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First posted on July 9th 2002, last revised on October 29th 2010





Germany purchased the Marshall Islands from Spain in 1884. In 1888 Germany annexed Nauru, which until 1914 was administrated as an annex to the Marshall Islands.
Early in World War I, the Marshall Islands were occupied by Japan while Nauru came under the occupation of Australia. In 1945 the Marshall Inslands came under U.S. occupation. In 1947 they became part of the Trust Territory Pacific Islands. From 1946 to 1958 the U.S. used Bikini Atoll for nuclear bomb tests. Self government was introduced in 1979, independence declared in 1986.

Marshall Islands 1885-1914


Timeline : Marshall Islands
Historical Atlas, Marshall Islands Page






E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others



DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles from BBC Country Profiles; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook
from Index Mundi
Republic of the Marshall Islands, by Jane Resture
Ehemalige Kolonie Deutsch-Neuguinea : Marshallinseln, GenWiki
G.H. Blakeslee, Japan's New Island Possessions in the Pacific: History and Present Status, The Journal of International Relations 12, 1921, IA
Links General from dmoz
Category : Marshall Islands, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of the Marshall Islands, from Wikipedia
Portals Marshalls. Digital Micronesia
Organizations Pacific History Association
Pacific Islands Museums and Cultural Institutions Association (PIMA)
Pacific Islands Study Circle (Philately)
Historical Dictionaries Archaeopedia New Zealand
Timelines Timeline, from BBC News
Accounts of History Portal Marshall Islands History, from Digital Micronesia
General, Modern Article : History of the Marshall Islands, from Wikipedia
N.R. Gooding, The administration of the trust territory of the Pacific Islands, 1945-1962, IA
T.F. King, The Islands of the Japanese Mandate in 1937
G. Dvorak, Visualizing Japan's Pacific Past. "Reefing History" between the Marshall Islands, Japan and America, 2007
G. Dvorak,
"The Martial Islands". Making Marshallese Masculinities between American and Japanese Militarism, The Contemporary Pacific 20/1 2008
Politics Political Resources on the Web : Marshall Islands
Governments on the WWW : Marshall Islands; Article Politics of the Marshall Islands, from Wikipedia
Military Category : Wars involving the Marshall Islands, from Wikipedia
Articles : Bikini Atomic Experiments, Pacific Proving Grounds, Wikipedia
Economy & Finances Article Economy of the Marshall Islands, from Wikipedia
Ch.6 : Agroforestry in Micronesia, in W.C. Clarke et al., Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands
Social History Alele Museum, Traditional Medicine in the Marshall Islands
Marshall Island Dose Assessment & Radioecology Program, Bikini Atoll
K. Homeyer, Bikini Atoll: Living with a Nuclear Legacy and Mediating Conflict with the United States 2006
F.X. Hezel, Schools in Micronesia prior to American Administration
Article : Marshall Islands, from Education Encyclopedia
Ethnography Languages of the Marshall Islands (2), from Ethnologue
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Marshall Islands
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Marshall Islands, from Kirken i Norge
Local History
Institutions Marshall Islands, from Airline History
Structurae : Marshall Islands
Biographies Pacific Islander Biography, database maintained at ANU
Others Oceania Ecoregion, from WWF

