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Literature on the History of the Middle East
Ottoman Syria
First posted on November 23rd 2011







Early Ottoman Rule, 1517-1805 . In 1517, the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo was conquered and annexed by the Ottoman Empire. Syria, Hejaz and Barqa were separated from Egypt; Egypt was administrated as an Ottoman Eyalet. For much of the time under Ottoman rule neglected, in 1798-1799 it became a stage for the Anglo-French conflict.

Egypt of Mehmet Ali and the Khedives, 1805-1882 . In 1805 a new governor, Muhammad Ali, began a policy of reforms, using foreign, mainly French advisors; he developed Egypt into a quasi-independent state. Egypt was of great strategic value, as the land route from the Mediterranean to Suez (explored since 1785) provided a route to India much shorter than the sea route around the Cape; in 1859-1869 the Suez Canal was constructed. Egypt economically rose to importance because of the cultivation of (American) cotton. In 1821 Egypt conquered the Sudan; by 1833 Egypt established control over the Hejaz and Syria in a war with the Ottoman Empire. In 1843, Syria and the Hejaz were lost again, to the Ottoman Empire. In 1866 relations between the Ottoman Empire and Egypt were formalized : Egypt was elevated from Eyalet (province) to Khedivate and remained only nominally dependent on the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire ceded the ports of Suakin (Sudan) and Massawa (Eritrea) to Egypt; Egypt extended her authority along the western coast of the Red Sea, down to Cape Guardafui. An Egyptian invasion into Abyssinia 1875 failed. Excessive expenses by the Khedives (Muhammad Ali's successors) resulted first in the sales of Egypt's Suez Canal shares, then in state bankrupcy, in response to which the British protectorate over Egypt was established (1882).

British Protectorate, with Recognition of Ottoman Suzerainty, 1882-1914 . The British interest in Egypt primarily was of stratefic nature - control of the Suez Canal. Britain was interested in Egypt proper; when a rebellion broke out in the Egyptian Sudan, it showed little interest in supporting the Egyptian administration in suppressing the latter. When Egypt withdrew her garrisons from Berbera and Zeila, British forces moved in and held the territory as British Somaliland. When, in 1898, it was in the British interest to occupy the Sudan, Egypt was asked to contribute to the costs and the Sudan was declared an Anglo-Egyptian Condominium (until 1956).
During World War I, in 1914 the Ottoman Empire declared war on Britain; in turn Britain no longer recognized Ottoman suzerainty over Egypt. The Ottoman Empire was abolished in 1924.

Timelines : Egypt 1805-1922
Historical Atlas, Egypt Page

Students' Paper : Kim, Doyeong : Alexandria: A Center of Interregional Trade and Host to Foreign Merchants (2012)
Students' Paper : Kang, Jun-suk : A History of Textiles in Egypt (2009)
Students' Paper : Lee, Seungwoo : Environmental History of North Africa (2009)
Students' Paper : Lee, Joo Hyung, Progress outside of Europe, as Reflected in 19th Century Encyclopedias : Egypt and Persia (2009)






