, trsl. by B.T.A. Evetts, n.d., GB
History of Regions for temporarily held regions, see Crete, Ottoman Syria, Hejaz, Somaliland, Eritrea, Sudan, at this site
History of the Sinai Peninsula, from Wikipedia
History of the Nile Delta, from Wikipedia
Local History Category : Cities in Egypt, from Wikipedia
History of Cairo, from Wikipedia
History of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
Port Said, from Wikipedia
Suez, from Wikipedia
Aswan, from Wikipedia
Asyut, from Wikipedia
St.L. Poole, Cairo fifty years ago, 1896, The Story of Cairo, 1902, Cairo; sketches of its history, monuments, and social life, 1898, IA
G. le Pere, Memoire sur la ville d'Alexandrie, 1818, in French, GB
Institutions Railways in the Nile, from Mike's Railway History
History, from American University in Cairo
History of the Suez Canal, from Wikipedia; Ferdinand de Lesseps, The History of the Suez Canal, a Personal Narrative, 1876, IA; P. Hetherington, The Great Canal at Suez : Its Political, Engineering, and Financial History, 1876, IA
Structurae : Egypt; search Lighthouse Explorer for Egypt
Culture Egypt Cultural Profile, from Cultural Profiles
Biographies List of Egyptians, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Others Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History by Country : Egypt, from Relief Web
Egypt, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
P. Assalini, Riflessioni sopra la peste d'Egitto, 1800, in Italian, GB
L.R. Aubert-Roche, De la peste ou typhus d'Orient, 1840, in French, GB; on Alexandrie, Caire
A.B. Clot, La peste observee en Egypte: recherches et considerations sur cette maladie 1840, in French, GB
J.L.G. Guyon, Histoire chronologique des epidemies du Nord de l'Afrique, depuis les temps les plus recules jusqu'la nos jours 1855, in French, GB

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); Rulers of Modern Egypt (since 1805) from the Eg. Presidency, with clickable biographies; Rulers : Egypt by B. Schemmel; Regnal Chronologies : Egypt, mostly on ancient Egypt
from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Rulers and Heads of State of Egypt, from Wikipedia
Lists of Consuls M.P. Pedani, Venetian Consuls in Egypt and Syria in the Ottoman Age
U.S. Consular Officials in Egypt, from Political Graveyard
Lists of Bishops List of Greek Orthodox Patriarchs of Alexandria, List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
List of Patriarchs of Alexandria (Greek-Orthodox), from OrthodoxWiki
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Egypt, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
Population of Cities : Egypt, from City Population
Historical Abortion Statistics, Egypt, from Johnston's Archive
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Archival Deposits Egypt Documents, from Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Egypt
Search National Archives, UK for Egypt
Constitutions, Laws Internet Law Library : Egypt
Treaties Recueil des traites de la Porte ottomane avec les puissance etrangeres, depuis le premier traite conclu, en 1536, entre Suleyman I et Francçois I jusqu'a nos jours, vol.1, 1864, vol.2, 1865, vol.3, 1866, vol.4, 1876, vol.5, 1882, vol.6, 1884, vol.7, 1892, vol.8, 1894, vol.9, 1898, vol.10, 1901, in French, posted on Internet Archive
Treaties Between Turkey and Foreign Powers. 1535-1855, 1855, posted on Internet Archive
Consular Reports J. Bowring, Report on Egypt and Candia 1840, GB
Document Surveys Catalogues of Oriental Manuscripts, at this site
Document Collections Copies of original letters from the army of General Bonaparte in Egypt intercepted by the Fleet under the Command of Lord Nelson, 11th ed. part 1, 1798
John James Halls, The life and correspondence of Henry Salt ... consul general in Egypt, vol.1, 1834, vol.2, 1834, GB
Exposition de la Compagnie Universelle de Canal Maritime de Suez, 1867, in French, IA; Actes Constitutifs de la Compagnie Universelle du Canal de Suez, 1866, in French, IA; France, Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres, Documents diplomatiques : Affaire du canal de Suez., 1875, in French, IA; Commission internationale du canal de Suez, Documents diplomatiques. Commission internationale pour le libre usage du canal de Suez, 1885, IA
