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Literature on the History of East Africa
Egypt Ethiopia
First posted on July 4th 2002, last revised on October 10th 2011

Sudan 1939-1956
Sudan 1919-1939
Sudan 1899-1918

Sudan 1882-1898

Sudan 1821-1882

Funj . Darfur

Historical Atlas, Sudan Page

Students' Papers : Lee, Jaehyun : The European Struggle for the Nile Valley and the Motives and Factors Behind the British Decision to Invade the Sudan (2011)
Students' Papers : Lee, Seungwoo : Environmental History of North Africa (2009)

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from African Studies Center (UPenn); from IRIN (UN); from CIA World Factbook, countries - Sudan
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Sudan
Encyclopedia of the Orient : Sudan
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Sudan, from Wikipedia
List of Sudan-Related Topics, from Wikipedia
on History
Organizations Virtual Library History : Sudan
Category : History of Sudan, from Wikipedia
Fifth International Conference on Sudan Studies, Papers Presented
Historical Dictionary
Timelines Timeline, from BBC News; from timelines.ws; Chronology of Sudanese History, from African-American Studies 112A, at UCB; another timeline by Muriel Mirak-Weissbach
Accounts of History current from Wikipedia, from Sudan Home, 11 chapters; from Country and People of Sudan, concise; from Sudan Net
Specific Periods D. Mills, The English in Africa (1900), posted on Internet Archive, chapters II, III : The Soudan, pp.38-82
P.M. Holt, Sudanese Nationalism and Self-Determination, pp.166-187, in : Walter Z. Laqueur (ed.), The Middle East in Transition, NY : Praeger 1958 [G]
EISA : Sudan: British colonialism's divide and rule (1896-1939) 2011
EISA : Sudan: Stumbling towards independence (1939-1956) 2011
EISA : Sudan: Democratic failure and military ineptitude (1956-1964) 2011
EISA : Sudan: Repressive Democracy (1964-1969) 2011
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Sudan; Sudan Country Profile, from ISS
Article Politics of Sudan, from Wikipedia; Category : Politics of Sudan, from Wikipedia
Governments on the WWW : Sudan
Sudan Profile, from International Crisis Group
Foreign Relations Daniel K. Kim, U.S. Sanctions against Sudan and the Gum Arabic Exemption, ICE Case Studies 2005
Defects of the Nile Treaties 1891-1959, from ViTrade, discusses various international treaties on Nile water, mainly affecting the Sudan, Treaty by Treaty; also from Kefalyew Mekonnen
Heather Hamilton, Nile River Dispute, ICE Case Studies 1998
Military Wars of Sudan, 1800-1999, from ACED
Darfur Insurgency, from Global Security
African Paramilitary Groups : Darfur Liberation Front, Sudan Alliance Forces, Sudan People's Liberation Movement, from Global Security
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Sudan, by Jean Paul le Blanc
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Sudan : Mahdist State, Civil War 1955-1972, Civil War 1983-2005, Darfur 2003-
