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Tokelau Islands Fiji
First posted on October 25th 2010, last revised on September 9th 2013





First settled between 2500 and 1500 B.C.; the first European to visit the islands was Dutchman Jakob Roggeveen 1722; he called Samoa The Navigators Islands, a name which stuck with them far into the 19th century. The first missionaries arrived in the 1830s.
The Tripartite Convention of 1900 partitioned Samoa into American Samoa, Western Samoa (1900-1919 German). Germany ceded two of the Solomon Islands to Britain, and Germany and the U.S. acquiesced in a British protectorate over Tonga and Niue,
For the history from 1900 onward, see under American Samoa, Western Samoa.

Samoa 1830-1899


Timeline : (Western) Samoa
Historical Atlas, Samoa Page

Student Papers : Lee, Yeonhwa, Samoa 1899 as portrayed in "Punch"



WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Gregoire-Louis Domeny De Rienzi, Oceanie ou cinquieme partie du monde vol.1, 1836, vol.2, 1836, in French, GB; search for Samoa
A. de Gannier, Les Iles Samoa, ou des Navigateurs. Le conflit entre les Etats-Unis et l'Allemagne et la nouvelle conference de Berlin 1889, IA
Marie Frasier, In Stephenson's Samoa (1895), posted by Internet Archive
O.E. Ehlers, Samoa, Die Perle der Südsee 1895, SUB Göttingen, in German
J. Davis, Die Samoainseln und ihre Bewohner, Monatshefte von Velhagen und Klasing 1898/1899, Lexikus
M.I. Stephenson, Letters from Samoa (1906), posted by Internet Archive
Siegfried Genthe, Samoa (1908), in German, posted by Internet Archive
Links General from BUBL
Category : Samoa, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Samoa, from Wikipedia
Organizations Pacific History Association
Fellowship of Samoa Specialists (Philately)
Pacific Islands Museums and Cultural Institutions Association (PIMA)
Pacific Islands Study Circle (Philately)
Historical Dictionaries Archaeopedia New Zealand
Timelines Timeline of Samoan history, from BBC News, from timelines.ws; from Jane's Oceania
Accounts of History General, Modern from samoa.co.uk
Article History of Samoa, from Wikipedia
History, from Independent State of Western Samoa
Geschichte von Samoa, from Savai.de
General, Historical R.M. Watson, History of Samoa (1918), posted by IA, also by samoa.co.uk
M. Russell, Polynesia: a history of the South Sea islands, including New Zealand ; with narrative of the introduction of christianity, 1852, GB
Specific Periods Articles Samoan Crisis, Samoan Civil War, from Wikipedia
R.L. Stephenson, A Footnote to History : Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa (1912), posted by Internet Archive
also by World Wide School
S. Masterman, The Origins of International Rivalry in Samoa, 1845-1884, 1934, from New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Croatia, Governments on the WWW : Samoa, Article Politics of Samoa, from Wikipedia
C.F. Littell, The neutralization of states; a study in diplomatic history and international law, 1920, IA; pp.74-83 on Samoa
Military Wars of Western Samoa 1800-1999, from ACED (no entries)
Samoa is listed among the countries without armed forces (Wikipedia)
Samoan Civil War 1898-1899, in : Wars of 1899, from The History Guy, scroll down
The Samoan Conflict 1899, from Jane's Samoa Home Page
Minor Military Deployments and Actions 1833-1992, from Simonides Warzone, US troop deployments, in part on Samoa
Armed Conflict Event Data : Samoan Civil War 1893-1894, Samoan Civil War 1898-1899, from OnWar.com
Robert Louis Stevenson, on the Samoan War of 1893, from Samoan Sensation
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Samoa (Western)
Article : Economy of Samoa, from Wikipedia
Ethnography Languages of Samoa (2), from Ethnologue
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Samoa
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Samoa, from Kirken i Norge
History, from The Baha'i House of Worship Samoa
J. Williams, A narrative of missionary enterprises in the South Sea Islands : with remarks upon the natural history of the islands, origin, languages, traditions, and usages of the inhabitants 1840, IA
History of Regions Districts of Samoa, from www.statoids.com
Articles Savai'i, Upolu, from Wikipedia
Local History Articles Apia : History, from Wikipedia
Institutions
Biographies Pacific Islander Biography, database maintained at ANU
List of Samoans, from Wikipedia
Others Category : Disasters in Samoa, from Wikipedia
Articles : Samoa at the Olympics, Sport in Samoa, from Wikipedia
Oceania Ecoregion, from WWF