Ferdinand de Lesseps, Lettres, journal et documents pour servir a l'histoire du canal de Suez vol.2, 1875, vol.3, 1877, vol.4, 1879, vol.5, 1881, vol.6, 1881; The Suez Canal: Letters and Documents Descriptive of Its Rise and Progress in 1854-1856, 1876, IA
Ferdinand de Lesseps, Inquiry Into the Opinions of the Commercial Classes of Great Britain on the Suez Ship Canal, 1857, IA
Isthmus of Suez ship canal: Report and plan of the commission , 1857, IA
Itineraire des invit?s aux fetes d'inauguration du canal de Suez qui sejournent au Caire, 1869, in French, IA
Ch.R. Low, General Lord Wolseley (of Cairo): A Memoir, 1883, IA
Cotton in Egypt: Report by Acting Consul-general Grant, of Cairo, (U.S. G.P.O.) 1902, IA
S. Lane Poole, The Englishwoman in Egypt: Letters from Cairo, Written During a Residence There in 1842, 3, & 4, 1845, IA
Negociations de la France dans le Levant; ou, Correspondances, m?oires et actes diplomatiques des ambassadeurs de France a Constantinople et des ambassadeurs, envoyes ou residents a divers titres a Venise, Raguse, Rome, Malte et Jerusalem, en Turquie, Perse, Georgie, Crimee, Syrie, Egypte, etc., et dans les etats de Tunis, d'Alger et de Maroc, vol.1 : 1515-1546, 1848, GB, vol.2 : 1547-1566, 1850, IA, GB, vol.3 : 1567-1580, 1853, IA, GB vol.4 : 1581-1589, 1860, IA, GB
Letters and papers concerning the Coptic Church, in relation to the Church of England : under the primacy of Archbishop Howley, 1836-1848, 1883, IA
Historical Maps click here
Category : Old Maps of Egypt, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Maps of the History of Egypt, from Wikimedia Commons
Maps of Egypt, from David Rumsey Map Collection
Map of Cairo (Meyer 5th ed. 1887), posted by Hic Leones
Map of Alexandria 1912, from Discus Media
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Ägypten, Kairo, Alexandria, Suez, Suezkanal, Port Said, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Egypt, Alexandria, Sinai, The Church of Alexandria, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1912
Article Egypt, Alexandria, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Egypten, pp.638-649 in vol.2 of C.Fr. Staeudlin, Kirchliche Geographie u. Statistik, 1804, in German, GB
Economic Du commerce qui se fait par les Francois a Alexandrie, a Rossette, par la Mediterrannee, ou dela par le Caire par le Nil, pp.630-641 in vol.1 of J. Savary de Bruslons, Le Parfait Negociant, 1726, in French, GB
Commerce de l'Egypte, pp.1020-1063 in J. Savary de Brulons, Dictionnaire universel de commerce, 1765, in French, GB
Of the Trade of Cairo, Alexandria, and Rosetta in Egypt, pp.619-623, in : W. Beaves, Lex mercatoria rediviva : or, The merchant's directory, 1773, GB
Alexandrie, pp.20-21, Le Caire, pp.67-68 in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Search anon., Handbuch für Kaufleute, sowohl Wechsel als Waarenberechnungen von den vornehmsten Handelsplätzen, bey allen steigenden und fallenden Coursen, mit oder ohne Spesen, blos durch Addiren und Multipliciren in Leipziger Wechselzahlung zu berechnen, 1787, in German, for Alexandria
Entry : Cayro, pp.60-61 in Tomas Antonio de Marien y Arrospide, Tratado general de monedas, pesas, medidas y cambios de todas las naciones, 1789, in Spanish, GB
Entry : Alessandria, pp.19-22 in vol.1 of Il mentore perfetto de negozianti, ovvero guida sicura de' medesimi, ed istruzione, per rendere ad essi piu agevoli, e meno incerte le loro speculazioni 1793, in Italian, GB
Entry Cairo pp.59-61 in : W. Dickinson, Universal commerce, or, The commerce of all the mercantile cities and towns of the World, 1818, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Alexandrien, Cairo, posted by DTBSWS
Ch. Pope, The yearly journal of trade, 1837-8 : comprising laws of customs and excise, treaties and conventions with foreign powers, tariffs of United Kingdom, Russia, Monte Video ... parliamentary speeches and papers, proclamations, orders in Council and of government boards, reports of law cases, translations of foreign documents (1838), posted on Internet Archive, on Egypt p.304
Aegypten, pp.45-46 in H.F. Osiander, Ueber den Handelsverkehr der Völker, 1842, in German, GB
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Aegypten, vol.4 1844 pp.183-187, in German, posted by DTBSWS
Aegypten, pp.45-46 in H.F. Osiander, Ueber den Handelsverkehr der Völker, 1848, in German, GB
