Cossacks - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries

Brockhaus 1809-1811, Brockhaus 1837-1841, Pierer 1857-1865, Meyer 1885-1892, Meyer 1902-1908

Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, Article : Kosaken
a warlike nation on Russia's southern borders, in the vicinity of southern Poland, Little Tartary, Asiatic Turkey and European Turkey, which got their name probably from the Tatar word Kazack, which describes a roaming warrior in the service of others. Their origin is hidden in obscurity, and in order to narrate their history, several classes have to be distinguished. They are divided in two main tribes,
(1) the Malorossian Cossacks (Little Russians, Ukrainians), i.e. Cossacks who live in Little Russia or the Ukraine (i.e. borderland), an exceedingly fertile and large stretch of land at the border of southern Poland and Little Tartary, which now is divided in 4 governorates. They form the most excellent tribe of Cossacks, and most probably are of Russian origin. Fearing Polish conquest, for security reasons they fled into this excellent country in the 14th century, established there a state of their own, undertook many raids against the Turks and Tatars. Poland granted them protection as well as many privileges, and successfully used them as a protective wall against the aforementioned peoples. But when Poland restricted many of the Cossacks' privileges, in 1654 after long and bloody wars hey placed themselves under Russian protection, under which hey still form a state of their own, although Peter I. (under the government of whom their Hetman Mazeppa switched to Charles XII., an act in which not all of the nation partook) and Catherine II. cancelled many of their privileges, and they thus may be regarded as subjects. With these Cossacks united were the Zaporozhians, the least disciplined and least civilized class of the Cossacks, whom the Poles call Haydamaks. But they largely have been brought to calm and civil order, as Catherine II. in 1775 abolished their constitution.
(2) the Don Cossacks who for the larger part descend from the Tatars, who appear [in the sources] much later than the former, and who live on the river Don. To them belong, as branches, the Terek or Grebenski Cossacks on the river Terek, the Jaik or Ural Cossacks on the river Ural, the Siberian and Volga Cossacks, who in part live in Asia. All these peoples accepted Russian protection or were forced to submit to Russia.
The people's raison d'etre is war, for which they constantly have to be prepared, and they are charged not only with keeping Turks, Tatars and other nations away from the borders, but also to move against distan enemies (such as Prussia in the Seven Years War). They are paid 12 Roubles annually, given powder, lead and fodder for 2 horses, but, as they enjoy many privileges, they have to provide for their own clothing (which is according to their choice, but generally grey and of poor quality) as well as their own food, have to bring two horses to war, and to care for their own weapons. These arms consist of a 10 to 12 feet long pike, a curved sabre and a firearm the choice of which is up to the individual. Every Cossack tribe has a hetman who is commander in wartime and governor of the country in peacetime (the position of which among the Malorossians, after it had remained unoccupied for siome time, was abolished by Catherine II. in 1764, and replaced by the Little Russian government, but in 1775 again was combined with the hetmanate) and is divided in pulki or regiments, and these again in sotnies or companies. Their way to fight war largely consists of robbing and plundering, an d in quick, repeated attacks with terrifying clamor, without order, in which they defend themselves first with stretched-out pikes, then with sabre and firearm. Toward the defeated and the inhabitants of enemy countries they are cruel and mercyless. They benefit he crown greatly as fast mobile light armies, are extraordinarily fast, cheap to maintain, and are said to number 600,000 men capable of bearing arms, of whom 54,000 are in pay; an enormous and fearsome force, if only they were properly disciplined. They have neither artillery nor field music, and can stand up to regular troops only if they have superior numbers.