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : (Western) Samoa by Ben Cahoon; from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies, from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
List of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Samoa, has incomplete list of 19th century U.S. consuls in Apia
Lists of Bishops Article : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Samoa-Apia, from Wikipedia
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Western Samoa, from Population Statistics, posted by Jan Lahmeyer; has data prior to 1900
Documents Historical Newspapers Search Papers Past (New Zealand Newspapers 1839-1920)
Historic Australian Newspapers 1803-1954
Some Aspects of the Samoan Question, by George H. Bates, in : The Century; a popular quarterly. / Volume 37, Issue 6, pp.945-949, Apr. 1889 from Cornell Difital Library
Our Relations to Samoa, by George H. Bates, in : The Century; a popular quarterly. / Volume 38, Issue 1, pp.25-34, May 1889, from Cornell Digital Librart
Our Interest in Samoa, by Hon. Henry C. Ide, in : The North American review. / Volume 165, Issue 489, pp.155-174, Aug. 1897, from Cornell Digital Library
The Imbroglio in Samoa, by Henry C. Ide: in : The North American review. / Volume 168, Issue 511, pp.679-694, June 1899, from Cornell Digital Library
Selection of 8 19th century articles on Samoa, from Samoan Sensation
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Images of Samoa, from Pacific Picture Agency
Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek : Media Type Image : Samoa
Images of Samoa, 1881, The Graphic : No.9, No.10, No.11, No.12, posted by Samoan Sensation
Images on Samoa 1887, from the Graphic : No.1, No.2, No.3, No.4, No.5, No.6, No.7, No.8 posted by Samoan Sensation
Illustrations from precolonial, colonial and postcolonial (W.) Samoa, from Germans in Samoa : Gender and Race, a project at Whitman College
Cartoon : Bismarck holding the earth and reaching for Samoa while ignoring U.S. protests by Bayard and Whitney, from Library of Congress
Graphs : German, British, American shipping to Samoa, 1860-1885, scan posted by Germans in Samoa, Gender and Race
1880es prints featuring Samoa, from Samoan Sensation
Print : La Perouse on Samoa, from Samoan Sensation
Archival Deposits A.J. Fristoe, The Samoan Archives. An Annotated List of the Archival Material of the Various Governments of Western Samoa from the Middle of the Nineteenth Century to the First Quarter of the Twentieth Century, 1977; posted at MANOA
Samoan Archives, General Description, from National Register of Archives and Manuscripts, Wellington, New Zealand
Search National Archives (UK), Archives New Zealand for Samoa
Mundus. Gateway to missionary collections in the United Kingdom. London Missionary Society
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Affaires de Samoa, pp.306-336 in vol.4 of Archives diplomatiques: recueil mensuel de diplomatie, 1900, GB
Treaties pertaining to Samoa, pp.63-128, 273-277 in Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949 vol.1 : Multilateral, 1776-1917, 1968, GB
Treaties, Cessions and Federal Laws, from www.asbar.org
Treaty with Samoa 1887, from Hawaiian Kingdom
Reports of International Arbitrary Awards : Samoan Claims (Germany, Great Britain, United States) 1902, from United Nations
Freundschaftsvertrag zwischen dem Deutschen Reich und Samoa 1879, from Wikisource German edition
Commercial Relations made by the Principal Chiefs of the Samoan or Navigators' Islands, 1839, pp.52-54 in vol.33 of British and foreign state papers 1844-1845, 1859, GB
Consular Reports Commercial relations of the United States with foreign countries : Navigator Islands 1856, 1857, p.393, 1857, 1858, pp.203-204, 1862, 1863, p.607, 1864, 1865, pp.691-692, 1865, 1866, pp.555-556, 1866, 1867, pp.546-547, 1867, 1868, pp.720-721, 1868, 1869, pp.638-639, GB
Consular Despatch from the Navigator Islands, p.75 in The Sessional Papers Printed by Order of the House of Lords, 1855, GB
J.C. Williams, Report on the Trade of the Navigator Islands for 1867, pp.399-400 in vol.6 of Reports from Her Majesty's consuls on the manufactures, commerce etc., 1868, GB
A.B. Steinberger, Report Upon Samoa: Or, the Navigation's Island, Made to the Secretary of State (1874), posted by Internet Archive
Document Collections Search Papers Past for Samoa (online archive of New Zealand newspapers 1839-1920)
Search Hansard for Samoa
Samoa: Commerce, Consular Rights, Shipping - November 5, 1839, from Avalon Project at Yale Law School; also from Samoan Sensation