Ottomar Haupt, Währungs-Politik und Münz-Statistik, Berlin : Walther & Apolant 1884, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Verschiedene Länder : Egypten pp.168-169
Geographical Entry : Egitto, pp.89-91 in vol.1 of L. de Linda, Le relationi et descritioni universali et particolari del mondo 1674, in Italian, GB
Entry : Egypte, pp.397-399 in C. Maty, Dictionnaire geographique universel, 1701, in French, GB; see also Alexandrie p.34, Caire p.244
Dell' Egitto pp.139-142 in vol.2 of V.S. Grandi, Sistema del Mondo Terraqueo Geograficamente Descritto, 1716, in Italian, GB
Aegyptus, pp.533-535 in G. Cellarius, Geographia nova, sive hodiernam terrarum orbis faciem clarissime illustrans 1716, in Latin, GB
Entry : Egypte in Vosgien, Dictionnaire geographique portatif, 1749, in French, GB; see also Alexandrie p.17, Caire p.110
Entry : Egypt, pp.458-465 in Thomas Salmon, The new universal geographical grammar, 1766, GB
Entry : Egypt, in : J. Walker, The Universal Gazetteer, 1795, unpaginated
Entry : Egypt, pp.19-113 in vol.4 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography 1826, GB
Entry : Egypt, pp.424-468, in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography, or, a description of all the parts of the world, 1827, GB
W.J.Ll. Wharton, The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Pilot : Containing Descriptions of the Suez Canal, the Gulfs of Suez, 1900, IA
Egypt pp.313-315 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Ethnographical Egypte, pp.402-406 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Historical The Government of the Pascha of Grand Cairo, p.101 in P. Rycaut, The history of the present state of the Ottoman Empire 1686, GB
Le Royaume d'Egypte, pp.174-191 in : Ferdinand Ludwig Bresler, Les souverains du monde, 1722, in French, GB
Chapter : Histoire Moderne d'Egypte sous le Gouvernement des Califes Fatimites, de Saladin et des Successeurs, pp.1-100 in vol.23/63 of Histoire universelle, depuis le commencement du monde jusqu'a present, Histoire Moderne, 1784, in French, GB
Chapter : Aegypten unter der Osmanischen Pforte, pp.7-54 in vol.6 of J.G. Eichhorn, Geschichte der letzten drey Jahrhunderte, 1806 edition, GB
Egypt, pp.396-403, Alexandria pp.403-405 in vol.2 of S. Maulder, The history of the world: comprising a general history, 1856, GB
Historical Yearbook Entries Egypte pp.474-477, in Annales Maritimes 1818, in French, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides J. Barber, The overland guide-book: a complete vademecum for the overland traveller, to India via Egypt, 1850, GB
J.G. Wilkinson, A Handbook for Travellers in Egypt 1858, GB
John Murray, A Handbook for Travellers in Egypt, 1847 edition, 1867 edition, 1875 edition, A Handbook for Travellers in Lower and Upper Egypt, 1880 edition, Handbook for Egypt and the Sudan, 1907 edition, IA
Cook's Tourist Handbook for Egypt, the Nile and the Desert, 1876 edition
Baedeker, Egypt, Handbook for Travellers, 1885 vol.1, 1885 vol.2, 1892 edition, 1902 edition, Egypt and the Sudan, Handbook for Travellers, 1914 edition, IA
U.S. Army Service Forces, Pocket Guide to Egypt, 1943, IA
E.A. Reynolds-Ball, Cairo of To-day: Cairo of to-day; a practical guide to Cairo and its environs 1898 edition, A Practical Guide to Cairo and the Nile, 1899 edition, 1902 edition, 1905 edition, 1907 edition, IA
M. Busch, Guide for travellers in Egypt and adjacent countries subject to the pasha, 1858, IA
Travelogues J.M. Wansleben, Nouvelle Relation en forme de journal, d'un Voyage fait en Egypte, 1677, in French, GB
G. de Bremond, G. Corvo, Viaggi fatti nell'Egitto, 1679, in Italian, GB
C. Thompson, Travels through Turkey in Asia, the Holy Land, Arabia, Egypt and other parts 1767, GB
J. Bruce, Travels to discover the source of the Nile, in the years 1768, 1769, 1770, 1771, 1772, & 1773 vol.1 1804, vol.2 1790, vol.5 1790, vol.6 1813, GB
T. Legh, Narrative of a Journey in Egypt and the Country beyond the Cataracts 1816, GB
A. Edmonstone, A journey to two of the oases of Upper Egypt, 1822, GB
W.R. Wilson, Travels in Egypt and the Holy Land 1824, GB
Miss Platt, Journal of a tour through Egypt, the peninsula of Sinai and the Holy Land in 1838, 1839 vol.1 1841, vol.2 1842, GB
H.P. Measor, A tour in Egypt, Arabia PetrİĦa and the Holy land 1844, GB
F.W.R.S. Londonderry, A journey to Damascus through Egypt, Nubia, Arabia Petraea, Syria and Palestine vol.1 1847, vol.2 1847, GB