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Sudan; Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Sudan
Article Economy of Sudan, from Wikipedia, Category : Economy of Sudan, from Wikipedia; from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Global Integrity : Sudan 2006
Hans Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im Tropischen Afrika (The Railroads in Tropical Africa), Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot 1902, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Ägyptischer Sudan, pp.153-156
T. Power, The Origin and Development of the Sudanese Ports ('Aydh?, Badi', Sawakin) in the early Islamic Period , Chroniques Yemenites 15 2008
Social History Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Sudan, by R. Winslow
Sudan, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Michelle Domke, Civil War in the Sudan: Resources or Religion ?, ICE Case Studies 1997; The Civil War in Sudan : the Human Price of Oil, ICE Case Studies 2001; Kathryn Milani, The Darfur Conflict and Drought, ICE Case Studies 2006
Ahmad Karadawi, Refugee Policy in Sudan 1967-1984, online book (1999)
Ethnography Languages of the Sudan (134), from Ethnologue
Article Languages of Sudan, from Wikipedia
Category : Languages of Sudan, from Wikipedia
Worldwide Refugee Information : Sudan
Forced Migration Online Research Guide Sudan 2006
Minorities at Risk, Sudan - Darfur Blacks, Nuba, Southerners
Sudan, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Sudan
Egyptian Soudan, pp.642-645 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Religion Article : Religion in Sudan, from Wikipedia, Category : Religion in Sudan, from Wikipedia
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Sudan, from Kirken i Norge; Important Dates in the History of the Sudanese Church, from eglisesoudan.org
International Religious Freedom Report 2003 : Sudan, from U.S. Department of State
History of Regions History of Darfur, from Wikipedia
History of Kurdufan (Kordofan), from Wikipedia
Modern History of Southern Sudan, from Wikipedia
Lado Enclave, from Wikipedia
Equatoria, from Wikipedia
Bahr al Ghazal
Northern Sudan and Southern Sudan - Two separate Countries, from Reconciliation Network
States of Sudan, from www.statoids.com
Local History History of Khartoum, from Wikipedia
History of Omdurman, from Wikipedia
History of Port Sudan, from Wikipedia
Article Suakin, from Wikipedia
Institutions History, from University of Khartoum, from Ahfad University for Women
Articles Sudan TV, from Wikipedia; Sudanese Amateur Radio and SWL History
Sudan, from Airline History
Structurae : Sudan; search Lighthouse Explorer for Sudan
Culture Article Sudan at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Sudanese, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Others German P.O.W.s held in Sudan, from Kriegsgefangen.de, text in English
Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF; Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History by Country : the Sudan, from Relief Web

