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Fiji Western Samoa
First posted in May 2002, last revised on September 5th 2013





First settled between 1500 and 1000 B.C.; first contact with Europeans in 1616. In western sources, far into the 19th century, Tonga was referred to as the Friendly Islands. At the time of the "discovery" by Europeans politically fragmented, Tonga was united in 1845. British protectorate established in 1900; independence declared in 1970.

Timeline : Tonga






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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Modern from BBC Country Profiles; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook, Countries : Tonga
from Index Mundi
Jane's Tonga Home Page
Historical O.W. Brierly, Brief Geographical Sketch of the Friendly Islands, with an Account of the Visit of H.M.S. Meander, Captain the Hon. Henry Keppel, to the Island of Tongatabu, June, 1850 1852, IA
S. Stock Farmer, Tonga and the Friendly Islands; with a sketch of their mission history 1855, IA
A. Monfat, Les Tonga; ou, Archipel des Amis et le R. P. Joseph Chevron de la Societe de Marie 1893, IA, in French
Links General from dmoz
Category : Tonga, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Tonga, from Wikipedia
Organizations Pacific History Association
Pacific Islands Museums and Cultural Institutions Association (PIMA)
New Zealand Society of Genealogists, Pacific Islands Interest Group
Pacific Islands Study Circle (Philately)
Deutsche Pazifische Gesellschaft
Historical Dictionaries Archaeopedia New Zealand
Timelines Timeline, from BBC News
Accounts of History Article : History of Tonga, from Wikipedia
Tonga - a short pre-history, How Tonga became 'The Land Where Time Begins', from Tonga on the Net
M. Russell, Polynesia: a history of the South Sea islands, including New Zealand ; with narrative of the introduction of christianity, 1852, GB
Politics Political Resources on the Web : Tonga
Governments on the WWW : Tonga; Article Politics of Tonga, from Wikipedia
U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian : A Guide to the United States' History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Tonga
Auswärtiges Amt (Germany), Foreign Relations : Tonga
P. Langa'oi, The Roots of Instability: Administrative and Political Reform in Tonga, RJAPS 25
Article : Legislative Assembly of Tonga, from Wikipedia
Military Category : Wars involving Tonga, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances Article Economy of Tonga, from Wikipedia
Ch.5 : Agroforestry in Polynesia, in W.C. Clarke et al., Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands
Social History Article : Tonga, from Education Encyclopedia
Ethnography Languages of Tonga (3), from Ethnologue
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Tonga
W. Mariner, An account of the natives of the Tonga islands in the South Pacific Ocean with an Original Grammar and Vocabulary of their Language, vol.1 GB, IA 1817, vol.2 GB, IA 1817
J. Bade, Germans in Tonga 1855-1960
Origins. Immigrant Communities in Victoria, History of immigration from Tonga
R. Wendt, Von Pyritz nach Vava'u. Migrationsgeschichte(n) zwischen Pommern und Polynesien (to Vava'u, N. Tonga; Project)
R. Wendt, Deutschsein in der Südsee. Berichte des Schweizerischen Konsuls in Neuseeland über Internierte aus Vava'u (Tonga-Inseln) während des Zweiten Weltkriegs, In: Themenportal Europäische Geschichte (2013)
Migration Information Source (US based site) : Tonga
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Tonga, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in Tonga, from Wikipedia
Abdul Majeed, Fiji Muslim League Situation Report: Tonga & Samoa 2002, IA
Geschichte der christlichen Missionen auf den Freundschafts- oder Tonga-Inseln 1857, IA, in German
S. Stock Farmer, Tonga and the Friendly Islands; with a sketch of their mission history 1855, IA
A. Monfat, Les Tonga; ou, Archipel des Amis et le R. P. Joseph Chevron de la Societe de Marie 1893, IA, in French
Tonga on the Net : The Land of the White Missionaries
C.F. Urbanowicz, Motives and Methods : Missionaries in Tonga in the Early 19th Century, Journal of the Polynesian Society 86/2 1977
S. Latukefu, The case of the Wesleyan Mission in Tonga , Journal de la societe des oceanistes 1969 25 pp.95-112, Persee
F. Douaire-Marsaudon, Uncertain Times: Sailors, Beachcombers and Castaways as "Missionaries" and Cultural Mediators in Tonga (Polynesia), ch.5 in Oceanic Encounters; trsl. of a 1997 essay
R. Lanier Britsch, Mormon Intruders in Tonga: The Passport Act of 1922
S.L.T. Aupiu, Mormon Missionaries in the Kingdom of Tonga 1891-1897, thesis Univ. of Utah 2009
Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga, About us
P.O. Latu, Fakaongo and Tau'ataina. The Influences of the Tongan Traditional Religion, the European Civilization, and Wesleyan Teachings on the Formation of Tongan Religious Identities. thesis Massey Univ. 2011
H.T. Niumeitolu, The State and the Church, the State of the Church in Tonga, 2007 thesis, Edinburgh Univ.
