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Guam Federated States of
Micronesia
First posted on July 9th 2002, last revised on July 3rd 2010






The first European discoverer to reach the Mariana Islands was Ferdinand Magellan, who in 1521 claimed Guam for Spain. The island group long was called the Ladrones. Spain maintained her claim on the entire island group until 1898/1899, when it ceded Guam to the U.S. and sold the Northern Mariana Islands, then called "Marianen", to Germany.
In 1914 the Northern Mariana Islands were occupied by Japan, which in 1920 was granted the mandate over the islands by the League of Nations. In 1945 the mandate over the Northern Marianas, Marshall Islands, Palau and the Carolinas was granted to the U.S. (Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands). In 1975/1978 the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands achieved the status of an autonomous territory of the U.S.

Timeline : Northern Mariana Islands

Students' Paper : Jeon, Hyeong Mi, Analysis of Ethnological Encyclopedias, based on the Example of the Ladrone islands (Marianas) (2010)








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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles from BBC Country Profiles; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook, Countries : Northern Mariana Islands
from Index Mundi
Ehemalige Kolonie Deutsch-Neuguinea : Karolinen-, Palau- und Marianeninseln, GenWiki
G.H. Blakeslee, Japan's New Island Possessions in the Pacific: History and Present Status, The Journal of International Relations 12, 1921, IA
Links General from dmoz
Category : Northern Mariana Islands, from Wikipedia
Kategorie : Nördliche Marianen, from Wikipedia German edition
Categoria : Islas Marianas del Norte, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
on History Category : History of the Northern Mariana Islands, from Wikipedia
Categoria : Historia de las Islas Marianas del Norte, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Portals Marshalls. Digital Micronesia
Organizations Pacific History Association
Pacific Islands Museums and Cultural Institutions Association (PIMA)
Pacific Islands Study Circle (Philately)
Historical Dictionaries Archaeopedia New Zealand
Timelines
Accounts of History Article : Northern Mariana Islands : History, from Wikipedia
History of the Northern Mariana Islands, from US Census Bureau, scroll down for NMI
M. Russell, Polynesia: a history of the South Sea islands, including New Zealand ; with narrative of the introduction of christianity, 1852, GB
N.R. Gooding, The administration of the trust territory of the Pacific Islands, 1945-1962, IA
T.F. King, The Islands of the Japanese Mandate in 1937
Politics Political Resources on the Web : Northern Mariana Islands; Governments on the WWW : Northern Mariana Islands; Article Politics of the Northern Mariana Islands, from Wikipedia
Military
Economy & Finances Article Economy of the Northern Mariana Islands, from Wikipedia
Ch.6 : Agroforestry in Micronesia, in W.C. Clarke et al., Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands
W. Higuchi, Pre-war Japanese Fisheries in Micronesia - Focusing on Bonito and Tuna Fishing in the Northern Mariana Islands
Social History F.X. Hezel, Schools in Micronesia prior to American Administration
Article : Northern Mariana Islands, from Education Encyclopedia
Ethnography Languages of the Northern Mariana Islands (4), from Ethnologue
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Northern Mariana Islands
The Impact of Micronesian Migrants on the CNMI 1998
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Northern Mariana Islands, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in the Northern Mariana Islands, from Wikipedia
Commencement of Missionary Undertakings to the Islands in the South Sea, and Settlement of the Ladrone Islands by the Spaniards, pp.271-315 in J. Burney, A chronological history of the discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean, 1813, GB
History of Regions Municipalities of Northern Mariana Islands, from www.statoids.com
Local History
Institutions Northern Mariana Islands, from Airline History
Structurae : Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands Judiciary, A Historical Overview
Biographies Pacific Islander Biography, database maintained at ANU
Others Entry EnenKio Atoll, from Footnotes to History, by James L. Erwin
Oceania Ecoregion, from WWF