The religion of the Cossacks is the Greek one. Their lifestyle is moderate, except their love of drinking. Only in the capitals, such as Kiev, they tend toward luxury. Excesses in love or robbery amongst themselves are punished harshly. There is no industry among them, they conduct only in agriculture and livestock keeping. Household is completely left to the women. In regard to the arts and sciences they are still on a low level. They do not have any nobility, are all equal and refer to each other as brothers. As the Cossacks are not proper subjects, but paid servans and protege relatives of the Russian Empire, compared to other Russians they enjoy a number of privileges, as they are free of head tax, land tax and serfdom (which are common to all others), they rule themselves hrough their hetmans, according to their own laws and customs, in most regions they are free to hunt, fish, distil brandy and enjoy othr privileges, which used to be much wider, before Russianm regents, most notably Catherine II., began to civilize, and simultaneously weaken, them.

source in German, posted by Zeno

Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon 1837-1841, Article : Kosacken
Cossacks or Kazacks are calld many peoples which live on the southern and eastern border of Russia and which serve guarding the border, which therefore have a horough military organization and which pay no taxes.
In Turkish, "Kazak" refers to a robber, in Tatar to a roaming lightly armed soldier, and the Cossacks probably owe their names to this word. They probably originated from adventurers and rabble, who came here from the various parts of Russia in order to make booty in wars against the Tatars. As these people provided a cheap border security, they were favoured by the Russian government and were granted a large number of privileges, which have been significantly restricted in 1804. The language of the Cossacks is Russian, their religion Greek Russian Christianity. By constitution and descent two main groups are distinguished, of which each hs a number of subdivisions. The Little Russian or Malorossian Cossacks are the rougher tribe, to which the Zaporozhian Cossacks or Haydamaks, belong, the wildest of all. More refined are the Don Cossacks. The number of warriors is calculated at 700,000 men who are obliged to serve between 18 and 50 years of age, but one can count on only about 100,000 men, who can serve in the Russian army, as only 300,000 are in service, and of these 2/3 are employed in domestic service. The Don Cossacks form the lightest cavalry in the Russian army and are a completely irregular troop. The constitution of the Little Russian Cossacks is stricter. They do not have any nobility. Every district forms its own regiment or pulk, which is placed under a separate hetman or ataman. All leaders under him have no special rank. The supreme commander of all corps is also called hetman, is confirmed in his office by the government, and can be replaced only with the government's approval. The hetmans receive regular pay from the government, the common Cossacks only when they serve. The horses ridden by the Cossacks are small, slim and ungainly, but very fast, enduring and well-trained. The clothing of the Cossacks is Polish or Oriental, and their choice, their preferred weapon a 10 to 12 feet long pike which they handle skillfully and which often is ornated with a small flag, and which always is provided with a small loop so that it can be hung up. Further they have sabre, rifle or pistol, or instead bow and arrows. A kanchu braided of leather serves them to steer the horses. In war they are divided in small groups which confuse he enemy by brief attacks, they flee as fast as they came, and they repeat hese attacks until he enemy army begins to disperse, then they pursue them with great speed and by their skill in handling their horses and arms they inflict great damage. Every pulk has two or three silken flags, usually ornated with icons of saints, around which they rally after having dispersed in attack or flight.