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); Rulers : Sudan by B. Schemmel
from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
List of Presidents of Sudan, from Wikipedia
Regnal Chronologies : Northern Africa, scroll down for Dar al Masalit, Darfur, Nubia (Sennar, Funj), Shilluk,
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Sudan, from Wikipedia; Liste chronologique des ambassadeurs de France au Soudan, from Ambafrance; U.S. Ambassadors to Sudan, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Sudan, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Khartum (Sudan), from Wikipedia German edition

Statistical Data Responsible Institution Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Sudan, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
Population of Cities : Sudan, from City Population
Historical Abortion Statistics : Sudan, from Johnston's Archive
Election Results from Psephos (none); from African Elections Database
EISA : Sudan Election Archive
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
The History of Egypt and the Maghrib, from World History Archives, scroll down for the Sudan
Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Sudan", search all issues; 304 Sudan articles, GB
Modern Newspapers Sudan Tribune, online newspaper
links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Historical Yearbook Entries
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Sudan
License plates from Sudan, from Francoplaque; from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Sudan
Archival Deposits Search CIA Released Documents for Sudan
National Archives (UK) : Sudan; Sudan Intelligence Reports
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Sudan, from ILO, 12 docs. since 1956
Constitution of 1998, from sudan.net
Search Prassi Italiana di Dirito Internazionale, Indice delle leggi e degli altri atti normativi, for Sudan, 13 entries, in Italian
Treaties Peace Agreements Digital Collection : Sudan, from United States Institute of Peace
Document Collections Sudan, from Human Rights Watch Publications
Reports on Sudan, from U.S. Committee for Refugees
Documents, Africa, from International Water Law, scroll down for Nile Valley
Oral Histories : The Sudan Experience Project, from United States Institute of Peace
Historical Maps responsible institutions Sudan National Survey Corporation, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections click here
Sudan Maps, PCL, UTexas; South Sudan Maps, PCL, UTexas
Atlas of Sudan, Wikimedia Commons
Category : Old Maps of the Sudan, Maps of the History of Sudan, Wikimedia Commons
David Rumsey Map Collection : Sudan
Travellers in the Middle East (TIMEA) Historical Maps : Khartoum (Sudan)
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Sudan, Modern
Sudan, Contemporary Map : Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1932, Sudan 1922, Sudan 1932, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
detail, Modern
detail, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique ?l'?helle de 1:2 000 000 14. Assouan 1886, 14. Assouan 1889, 14. Assouan 1903, 20. Yayo 1886, 20. Yavo 1888, 21. Khartoum 1886, 21. Khartoum 1889, 21. Khartoum 1899, 22. Souakin 1886, 22. Souakin 1888, 22. Souakin 1898, 27. El Facher, 27. El Facher 1887, 27. El Facher 1898, 28. El Obeid 1888, 28. El Obeid 1892, 36. Lado 1889, 36. Lado 1892, Gallica
Map : Darfur 1922, Khartum and Omdurman 1922, Khartum and Omdurman 1932, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
Port Sudan 1946, Nationmaster
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheet 9 Dakhla Oasis (1969), sheet 10 Aswan (1969), sheet 14 El Fasher (1973), sheet 15 Al Khurtum (1979), sheet 19 Bangui (1963), sheet 20 Adis Abeba (1978), PCL, UTexas
U.S. Army Map Service, East Africa 1:250,000, 1958-; series NE, NF cover the northern parts of Sudan, close to the Egyptian border. Only a part of the maps are accessible online.
Topographic Map Khartoum, Environs 1968, OWJE
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Sudan, Port Sudan, Suakin, Dongola, Omdurman, Khartum, Kordofan, El Obeid, Darfur, Bahr el Ghazal, Lado Enclave, Fashoda, Sennar, Atbara, from EB 1911
Articles Suakin, Chartum, Dar Fur, Kordofan, Senaar, from Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885-1892, in German
Religious Article Vicariate Apostolic of Sudan, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1912 edition
Geographical Entry : Nubia, Abyssinia, and the Coasts of Beja and Habesh, pp.114-151 in vol.4 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography 1826, GB
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan pp.316-318 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives Sudan Archive, from Ockenden International
Musea Museums, from Sudan Embassy, London
Museums in Sudan, from International Council of African Museums
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from national-anthems.net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Sudan, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from Bank of Sudan
Coin Catalogue of Sudan, from Numismaticon
Sudan Coins, from Don's World Coin Gallery
Stamps Rare Sudan Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Sudan 1897-1898, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Sudan survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.249-396 in C. Fluehr-Lobban, R.A. Lobban, J.O. Voll, Historical Dictionary of the Sudan, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1992 [G]
Bibliography, from Library of Congress Country Studies Sudan
Sudan, from The Online Books Page
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Sudan, from Terrorism and Political Violence. An International Bibliography
Slavery in Sudan, 1966-2006, a Bibliography, by Francesco Pelliccioni
Online Publications on the History of Sudanese Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Bibliography on the Darfur Conflict, from Wikipedia
Annotated Bibliography Southern Sudan, from Forced Migration Online
Poznan Archaeological Museum, Archaeology of the Sudan - Bibliography
F. Pelliccioni, Slavery in Sudan, a Bibliography
serial publications
general bibliographies
Sudan entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Sudan-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Bibliographie de l'Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord des origines a la fin du Moyen-Age

Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on the Sudan
Online Journals full text online
Table of Contents
General Accounts P.M. Holt, A Modern History of the Sudan, NY : Grove Press 1961 [G]
Mohamed H. Fadlalla, Short History of Sudan, NY : iUniverse 2004, KMLA Lib.Sign. 962.4 F146s
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.251-272 Article Sudan. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
Special Topics Insurgencies in Sudan, Uganda and Zaire, pp.203-227, in : John W. Turner, Continent Ablaze. The Insurgency Wars in Africa, 1960 to the Present, London : Cassell 1998
Chapter 14 : The Nile and the Sudan, pp.223-246, in : John Gunther, Inside Africa, NY : Harper & Bros. (1953) 1955 [G]
Historical Dictionary C. Fluehr-Lobban, R.A. Lobban, J.O. Voll, Historical Dictionary of the Sudan, Metuchen : Scarecrow 1992
Articles : Darfur pp.144-146, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Yearbooks Article : Sudan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1957 pp.717-718, 1958 pp.659-660, 1959 p.659 [G]
Article : Sudan, Republic of the, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1960 pp.659-660 [G]
Article : Sudan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1961 p.660, 1962 p.653, 1963 pp.768-769, 1964 p.792, 1965 p.784, 1966 pp.718-719, 1967 p.710, 1968 p.720, 1969 p.704, 1970 pp.710-711, 1971 pp.690-691, 1972 pp.648-649, 1973 p.641, 1974 pp.639-640, 1975 p.647, 1976 p.635, 1977 pp.636-637, 1978 p.650, 1979 p.643, 1980 p.643, 1981 p.638, 1982 p.644, 1983 p.638, 1984 p.640, 1985 pp.477, 784, 1986 pp.472-473, 783, 1987 pp.439, 751, 1988 pp.400, 703, 1989 pp.400, 703, 1990 pp.417, 719, 1991 pp.397, 704, 1992 pp.369, 704, 1993 pp.372-373, 719, 1994 pp.371, 719, 1995 pp.476-477, 719, 1996 pp.471, 719, 1997 pp.476, 717, 2002 pp.496, 731 [G]
Article : Sudan, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 pp.1321-1327, 1975-1976 pp.1327-1331, 1976-1977 pp.1322-1327, 1978-1979 pp.1111-1116, 1979-1980 pp.1120-1125, 1980-1981 pp.1116-1121, 1981-1982 pp.1122-1127, 1983-1984 pp.1121-1126, 1984-1985 pp.1118-1122, 1985-1986 pp.1119-1124, 1986-1987 pp.1119-1123, 1987-1988 pp.1124-1128, 1988-1989 pp.1128-1132, 1989-1990 pp.1135-1139, 1990-1991 pp.1135-1139, 1991-1992 pp.1138-1142, 1992-1993 pp.1229-1232, 1993-1994 pp.1231-1234, 1994-1995 pp.1230-1234, 1995-1996 pp.1219-1223, 1996-1997 pp.1195-1199, 1997-1998 pp.1195-1199, 1998-1999 pp.1306-1311, 2000 pp.1467-1472, 2001 pp.1436-1441, 2002 pp.1490-1495, 2003 pp.1487-1492, 2004 pp.1506-1511, 2005 pp.1516-1521, 2006 pp.1524-1530 [G]
Article : Sudan, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.97-98, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.97-98, 4th ed. 1984 pp.96-97 [G]
Entry : Travel Warnings - Sudan, p.609 in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2000, Supplement [G]
Entry : Republic of the Sudan, Cabinet, pp.93-94, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Article : Sudan, in : Americana Annual 1957 pp.751-753, 1961 pp.732-734, 1962 pp.739-740, 1963 pp.656-657, 1964 pp.628-629, 1965 p.666, 1967 pp.660-661, 1968 pp.648-649, 1969 pp.655-656, 1970 pp.48, 656-657, 1971 p.652, 1972 p.652, 1973 pp.73-74, 652, 1974 pp.570-571, 1976 p.527, 1988 p.504, 1989 pp.513-514, 1990 pp.502-503, 1992 p.506, 1993 p.517, 1994 pp.518-519, 1998 p.523, 2006 pp.358-359 [G]
Entry : Sudan, pp.934-937 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]
Article : Sudan, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1961 p.317 [G]
Article : Sudan, in : Yearbook on International Communist Affairs 1976 pp.567-569 (Patricia Mihaly), 1980 pp.434-436 (P.M.) [G]
Sudan pp.246-249, in : Year Book and Guide to East Africa 1963 [G]

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