Letter Dec. 11th 1839 from Samoa, by Lt. William Reynolds, from Samoan Sensation
Typhoons and Hurricanes: The Storm at Apia, Samoa, 15-16 March 1889, 2 Docs, from Navy Historical Center; also from Samoan Sensation
Search The public papers of Grover Cleveland 1889, GB, for Samoa
German Diplomatic Documents : Samoa 1898-1899, from Mt. Holyoke
Samoa, pp.604-673 in Foreign Relations of the United States, Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, with the annual message of the president transmitted to Congress December 5, 1899
Historical Maps click here
1851 map, from Samoan Sensation, from Tallis Atlas
Samoa 1896 (Cram), posted by Wikipedia
Map : Eur. Plantations on Samoa, 1880es, scan posted by Germans in Samoa : Gender and Race, a project at Whitman College
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Schifferinseln (i.e. navigators islands), from Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, posted by Zeno, in German
Article : Samoa, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, posted by Retro Bibliothek, in German
from Meyers Grosses Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, posted by Zeno, in German
Article : Samoa, from Classic Encyclopedia (Britannica 1911 edition)
Religious Article : Samoa, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1912 edition
Samoa Islands, pp.269-275 in C.F. Blumhardt, Christian missions: or a manual of missionary geography and history, 1799, GB
Economic
Geographical Die Navigator- oder Schifferinseln, pp.216-217 in vol.6 of J.B. Schütz, Allgemeine Erdkunde für denkende und gebildete Leser, 1806, GB
Die Schifferinseln, Bougainvillens Iles des Navigateurs, pp.591-606 in vol.1 pt.2 of E.A.W. Zimmermann, Australien in Hinsicht der Erd, Menschen und Produktenkunde, 1810, GB
Das Archipel der Schifferinseln, pp.465-474 in vol.16 : Australien of Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde: Ein geographisches Lesebuch für alle Stände, by L. Lindner, 1814, GB
Navigator Islands, pp.687-688 in vol.2 of A system of geography, 1807, GB
Navigators' Islands, pp.628-630 in C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1822, GB
Navigators' Islands, pp.164-165 in vol.3 of H. Murray et al., The encyclopaedia of geography, 1837, GB
Samoa or Navigator's Islands, pp.898- in A.G. Findlay, A Directory for the Navigation of the Pacific Ocean, 1851, GB
Article : Samoa, from Stefan Ankjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Lexikon 1858-1863, posted by Project Runeberg, in Danish
Article : Samoa-öarna, from Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899 (1890), posted by Project Runeberg, in Swedish
Samoa pp.211-285 in J.S. Cooper, The islands of the Pacific; their peoples and their products 1888, IA
The Samoan Islands, pp.66-67 in R. Brown, The Countries of the World, 1892, IA
The Samoa or Navigator Islands, pp.500-507 in F.H.H. Guillemard, Malaysia and the Pacific Archipelagoes, vol.2 of Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel, 1894, IA
Historical Archipel de Samoa, pp.20-24 in vol.2 of G.L.D. de Rienzi, L'Univers: histoire et description de tous les peuples, 1837, in French, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues Ch. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States exploring expedition during the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841 and 1842, vol.2, 1856, GB, search for Samoa
J.E. Erskine, Journal of a cruise among the islands of the western Pacific, 1853, GB
A. Krämer, Hawaii, Ostmikronesien und Samoa; meine zweite Südseereise (1897-1899) zum Studium der Atolle und ihrer Bewohner, 1906, IA
O. Finsch, Samoafahrten. Reisen in Kaiser Wilhelms-Land und Englisch-Neu-Guinea in den Jahren 1884 u. 1885, 1888, IA
Residence Memoirs Missionary life in Samoa: as exhibited in the journals of the late George Archibald Lundie, 1846, GB
W.B. Churchward, My Consulate in Samoa: A Record of Four Years' Sojourn in the Navigators Islands (1887), IA
M.C. Balfour, Letters from Samoa 1891-1895, 1906, IA
F. Wohltmann, Pflanzung und Siedlung auf Samoa (1904, in German), IA
G. Brown, George Brown, D.D. Pioneer-missionary and explorer, an autobiography; a narrative of forty-eight years' residence and travel in Samoa, New Britain, New Ireland, New Guinea and the Solomon Islands 1908, IA
Archives, Musea, Libraries
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes
Stamps Samoan Postal History, from Fellowship of Samoa Specialists
Samoa, from The New Zealand Dependencies Website, detailed postal history
The German Postal Agency on Samoa, from The New Zealand Dependencies Website