source in German, posted by Zeno

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1854-1857, Article : Kosacken
A people in Russia. The original seat of the Cossacks was Little Russia (Ukraine); by descent, language, religion and customs they are to be regarded as proper Russians, only that specific events in the course of time turned them into a peculiar nation. When their ancestors were exposed to oppression by the Poles and Lithuanians, by and by they left their residence and settled in the adjacent steppe and in other areas devastated by the frequent wars between the Tatars, Poles, Lithuanians and Russians. Nominally they remained subject to the Polish crown, even did them considerable service, as they repeatedly fought off Tatar and Turkish raids which threatened to invade the country of the former. But they also accepted refugees from all nationalities, soon played an important role, were frequently hired as mercenaries by the Russian princes. Because of their nomadic lifestyle the Tatars called them Kazak (i.e. warrior, robber), which resulted in them later being called Cossacks. They elected their own leaders, called Ataman or Hetman, and gave themselves a military constitution. As the Polish kings wanted to change the latter, in 1654 in a treaty concluded at Pereyaslavl, they submitted to the Great Russians, whom they since have provided with important services, in part as border guards toward the south and southeast, in part in conquests (Siberia), in part in the army, and presently it is mainly the Cossacks, with the help of whom Russia expands her borders in Asia more and more toward the south, but is also capable to colonize her conquests. In this way the Cossacks were spread all over the Russian Empire. The Cossacks have sharp senses, are born soldiers, bold riders, good marksmen, they are buoyant, love games, music, song and dance, in most cases also brandy, their domestic virtues include hospitality, faithfulness and loyalty, but their love of drinking occasionally causes them to be cruel. Their constitution is utterly militaristic; they are all free men, without any class distinction, they don't pay taxes, do not underlie any recruitment, only serve in wartime, mainly on horseback. They act in part as regular cavalry, in part as irregular cavalry, in part they also serve in the infantry, have their own artillery, and on the eastern shore of the Black Sea they operate a small fleet of rowboats. While the Russians in most matters, mainly in their communal organization, did not interfere, since the reorganization of the Russian army under Czar Nicholas (1828) also the Cossacks have undergone significant change. In terms of formation, instruction etc. they have become much more similar to troops of the line, and thus have lost much of their peculiar character as irregular troops. According to the experience made in the Russo-Turkish War one may feel free to say that by this transformation less was gained in combat usefulness than lost in terms of security and scouting. Also, Cossacks long have settled down, engage in agriculture and livestock keeping, namely in the fertile lands on the Don, but they engage in crafts only as much as absolutely necessary to serve their needs.
The Cossacks militarily are organized in pulks (regiments) or 6 sotries (squadrons) each. The leader of a regiment is called Pokolnik, that of a squadron Sotnik. All Russian Cossack armies together were placed under a general Hetman, who, according to tradition, is the Russian heir apparent. The officers simultaneously preside the communities. The division and naming of the Cossacks follows their places of residence. The total number of Cossacks capable of bearing arms is about 600,000, the people allocated to them and placed on the same footing (Bashkirs, Kalmyks etc.) included, about 140,000 men with 220 pieces of artillery, who serve continually. At the end of 1857 the following Cossack corps existed :
A) The Don Corps (so called because it has its seat on the Don). It consists of the life guard regiment and the life ataman regiment of the Russian heir apparent, each of 6 squadrons, 54 field regiments of 6 sotnies each, each of 150 men, 1 drill regiment and 1 work regiment (of 1640 men) and obne sotnie of craftsmen, of 221 men. Of artillery the corps in the time of war has 1 guard battery with reserve division, 9 active and 4 reserve divisions, each of 8 pieces. These are formed of inhabitants of the country between the age of 20 and 42. In times of peace, according to demand, a certain number of regiments and batteries is ordered to move to certain parts of the Empire, the remainder stays at home on the Don. They are relieved every 2 or 3 years. In war regiments can be called upon in unlimited number; if the numbers listed above have all been called upon, all other men capable of bearing arms may be called to serve. So during the last war there were 84 regiments.
B) The Cossacks of the separate Caucasian Corps consist
a) of the Chernomorian Cossacks (Black Sea Cossacks) on the east coast of the Black Sea, north of the Kuban, they serve the purpose to protect Russian territory against the raids of the Trans-Kuban robber-peoples. They descend from the Zaporozhian Cossacks (the Cossacks beyond the Dniepr Cataracts), who participated in the insurrection under Pugachev (1774), and who consequently were expelled from their homes, in part joined the Tatars, in part they crossed the Danube, and only in 1794 they were granted the right to return, when they were allocated the lands on the Kuban as their residence. The groups who crossed the Danube only in 1828 rejoined the Russians. The corps consists of a guard division, 12 cavalry regiments of 6 sotnies each (of 150 men), 9 infantry batallions (of 1060 men), 3 mounted batteries and 1 garrison artillery company,
b) of the Caucasian Corps of Cossacks of the Line, 19 cavalry regiments (of 880 men), 3 infantry batallions (of 1063 men), 3 active mounted batteries and 1 reserve battery, as well as 2 reserve batallions, further 1 division has been commanded to the combined irregular Caucasian cavalry regiment, and 1 squadron to the Czar's personal convoy. The corps also has a company of craftsmen. The regiments have the names : 1st and 2nd Caucasian, 1st and 2nd Labanian, 1st and 2nd Kuban, 1st and 2nd Stavropol, 1st and 2nd Choper, 1st and 2nd Volga Gorian, Vladikavkas, Mozdok, 1st and 2nd Sunsha, Greben, Kislyar Cossack Regiment.