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Northern Mariana Islands, by Ben Cahoon
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Northern Mariana Islands, from Population Statistics by J. Lahmeyer
Documents Historical Newspapers Search Papers Past (New Zealand Newspapers 1839-1920)
Search Newspapers SG (Singapore Newspapers 1831-2006)
Historic Australian Newspapers 1803-1954
Deutsches Kolonialblatt 1890, 1891, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, IA; 1918, Univ. Frankfurt
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers
Yearbooks International; TTPI entries UN Yearbook Collection, 1946-2007
Conditions of Trust Territories in the Pacific, UN Yearbook 1950, 1951, 1952, 1954, 1955, Conditions in Individual Trust Territories : Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, UN Yearbook 1956, Conditions in Trust Territories : Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, UN Yearbook 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960 1961, 1962
The International Trusteeship System, Conditions in Individual Trust Territories : Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, UN Yearbook 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992
Staatskalender Deutscher Kolonialatlas mit Jahrbuch (German Colonial Atlas with Yearbook), The Carolines, Palau Islands, Marianas and Marshall Islands section, in English translation 1905 pp.19-21, 1906 pp.19-22, 1907 pp.21-25, 1908 pp.21-24, 1909 pp.29-32, 1910 pp.29-34, 1913 pp.33-37, 1914 pp.38-41, 1918 pp.27-30, posted on psm-data
Imperial Japanese Government, Annual Report to the League of Nations on the Administration of the South Sea Islands Under Japanese Mandate 1925, IA
Imperial Japanese Government, League of Nations Report on the Japanese Mandate in Micronesia 1930, 1931, IA
Report on the Administration of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 1949, 1952; IA - 1949, IA - 1952
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Trust Territory Photo Archives
Images of Saipan, of Tinian, from Pacific Picture Agency
License Plates, from Francoplaque; from License Plates of the World
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Image Archive
Archival Deposits Search Bundesarchiv for Marianen
U.S. National Archives, 126.6.4 Records relating to the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
Lyndon B. Johnson Library and Museum, Material at the Johnson Library pertaining to U.S. Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands and Guam
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties
Document Collections
Historical Maps Historical Maps of the German Marianas, posted by Digital Micronesia
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Marianas or Ladrones, from Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911 edition
Religious Article Mariana Islands, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1910 edition
Economic
Geographical Die Ladronen-, Diebs- oder Marianeninseln, pp.172-177 in vol.6 of J.B. Schütz, Allgemeine Erdkunde für denkende und gebildete Leser, 1806, GB
Ladrones, pp.681-682 in vol.2 of A system of geography, 1807, GB
Ladrones, or Mariana Islands, pp.670-671 in The Edinburgh gazetteer, or geographical dictionary, 1822, GB
Marian Islands, pp.617-619 in C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1822, GB
Ladrones, p.166 in vol.3 of H. Murray, The encyclopaedia of geography, 1837, GB
Mariana or Ladrone Islands, pp.1107-1120 in A.G. Findlay, A Directory for the Navigation of the Pacific Ocean, 1851, GB
The Ladrone or Marianne Islands, pp.553-556 in F.H.H. Guillemard, Malaysia and the Pacific Archipelagoes, vol.2 of Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel, 1894, IA
Ethnological Ladrones, pp.225-227 in A. Hamilton, Marriage rites, customs, and ceremonies, of all nations of the universe, 1822, GB
Ladrone or Mariana Islands, pp.236-237 in R. Philips, A general view of the manners, customs and curiosities of nations, vol.1, 1831, GB
Historical Archipel des Mariannes, pp.387-400 in vol.1 of G.L.D. de Rienzi, L'Univers: histoire et description de tous les peuples, 1836, in French, GB
Ladrones, or Marianne Islands, p.416 in vol.2 of S. Maulder, The history of the world, 1856, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries CNMI Archives
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Archives
Ocean Expo Park, Oceanic Culture Museum (Japan)
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes
Stamps Stamps Marianas 1899-1901, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer; from Die Deutschen Schutzgebiete, Text in German