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies RHS Bibliography
Search UK National Archive Online Library for Samoa
List of Books on Samoan history, from samoa.co.uk
Samoan Sensation, Samoan Free Online Bibliography
Samoan Archaeology Bibliography, UOregon
Center for Pacific Island Studies : Samoa : A Selected Bibliography, MANOA
Tennessee Archaeology Net : Bibliographies for Anthropological Research : Australia and Oceania
Online Libraries General Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
New Zealand Digital Library
New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek
Online Journals On Oceania Journal of the Polynesian Society 1892-1991
Pacific Studies, IA
Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 1979-
Journal de la Societe des Oceanistes, 1945-2009 online
The Contemporary Pacific 2000-2013
On Mission Mission Periodicals Online, from Yale Univ. Library
Magazin für die neueste Geschichte der evangelischen Missions- und Bibelgesellschaften 1818, 1820, 1824, 1827, 1831, 1832, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1841, 1850, 1853, 1867 GB; 1818-1856 from Yale Univ. Library
Church Missionary Society (London), Missionary Register, GB; search for Tonga, Friendly Islands vol.11 1823, vol.12 1824, vol.14 1826, vol.16 1828, vol.17 1829, vol.20 1832, vol.30 1842, vol.36 1848, vol.38 1850
London Missionary Society, The Missionary Magazine and Chronicle, 1860, 1862, 1864-I, IA; 1848-1866 at Yale Univ. Library (full view)
Annales de la propagation de la foi 1834-1933, Gallica
Historiography Article : Pacific Islands Historiography, by K.R. Howe, pp.685-687, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts On Oceania Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.25, pp.297-299 Article Pacific Islands : Samoa. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.25
On Samoa
Historical Dictionaries Robert D. Craig and Franklin P. King, Historical Dictionary of Oceania, Westport CT : Greenwood 1981 [G]
Historical Atlas Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Pacific, London : Penguin 1998, 120 pp. [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]