C) the Cossack Corps under the governor of New Russia and Bessarabia,
a) the New Russian Cossack Corps, 2 regiments of 5 sotnies, is settled in New Russia and Bessarabia,
b) the Azov Cossack Corps, settled in the vicinity of Azov at a strength of 10 sotnies, provides 21 commands of 2 barches each to cross along the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea. In 1854 a Navy Cossack Batallion was formed of these commands, for the Azov flotilla of rowboats.
D) the Astrakhan Cossack Corps, which is placed under the military governor of Astrakhan and which provides 3 cavalry regiments of 6 sotnies, and 1 mounted battery.
E) the Cossack Corps under the Commander of the separate Orenburg Corps
a) the Orenburg Cossack Corps, with 12 cavalry regiments, 6 infantry batallions and 3 mounted batteries and 1 batallion craftsmen, has to guard he Orenburg Line and the Sir Darin Line and the parts of the Kirghiz Steppe belonging to the government of Orenburg. During war the corps has to provide as many regiments as regarded necessary.
b) the Ural Cossack Corps consists of a guard division, of 12 cavalry regiments of 5 sotnies each, it has the same obligations as the Orenburg Corps.
F) the Cossack Corps under the Commander of the separate Siberian Corps
a) the Siberian Corps of Cossacks of the Line, it consists of 10 cavalry regiments and 3 batteries, but the latter are commanded by 12 officers of field artillery, and are not manned by Cossacks, but by recruits. To this corps also belongs 1 sotny of craftsmen. When the Cossacks of this corps have completed their 20 years of service, they are grouped for another 10 years into reserve commands, to conduct in inner service.
b) the Tobolsk Cossack Regiment on horseback and the Tobolsk Infantry Batallion were formed from the former Siberian, Tatar and Tobolsk City Regiment, they have to provide police service and to escort transports,
G) the Cossack Corps under the governor of Eastern Siberia
a) the Trans-Baikal Corps, it consists of 4 Russian and 2 Buryat cavalry regiments and 12 infantry batallions, maintains the cordon on the Chinse border, provides guards for the cities and the mines.
b) the Yakutsk and Yenissey Cossack Regiments, each of 6 sotnies, they provide police and relay station service along the routes in Eastern Siberia.
Every corps has to acquire their equipment at their own expenses. Only the Siberian Cossacks of the Line is paid the sum for their equipment. The cavalry regiments of he Don, Danube, Astrakhan, Orenburg, Ural and Siberian Cossacks are armed with pikes, shashkas (slightly curved sabres) and pistols. Their clothing consists of short jackets (Chekmes), wide trousers, sharawares and coats, else as with the regular Russian army. The shashka is worn on a leather pendant, the pistol at a string in a special pocket which is attached to the girdle. The Chernomorian and Caucasian Cossacks are armed with shashka, pistol, rifle and dagger (knikhal), the former also with pikes. In every Chernomorian regiment, 96 cavalrymen are equipped with carbines. The infantry regiments of the Chernomorian and Caucasian corps wear the same uniforms as the cavalrymen, and are armed with daggers and bayonet rifles, the other batalliona are without daggers. The Azov Cossacks carry rifle and dagger. The artillery wears the same uniform as the cavalry and is armed with shashka and pistol, in the Chernomorian and Caucasian corps also with daggers.