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies RHS Bibliography
Tennessee Archaeology Net : Bibliographies for Anthropological Research : Australia and Oceania
U. Holtz, Ehemalige deutsche Kolonien. Vom Kolonialstatus zum wirtschaftlichen Partnerland Deutschlands ?, Bibliographie/Webliographie 2003
D. Köster, Bibliographie zur deutschen Kolonialgeschichte, Colonial Voyage
serial publications Ch. Links, Schlaglichter der Kolonialgeschichte, Studien zur Kolonialgeschichte
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
on NMI Marianas, Digital Micronesia
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Universitätsbibliothek, Sammlungen, click : Kolonialbibliothek
Pacific Digital Library
Online Journals On Oceania Journal of the Polynesian Society 1892-1991
Pacific Studies, IA
Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 1979-
Journal de la Societe des Oceanistes, 1945-2009 online
Kagoshima University, South Pacific Studies Archive 1980-2013
The Contemporary Pacific 2000-2013
On Mission Mission Periodicals Online, from Yale Univ. Library
Magazin für die neueste Geschichte der evangelischen Missions- und Bibelgesellschaften 1818, 1820, 1824, 1827, 1831, 1832, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1841, 1850, 1853, 1867 GB; 1818-1856 from Yale Univ. Library
Church Missionary Society (London), Missionary Register, GB; search for Tonga, Friendly Islands vol.11 1823, vol.12 1824, vol.14 1826, vol.16 1828, vol.17 1829, vol.20 1832, vol.30 1842, vol.36 1848, vol.38 1850
London Missionary Society, The Missionary Magazine and Chronicle, 1860, 1862, 1864-I, IA; 1848-1866 at Yale Univ. Library (full view)
Annales de la propagation de la foi 1834-1933, Gallica
Historiography Article : Pacific Islands Historiography, by K.R. Howe, pp.685-687, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts On the Pacific Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.25, pp.283-285 Article Pacific Islands : Northern Mariana Islands. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.25
On NMI
Historical Dictionaries Robert D. Craig and Franklin P. King, Historical Dictionary of Oceania, Westport CT : Greenwood 1981 [G]
Historical Atlas Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Pacific, London : Penguin 1998, 120 pp. [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Article : Mariana Islands, 1945 pp.425-426, 1946 pp.457-458, Article : Trustee Territories, 1948 p.736, Article : Trust Territories, 1949 pp.636-637, 1950 pp.679-680, 1951 pp.682-683, 1952 pp.686-687, 1953 pp.695-696, 1954 pp.697-698, 1955 p.752, 1956 pp.688-689, 1957 pp.752-753, 1958 pp.691-692, 1959 pp.689-690, 1960 p.690, 1961 pp.688-689, 1962 p.682, 1963 p.798, Colonies and Dependent Territories 1964 pp.265-268, Colonies and other Dependencies 1965 pp.250-256, 1966 pp.197-206, 1967 pp.215-222, 1968 pp.212-220, Dependent States 1969 pp.273-282, 1970 pp.273-283, 1971 pp.261-272, 1972 pp.237-246, 1973 pp.228-237, 1974 pp.244-253, 1975 pp.228-231, 1976 pp.246-254, 1977 pp.246-254, 1978 pp.301-309, 1979 pp.302-311, 1980 pp.300-307, 1981 pp.300-307, 1982 pp.295-303, 1983 pp.295-302, 1984 pp.290-297, Dependent States : Pacific 1985 pp.604-605, 1986 pp.599-600, 1987 pp.567-568, 1988 pp.519-520, 1989 pp.519-520, 1990 pp.535-536, 1991 pp.519-520, 1992 pp.492-493, 1993 pp.500-501, 1994 p.501, 1995 pp.359-360, 1996 p.358, 1997 p.381, 1999 p.392, 2002 p.380