Sketches of a tour in Egypt and Palestine, during the spring of 1856 1856, GB
E. Warburton, Travels in Egypt and the Holy Land 1859, GB
Exhibition Catalogues W. Hamm, Illustrirter Katalog der Pariser Industrie-Ausstellung von 1867, 1868, GB; 1 Egypt entries
Institutions Archives National Archives of Egypt
Search AHA Archives Wiki for Egypt
Musea Lists, Links Museums in Egypt, from Tour Egypt
Museums in Egypt, from International Council of African Museums
Musea Museum Websites
Monuments World Heritage List, scroll down for Egypt; from UNESCO World Heritage; Tentative Lists : Egypt
Egypt List, from Showcaves
Libraries Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Egyptian Universities Library
Libraries in Egypt, from LibDex
Egypt, from Directory of Libraries in North Africa
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from national-anthems.net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Egypt, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Coin Catalogue of Egypt, from Numismaticon; Egypt Coins, from Don's World Coin Gallery; Egypt, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins; search Coin Archives for Egypt
Stamps Rare Egypt Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Egypt 1866-1923, Suez Canal Company 1868, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Egypt Egypt, from The Online Books Page
from Mideast Web
Online Publications on the History of Egyptian Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Ägypten-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Cairo, Egypt Bibliography, from NNDB
American University of Cairo Press
Publications on Coptic History, from St. Mark Foundation
St.J. Davis, Recent Work in Coptic History and Historiography : a Bibliography
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Swiss Electronic Library; Gallica
on Egypt Digital Library, National Library of Tunisia
Online Journals full text online
Table of Contents
Coptica, 2002-
Historiography Article : Arabic Historiography, by E.M. Choueiri, pp.40-42 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
General Accounts Middle East Ritchie Ovendale, The Longman Companion to the Middle East since 1914, London etc.: Longman 1994 [G]
on Egypt Afaf Lufti al Sayyid Marsot, A Short History of Modern Egypt, Cambridge : UP (1985) 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 962 S275a
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.18, pp.91-145 Article Egypt. KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 032 B862h v.18
Glenn E. Perry : The History of Egypt, Westport CT : Greenwood 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 962 P462h
Specific Topics J. Hathaway, The Arab Lands under Ottoman Rule 1516-1800, Harlow : Longman Pearson 2008 KMLA Lib. Call Sign 953.03 H363a
Napoleon in Egypt. Al-Jabarti's Chronicle of the French Occupation of Egypt, translated by Shmuel Moreh, Princeton : Markus Wiener 2003 [G]
Local / Regional History Max Rodenbeck, Cairo. The City Victorious, American University in Cairo Press 1988, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 963.6216 R587c
Religious History Jill Kamil, Coptic Egypt, History and Guide, American University in Cairo Press 1987 [G]
Norman A. Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands, A History and Source Book, Philadelphia : Jewish Publication Society of America 1979, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 909.04 S857j
Historical Dictionary Arthur Goldschmidt, Historical Dictionary of Egypt, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 962 003 G623h
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Article : Egypt, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.64-66, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.64-66, 4th ed. 1984 pp.64-66 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year (Egypt) 1913 pp.987-990
Statesman's Year-Book Egypt 1878 pp.631-640, 1889 pp.743-762, Turkey and Tributary States - Egypt 1895 pp.1038-1057, 1898 pp.1041-1062, 1901 pp.1153-1176, 1902 pp.1165-1183, 1904 pp.1225-1243, 1905 pp.1248-1272, 1906 pp.1491-1510, 1907 pp.1557-1577, 1910 pp.1287-1303,
(New) Int'l Yearbook 1898 pp.286-291, 1899 pp.292-296, 1900 pp.320-324, 1907 pp.239-242, 1908 pp.222-225, 1909 pp.219-221, 1910 pp.227-229, 1913 pp.225-228, 1914 pp.221-224

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