The Prussian Guard Cossacks of 1813-1814, consisting exclusively of volunteers (mostly of Silesian and Prussian nobility), imitated the Cossacks. In the war of 1812 to 1814 the Russians also recruited ordinary peasants, armed them with lances and put them on horses, in their traditional dress (Peasant Cossacks); of little courage, they were all the more tempted to plunder, and without discipline.

source in German, posted by Zeno

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Kosaken
in Russian Kazak, plural Kazaki, people, or better caste (corporation) of warriors in Russia. The word Kazak is ancient-oriental and shall mean vagabond and highway robber (see Kirghiz). Already in the 10th century the Russian princes fought the Kazoghes on Taman peninsula, pand a part of present-day Caucasus was called Kazakhia. But a connection of these names with the Cossacks, who historically are first mentioned in the first half of the 14th century, can not be proven, and the origin of the Cossacks is unclear. With certainty only can be stated, that persons of energetic and bold character, who for a variety of reasons felt that at home they lacked room for development, settled in the hitherto uninhabited wilderness between he southern border of the Slavic possessions and the northern border of the Tatar possessions. This new beginning has shaped the characteristics of the Cossacks. South of the Dniepr falls mainly Little Russians settled down, while on the Don Great Russian Cossacks appeared. They formed the two main elements of the Ukrainian or Little Russian and of the Don Cossacks. Especially favorable for the expansion of the Cossacks was the 17th century. When in 1592 the right of the peasants to freely move was abolished, many joined the Cossacks. The extinction of the Rurikid dynasty and the subsequent troubles, and the cleansing of the church books implemented by Patriarch Nikon resulted in further masses of discontents joining the Cossacks.
The Cossacks for the most part speak Great Russian dialect, only the Chernomorian Cossacks speak the Little Russian dialect. Presently the Cossacks form an important part of the Russian army. The various hosts (Don, Kuban, Terek, Astrakhan, Orenburg, Ural, Siberia, Semirechensk, Transbaikal, Amur) have a peacetime strength of 51,946 men with 94 cannon and 38,707 horses and a wartime strength of 145,325 men with 212 cannon and 138,036 horses. The 51,946 men of peacetime strength are divided in 44 1/2 regiments, 257 sotnies on horseback, 20 sotnies on foot and 20 batteries with 1984 officers and 49,962 men, among whom are 4,629 non-combattants. The 145,325 men of wartime strength are divided in 132 1/2 regiments, 800 sotnies on horseback, 60 sotnies on foot and 34 batteries, with 3,356 officers, 141,969 men among whom are 13,422 non-combattants. Every Cossack underlies mandatory military duty. The time of service differs from host to host, but does not exceed 25 years. Among the Don Cossacks it is divided in three categories. The first, preparatory category lasts three years; every Cossack enters it when he reaches the age of 18. In the first year he has to equip himself, in the next two participate in military exercises. Then the young Cossacks are allocated to regiments, and they enter the second category, which lasts for 12 years, after which they are allocated to the reserve. Among the Terek and Kuban Cossacks every Stanitsa (Cossack village) every year has to provide a certain percentage of recruits. All Cossacks are divided in three categories, of which in times of peace the first, i.e. one third of all Cossacks, is in acive service with their regiments, while the other two are with their Stanitsas. While on active service he Cossacks are given pay, stand and fodder [for their horses] by the government, but they have to purchase weapons, uniforms, horses and saddles at their own expense. The arms consist of pike, Cossack rifle, Cossack sabre and nogaika, a short leather whip, at the end of which usually a leather ball is sewn in. The officers are recruited almost exclusively from Cossack nobility, but, as far as their education is concerned, are far behind officers in the regular army. The first rank which is gained after passing an exam (there are several schools for the educaion of Cossack officers), is that of Chorundshy (secondary lieutenant), then follow Sotnik (primary lieutenant), Issaul (captain) and Voiskovoy Starshina (army eldest, major); the higher ranks are the same as in the regular army. The supreme commander is called Ataman, but this title is attributed to anyone holding the highest post anywhere, for instance Stanitsa Ataman, Tribe Ataman etc. Every Cossack has a claim on 30 dessyatin