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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article : Egypt Eyalet, from Wikipedia
Article : Khedivate of Egypt, from Wikipedia
Historic before 1805 B. de Maillet, Description de l'Egypte: contenant plusieurs remarques curieuses sur la geographie ancienne et moderne de ce pais, sur ces monumens anciens, sur les mİĞurs ... vol.1 1735, vol.2 1740, in French, GB
Savary, Letters on Egypt : Containing, a Parallel between the Manners of its Ancient and Modern Inhabitants, its Commerce, Agriculture, Government and Religion, with the Descent of Louis IX. on Damietta, 2nd edition, vol.1, 1787, vol.2, 1787, GB
G. Baldwin, Political recollections relative to Egypt, 1802, GB
1805-1881 Th. Waghorn, Egypt as it is in 1837, 1837, GB
Egypt: a familiar description of the land, people and produce, 1839, GB
J.G. Wilkinson, Modern Egypt and Thebes 1843, GB
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A. Sacre, L'Egypte et Ismail pacha, 1865, in French, IA
1882-1914 G.W. Vyse, Egypt : Political, Financial, And Strategical, 1882, IA
D.M. Wallace, Egypt and the Egyptian question, 1883, IA
K. von Malortie, Egypt: native rulers and foreign interference, 1883, IA
E. Hennebert, Les Anglais en Egypte: L'Angleterre et le Madhi Arabi et le Canal de Suez, 1884, in French, IA
J.E. Bowen, The conflict of East and West in Egypt, 1887, IA
Z.A., The Emancipation of Egypt, 1905, IA
Evelyn Baring, Modern Egypt, vol.1, 1916, vol.2, 1909, IA
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Egypt, from Wikipedia
on History Virtual Library Labour History : Egypt
Virtual Library History : Egypt
Category : History of Egypt, from Wikipedia
Eternal Egypt
Historical Dictionaries Encyclopedia Coptica
Organizations Historical Society of Jews from Egypt
St. Mark Foundation of Coptic History Studies
Timelines Timeline, from BBC News; from timelines.ws
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from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Accounts of History current from Wikipedia
historical S. Rappoport, History of Egypt from 330 B.C. to the Present Time vol.10, vol.11, n.d., vol.12, n.d., IA
A. Colvin, The Making of Modern Egypt, 1906, IA
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George Alfred Henty, At Aboukir and Acre, A Story of Napoleon's Invasion of Egypt (1899), posted by Gutenberg Library Online
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A.E.P.B. Weigall, A history of events in Egypt from 1798 to 1914, 1915, IA
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R.Th. Wilson, History of the British Expedition to Egypt, 1803, IA
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Muslim Heritage : Ottoman Maritime Arsenals (Suez)
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G.M. Fenn, The Khedive's country; the Nile Valley and its products, 1904, IA
Currency & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Egypt; Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Egypt
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J.C., Histoire financiere de l'Egypte depuis Said pacha; 1854-1876, 1878, in French, IA
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P. Masson, Histoire du commerce franc?ais dans le Levant au XVIIe sie`cle 1896, in French, IA
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F.V. de Forbonnais, Questions sur le commerce des François au Levant 1755, in French, GB
H.A.S. Dearborn, A memoir on the commerce and navigation of the Black Sea and the trade and maritime geography of Turkey and Egypt vol.1 1819, vol.2 1819, GB
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Other Crafts Crafts, from Eternal Egypt
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Transportation Transportation, from Eternal Egypt
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Article Languages of Egypt, from Wikipedia
Category : Languages of Egypt, from Wikipedia
The History of the Coptic Language, from St. Shenouda
Religion General Article Religion in Egypt, from Wikipedia, Category : Religion in Egypt, from Wikipedia
Islam
Judaism Virtual Jewish History Tour : Egypt, from Jewish Virtual Library; Egypt, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Christianity Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Egypt, from Kirken i Norge
Article : Coptic History, from Wikipedia
The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church Of Egypt, from St. Takla
History of the Copts, from copts.net
Coptic Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria, from Opus Libani
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Article : Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
Article : Church of Alexandria (Coptic), from OrthodoxWiki
Article : Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
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History of the Nile Delta, from Wikipedia
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History of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
Port Said, from Wikipedia
Suez, from Wikipedia
Aswan, from Wikipedia
Asyut, from Wikipedia
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History, from American University in Cairo
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Culture Egypt Cultural Profile, from Cultural Profiles
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Others Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