E. Stillwell, The Rise of the 19th-Century Tongan and Fijian Missionary Movements, Melanesian Journal of Theology 18-1, 2002
Memoirs of Mrs. Margaret Cargill, Wife of the Reverend David Cargill A.M., Wesleyan Missionary, Including Notices of the Progress of Christianity in Tonga and Feejee by her Husband 1841
J.B.F. Pompallier, Early History of the Catholic Church in Oceania, 1888, IA
J. Williams, A narrative of missionary enterprises in the South Sea Islands : with remarks upon the natural history of the islands, origin, languages, traditions, and usages of the inhabitants 1840, IA
Local History
Institutions Tonga, from Airline History
Structurae : Tonga
Biographies Pacific Islander Biography, database maintained at ANU
J.G. Turner, The pioneer missionary; life of the Rev. Nathaniel Turner, missionary in New Zealand, Tonga, and Australia 1872, IA
Others Finding Tonga, from South Pacific Organizer
Oceania Ecoregion, from WWF
E.E.V. Collocott, Tongan astronomy and calendar, 1922, IA
E.E.V. Collocott, The Supernatural in Tonga, 1921, IA

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Tonga by Ben Cahoon
Lists of Ambassadors Wikipedia, List of High Commissioners of the United Kingdom to Tonga
Wikipedia, List of High Commissioners of New Zealand to Tonga
Tonga Government Portal, List of Chinese Ambassadors to Tonga
Lists of Consuls Polityical Graveyard : Tonga, has incomplete list of U.S. consuls
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Tonga, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Historical Newspapers Search Papers Past (New Zealand Newspapers 1839-1920)
Search Newspapers SG (Singapore Newspapers 1831-2006)
Historic Australian Newspapers 1803-1954
World History Archives : Polynesia; look under Tonga
Life Magazine 1936-1972, GB, 10 entries for Tonga
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers
Movies Colonial Film. Moving Images of the British Empire : Tonga (listing of film titles)
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
National Library of New Zealand, Images, search for Tonga
New Zealand History Online, New Zealand Photos and Images, search for "Tonga"
Auckland Council, Libraries, Heritage Images, search for "Tonga"
Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek; a search for "Tonga" leads to many historical photographs
Images of Tonga, from Pacific Picture Agency
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Airline Timetable Images : Tonga
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK), Archives New Zealand for Toga, Tonga
University of Auckland, Guide to the Western Pacific Archives
Australian National University, Pacific Manuscripts Bureau, Reel List
National Archives (UK) : Western Pacific Archives
Constitutions, Laws Legislation of Tonga
LLMC, Tonga
The law of the government of Tonga 1907, IA
Treaties University of the South Pacific, Movement towards independence in the South Pacific: a digital archive of Legislation, Orders, Treaties, and related documents, scroll down for Tonga
Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives (NZ) 1880, Treaty of Friendship between Great Britain and Tonga, 1880
Consular Reports Pacific : Friendly Islands, pp.393-394 in vol.3 of E. Flagg, Report on the Commercial Relations of the United States with All Foreign Nations, 1857, GB
Document Collections
Historical Maps Oceania Maps, from Perry Castaneda Map Collection, UTexas; scroll down for Tonga
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Tonga, from the EB 1911
Religious
Economic
Geographical Die Freundschaftsinseln, pp.218-225 in vol.6 of J.B. Schütz, Allgemeine Erdkunde für denkende und gebildete Leser, 1806, GB
Friendly Islands, pp.682-687 in vol.2 of A system of geography, 1807, GB
Friendly Islands, pp.623-628 in C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1822, GB
Friendly Islands, pp.163-164 in vol.3 of H. Murray et al., The Encyclopaedia of Geography, 1837, GB
Tonga, or Friendly Islands, pp.806-820 in A.G. Findlay, A Directory for the Navigation of the Pacific Ocean, 1851, GB
Tonga, pp.64-66 in R. Brown, The Countries of the World, 1892, IA
Tonga pp.286-311 in J.S. Cooper, The islands of the Pacific; their peoples and their products 1888, IA
The Tonga or Friendly Islands, pp.497-500 in F.H.H. Guillemard, Malaysia and the Pacific Archipelagoes, vol.2 of Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel, 1894, IA
Ethnographic
Historical Archipel de Tonga, pp.24-123 in vol.2 of G.L.D. de Rienzi, L'Univers: histoire et description de tous les peuples, 1837, in French, GB