of land (about 27 ha), which is hereditary, and he also has the right to graze his animals on the village common. Because of this lifestyle passed on from generation to generation through the ages, among the Cossacks a special type has formed. From youth on accustomed to the usage of weapons and horses, with a keen sharpness of sight and of hearing, he is predestined for the service as a sentry, as well as for war with Asiatic peoples. Not knowing luxury or comfort he endures the greatest exertion. With his Russian god and Czar in his heart, he is the blind tool of his leaders. His alertness has become legend. Also goodness, a careless, cheerful character and extreme composure are characteristic for the Cossack, while he completely lacks the drive to regular activity. The Cossacks have a rich tradition of ballads telling of heroes, of songs and legends, their songs mostly in moll are very melodious. The following list, taken from Schnitzler's 1862 opus "L'empire des Tsars", which counts all Cossacks to number 1,681,633 souls, may require a raise in numbers, but gives a clear comparative survey of the Cossacks in the various parts of the country :

Host population Host population
Don 793,758 Ural 67,002
Kuban 156,745 Siberia 73,432
Terek 254,415 Transbaikal 100,839
Volga 16,446 Irkutsk 8,568
Azov 9,405 Yeniseysk 7,514
Danube 11,766 Tobolsk 6,084
Orenburg 175,659

The Tobolsk host no longer exists, but on the Amur several posts have been established.

The Amur Cossacks in 1859 were formed from a part of the Sabaikal Cossacks , from regular soldiers and frpm peasants settled on the Amur. In wartime they provide 6 sotnies on horseback and 6 sotnies on foot, in total 2160 men with 1103 horse, in peacetime 2 sotnies each on horseback and on foot, with 685 men and 353 horses, who mainly guard he Chinese border.
The Azov Cossacks on the Sea of Azov in 1865 were dissolved as a Cossack corporation, and merged with the Don Cossacks.
The Astrakhan Cossacks were first mentioned in 1691, they mostly were formed of Old Believers, who moved from the Don to the Volga. In 1730, in order to protect the area from Kalmyk raids, 1000 Cossack families were moved from the Don to the Volga, who were granted land in the governments Astrakhan and Saratov. In peacetime they provide one cavalry regiment of 692 men, in wartime 2 cavalry regiments of 1338 men.
The Don Cossacks existed already in the 15th century, but nothing certain is known about their formation. As the official date of their origin is given the document of 1570, in which Ivan Grosny [the Great/the Terrible] confirmed their organization. From them on they displayed a position determinedly hostile to the Tatars and Turks, and built their main place Cherkassk, barely 60 km from Azov. Quickly they gained in power, occasionally they did not spare Russian provinces, they namely robbed the caravans travelling between Moscow and Azov. They extended their raids onto the sea and beyond the Volga. In regard to their constitution we have little information for the early period. While Cherkassk is mentioned as the main place already at that time, it still is probable, that the Don Cossacks did not all obey one chieftain, but that most followed where the richest booty was found. In the 17th century their condition became more regulated. The central government in Cherkassk was recognized, but every Cossack settlement (Stanitsa) had its own leader and administrated its own affairs. All Cossacks attended a war council (Voyskovoy Okrug) where the decision was taken, if a raid was to be undertaken or not, how the booty was to be partitioned etc. The leader was a Voyskovoy Ataman. For wars and raids a Pokhodniy Ataman was elected. Since 1718 the Atamans are appointed by the government; this was the first step toward he present organization of the Cossacks. When the latter repeatedly had stood up against infractions by the government in their old rights, and the government began to realize the dangers of a "state in a state", Pugachev's rebellion 1774-1775, despite the Don Cossacks having been little involved, provided the pretext for a restriction of their freedoms. Popular assemblies were abolished, a nobility formed from the Issauls and the Eldest, from which all office holders were recruited. The War Council was replaced by a chancellery, which had the function of a court, but also dealt with administration and finances. Alexander I. created a peasantry as it existed in Russia, and finally in 1841 the last sign of the original equality of the Cossacks was removed, as the land, which used to be common property, was split up in the ay, that every free male Cossack was given 30 dessyatin of land, every serfs half of that.