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Egypt, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
P. Assalini, Riflessioni sopra la peste d'Egitto, 1800, in Italian, GB
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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); Rulers of Modern Egypt (since 1805) from the Eg. Presidency, with clickable biographies; Rulers : Egypt by B. Schemmel; Regnal Chronologies : Egypt, mostly on ancient Egypt
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Rulers and Heads of State of Egypt, from Wikipedia
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U.S. Consular Officials in Egypt, from Political Graveyard
Lists of Bishops List of Greek Orthodox Patriarchs of Alexandria, List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
List of Patriarchs of Alexandria (Greek-Orthodox), from OrthodoxWiki
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Egypt, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
Population of Cities : Egypt, from City Population
Historical Abortion Statistics, Egypt, from Johnston's Archive
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Archival Deposits Egypt Documents, from Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Egypt
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Constitutions, Laws Internet Law Library : Egypt
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Museums in Egypt, from International Council of African Museums
Musea Museum Websites
Monuments World Heritage List, scroll down for Egypt; from UNESCO World Heritage; Tentative Lists : Egypt
Egypt List, from Showcaves
Libraries Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Egyptian Universities Library
Libraries in Egypt, from LibDex
Egypt, from Directory of Libraries in North Africa
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from national-anthems.net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Egypt, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Coin Catalogue of Egypt, from Numismaticon; Egypt Coins, from Don's World Coin Gallery; Egypt, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins; search Coin Archives for Egypt
Stamps Rare Egypt Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Egypt 1866-1923, Suez Canal Company 1868, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Egypt Egypt, from The Online Books Page
from Mideast Web
Online Publications on the History of Egyptian Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Ägypten-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Cairo, Egypt Bibliography, from NNDB
American University of Cairo Press
Publications on Coptic History, from St. Mark Foundation
St.J. Davis, Recent Work in Coptic History and Historiography : a Bibliography
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Swiss Electronic Library; Gallica
on Egypt Digital Library, National Library of Tunisia
Online Journals full text online
Table of Contents
Online
Coptica, 2002-
Historiography Article : Arabic Historiography, by E.M. Choueiri, pp.40-42 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
General Accounts Middle East Ritchie Ovendale, The Longman Companion to the Middle East since 1914, London etc.: Longman 1994 [G]
on Egypt Afaf Lufti al Sayyid Marsot, A Short History of Modern Egypt, Cambridge : UP (1985) 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 962 S275a
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.18, pp.91-145 Article Egypt. KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 032 B862h v.18
Glenn E. Perry : The History of Egypt, Westport CT : Greenwood 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 962 P462h
Specific Topics J. Hathaway, The Arab Lands under Ottoman Rule 1516-1800, Harlow : Longman Pearson 2008 KMLA Lib. Call Sign 953.03 H363a
Napoleon in Egypt. Al-Jabarti's Chronicle of the French Occupation of Egypt, translated by Shmuel Moreh, Princeton : Markus Wiener 2003 [G]
Local / Regional History Max Rodenbeck, Cairo. The City Victorious, American University in Cairo Press 1988, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 963.6216 R587c
Religious History Jill Kamil, Coptic Egypt, History and Guide, American University in Cairo Press 1987 [G]
Norman A. Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands, A History and Source Book, Philadelphia : Jewish Publication Society of America 1979, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 909.04 S857j
Historical Dictionary Arthur Goldschmidt, Historical Dictionary of Egypt, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 962 003 G623h
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Article : Egypt, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.64-66, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.64-66, 4th ed. 1984 pp.64-66 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year (Egypt) 1913 pp.987-990
Statesman's Year-Book Egypt 1878 pp.631-640, 1889 pp.743-762, Turkey and Tributary States - Egypt 1895 pp.1038-1057, 1898 pp.1041-1062, 1901 pp.1153-1176, 1902 pp.1165-1183, 1904 pp.1225-1243, 1905 pp.1248-1272, 1906 pp.1491-1510, 1907 pp.1557-1577, 1910 pp.1287-1303,
(New) Int'l Yearbook 1898 pp.286-291, 1899 pp.292-296, 1900 pp.320-324, 1907 pp.239-242, 1908 pp.222-225, 1909 pp.219-221, 1910 pp.227-229, 1913 pp.225-228, 1914 pp.221-224