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Marshall Islands by Ben Cahoon
Lists of Ambassadors Article : United States Ambassador to the Marshall Islands
Chinese Ambassadors to the Marshall Islands, from PRC MOFA
Political Graveyard : Marshall Islands, has incomplete list of U.S. diplomatic chiefs
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Marshall Islands, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Historical Newspapers Search Papers Past (New Zealand Newspapers 1839-1920)
Search Newspapers SG (Singapore Newspapers 1831-2006)
Historic Australian Newspapers 1803-1954
World History Archives : Polynesia
Life Magazine 1936-1972, GB, 216 entries on the Marshall Islands
Deutsches Kolonialblatt 1890, 1891, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, IA; 1918, Univ. Frankfurt
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers
Yearbooks International; TTPI entries UN Yearbook Collection, 1946-2007
Conditions of Trust Territories in the Pacific, UN Yearbook 1950, 1951, 1952, 1954, 1955, Conditions in Individual Trust Territories : Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, UN Yearbook 1956, Conditions in Trust Territories : Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, UN Yearbook 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960 1961, 1962
The International Trusteeship System, Conditions in Individual Trust Territories : Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, UN Yearbook 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992
Staatskalender Deutscher Kolonialatlas mit Jahrbuch (German Colonial Atlas with Yearbook), The Carolines, Palau Islands, Marianas and Marshall Islands section, in English translation 1905 pp.19-21, 1906 pp.19-22, 1907 pp.21-25, 1908 pp.21-24, 1909 pp.29-32, 1910 pp.29-34, 1913 pp.33-37, 1914 pp.38-41, 1918 pp.27-30, posted on psm-data
Imperial Japanese Government, Annual Report to the League of Nations on the Administration of the South Sea Islands Under Japanese Mandate 1925, IA
Imperial Japanese Government, League of Nations Report on the Japanese Mandate in Micronesia 1930, 1931, IA
Report on the Administration of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 1949, 1952; IA - 1949, IA - 1952
Image Databanks Trust Territory Photo Archives
Wikimedia Commons
License Plates, from Francoplaque; from License Plates of the World
Images of the Marshall Islands, from Pacific Picture Agency
Airline Timetable Images : Marshall Islands
Time/Life, Life with the A-Bomb. Anatomy of a Nuclear Test, 1946 (Bikini)
Archival Deposits Search Bundesarchiv for Marshallinseln
U.S. National Archives, 126.6.4 Records relating to the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
Lyndon B. Johnson Library and Museum, Material at the Johnson Library pertaining to U.S. Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands and Guam
Australian National University, Pacific Manuscripts Bureau, Reel List
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties
Consular Reports
Document Collections The Marshall Islands : European History Sources, from Marshall Islands Electronic Library and Archive
Historical Maps Marshall Islands Map Archive
Marshall Islands Maps, from Perry Castaneda Map Collection, UTexas
Eastern Micronesia 1866, Trussel
Marshall Islands Historical Maps, from Digital Micronesia
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Marshall Islands, from Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 edition
Religious Article Marshall Islands, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Economic
Geographical Marshall Archipelago, pp.1062-1071 in A.G. Findlay, A Directory for the Navigation of the Pacific Ocean, 1851, GB
The Marshall Islands, pp.545-546 in F.H.H. Guillemard, Malaysia and the Pacific Archipelagoes, vol.2 of Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel, 1894, IA
Historical
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries Alele Museum & National Archives
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Archives
Ocean Expo Park, Oceanic Culture Museum (Japan)
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
National Anthem, from National Anthems; from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes
Stamps Rare Marshall Islands Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Stamps Marshall Islands 1897-1914, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies RHS Bibliography
Tennessee Archaeology Net : Bibliographies for Anthropological Research : Australia and Oceania
U. Holtz, Ehemalige deutsche Kolonien. Vom Kolonialstatus zum wirtschaftlichen Partnerland Deutschlands ?, Bibliographie/Webliographie 2003
D. Köster, Bibliographie zur deutschen Kolonialgeschichte, Colonial Voyage
serial publications Ch. Links, Schlaglichter der Kolonialgeschichte, Studien zur Kolonialgeschichte
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
on the Marshall Islands Marshalls, Digital Micronesia
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Universitätsbibliothek, Sammlungen, click : Kolonialbibliothek
Pacific Digital Library
Online Journals On Oceania Journal of the Polynesian Society 1892-1991
Pacific Studies, IA
Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 1979-
Journal de la Societe des Oceanistes, 1945-2009 online
Kagoshima University, South Pacific Studies Archive 1980-2013
The Contemporary Pacific 2000-2013
On Mission Mission Periodicals Online, from Yale Univ. Library
Magazin für die neueste Geschichte der evangelischen Missions- und Bibelgesellschaften 1818, 1820, 1824, 1827, 1831, 1832, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1841, 1850, 1853, 1867 GB; 1818-1856 from Yale Univ. Library
Church Missionary Society (London), Missionary Register, GB; search for Tonga, Friendly Islands vol.11 1823, vol.12 1824, vol.14 1826, vol.16 1828, vol.17 1829, vol.20 1832, vol.30 1842, vol.36 1848, vol.38 1850
London Missionary Society, The Missionary Magazine and Chronicle, 1860, 1862, 1864-I, IA; 1848-1866 at Yale Univ. Library (full view)
Annales de la propagation de la foi 1834-1933, Gallica
Historiography Article : Pacific Islands Historiography, by K.R. Howe, pp.685-687, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts On Oceania Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.25, pp.279-280 Article Pacific Islands : Marshall Islands. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.25
On the Marshall Islands
Historical Dictionaries Robert D. Craig and Franklin P. King, Historical Dictionary of Oceania, Westport CT : Greenwood 1981 [G]
Historical Atlas Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Pacific, London : Penguin 1998, 120 pp. [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]