Friendly Islands, p.417 in vol.2 of S. Maunder, The history of the world, 1856, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tourist Guides P.S. Allen, Stewart's hand book of the Pacific islands; a reliable guide to all the inhabited islands of the Pacific Ocean, for traders, tourists and settlers 1919, IA
Travelogues W. Bligh, A voyage to the South sea, undertaken by command of His Majesty, for the purpose of conveying the bread-fruit tree to the West Indies, in His Majesty's ship the Bounty, commanded by Lieutenant William Bligh. Including an account of the mutiny on board the said ship, and the subsequent voyage of part of the crew, in the ship's boat, from Tofoa, one of the Friendly islands, to Timor, a Dutch settlement in the East Indies .. 1792, IA
W. Lawry, E. Hoole, Friendly and Feejee islands: a missionary visit, 1850, GB, IA
W. Lawry, E. Hoole, A Second Missionary Visit to the Friendly and Feejee Islands, in the Year MDCCCL 1851, IA
E. Hoole, A second missionary visit to the Friendly and Feejee islands, 1851, GB
G.M. Colvocoresses, Four years in a government exploring expedition [microform] : to the Island of Madeira, Cape Verd Islands, Brazil, coast of Patagonia, Chili, Peru, Paumato group, Society Islands, Navigator Group, Australia, Antarctic continent, New Zealand, Friendly Islands, Fejee group, Sandwich Islands, northwest coast of America, Oregon, California, East Indies, St. Helena, &c., &c., 1852, IA
B.C. Thomson, Savage Island: An account of a sojourn in Niue & Tonga 1902, IA
J. Cook, The three famous voyages of Captain James Cook round the world [microform] : narrating his discoveries and adventures in Tierra del Fuego, Tahiti, New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Australia, the Friendly Islands, New Hebrides, New Caledonia, the Sandwich Islands, Western North America, etc. : together with the account of his murder at Hawaii, and the subsequent voyage of Captain King to Kamtschatka, Japan, and China, 1899, IA
Resident Memoires O.G. Vason, An Authentic Narrative of Four Years' Residence at Tongataboo 1810, IA
T. West, Ten years in south-central Polynesia : being reminiscences of a personal mission to the Friendly Islands and their dependencies, 1860, IA
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from National Anthems; from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Tonga, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Stamps Rare Tonga Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Tonga Stamps 1892-1919, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies RHS Bibliography
AnthroGlobe : H. Lee (ed.) Bibliography of Tonga
JustPacific : R. Edwins (ed.) Tonga Bibliography, only English language titles
Tennessee Archaeology Net : Bibliographies for Anthropological Research : Australia and Oceania
Online Libraries General Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
New Zealand Digital Library
Online Journals On Oceania Journal of the Polynesian Society 1892-1991
Pacific Studies, IA
Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 1979-
Journal de la Societe des Oceanistes, 1945-2009 online
The Contemporary Pacific 2000-2013
On Mission Mission Periodicals Online, from Yale Univ. Library
Magazin für die neueste Geschichte der evangelischen Missions- und Bibelgesellschaften 1818, 1820, 1824, 1827, 1831, 1832, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1841, 1850, 1853, 1867 GB; 1818-1856 from Yale Univ. Library
Church Missionary Society (London), Missionary Register, GB; search for Tonga, Friendly Islands vol.11 1823, vol.12 1824, vol.14 1826, vol.16 1828, vol.17 1829, vol.20 1832, vol.30 1842, vol.36 1848, vol.38 1850
London Missionary Society, The Missionary Magazine and Chronicle, 1860, 1862, 1864-I, IA; 1848-1866 at Yale Univ. Library (full view)
Annales de la propagation de la foi 1834-1933, Gallica
Historiography Article : Pacific Islands Historiography, by K.R. Howe, pp.685-687, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts On Oceania Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.25, pp.266-269 Article Pacific Islands : New Caledonia. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.25
On Tonga
Historical Dictionaries Robert D. Craig and Franklin P. King, Historical Dictionary of Oceania, Westport CT : Greenwood 1981 [G]
Historical Atlas Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Pacific, London : Penguin 1998, 120 pp. [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]