Presently the land of the Don Cossacks forms a separate Russian government of 160,277 square km (2,911 square miles). It is a large steppe watered by the rivers Don, Donets, Medvyeditsa, Khoper, Chur, Kolitva, Sal, Akrai, Myus, and the border rivers Marych and Kalmyus. The highly fertile soil consists of a thick layer of humus on top of clay. Less fertile, because of its high salt content, is the left bank of the Don, a flat continuation of the Aral-Caspian plain, the complete uniformity of which only now and then is interrupted by an artificial Kurgan (tumulus). The right bank is more hilly, and in the district of Myus rises to 122 m. The flora is the southern Russian, while on he left bank it entirely has he character of the Aral-Caspian. 45 % of the area are farmland, 42 % are meadows and pastorage, 2 % forest, 11 % inutile land. The average annual temperature is 6.3 degrees Reaumur. The warmest month (July) has on average 17.7 degrees, the coldest (February) - 5.7 degrees. Despite the severe winter, wine grows well, and if treated properly, could gain significant industrial importance. Among the important products of the country rank excellent hard coal, and anthracite coal, the latter presen in inexhaustible quantities. Further chalk, limestone, salt, Glauber salt, gypsum and iron are produced. An important export product is delivered by fishery ... In 1883, 1,851,000 head of cattle were counted, 3,311,000 sheep, 425,000 horses. The Don horses are famous for their endurance; lately much has been done for their improvement, by stud farms.
The population of the government in 1882 numbered 1,474,133 souls and includes Tatars and Gypsies as well as 24,000 nomadising Kalmyks, who were allocated a specific district. By confession 88 % are Greek Catholic, 9 % Raskolniks, 1/2 % other Christian confessions and Jews, 2 1/2 % are pagans. In the school year of 1883 there were 346 elementary schools with 22,377 students (of whom 4,126 were girls). A factory industry is still in its beginnings; its combined production value is 1 1/2 million Roubles. Main production area are distillery, brick production, tallow production, oil mills, tobacco industry, soap, candle and leather production. The land is divided in 8 districts, Khoper, Donets, Cherkassk, Myus, First Don District, Second Don District, Ust-Medvyetsa and the District of the Nomadizing Kalmyks, to he south of the Sal. Further it is divided in 5 military districts, which together form the Don Cossack Army, which in peacetime consists of 16 regiments on horseback, 8 batteries with 46 cannon, and 15,832 men, in wartime 47 regiments on horseback, 16 batteries with 100 cannon, and 46,985 men. The capital is Novo-Cherkassk.
From the Don Cossacks branched off the Nekrassov Cossacks, who had moved to Bessarabia, but in 1812, when this became Russian province, they submitted to the Russians, further the Yaik or Yaitsk Cossacks, which after a campaign by the Czar's military commander Murad Bey against the Don Cossacks in 1577 first moved to the Caspian Sea, and then up the Yaik river, on the banks of which they built a city in 1584. In 1773 they were the mos fervent supporters of Pugachev, so on January 15th 1774 Catherine II. renamed Yaitsk in Uralsk, the Yaik river into Ural river, and formed the Ural Cossacks from the Yaik Cossacks.
The Caucasian Cossacks of the Line are called that way, because with their Stanitsas they formed a long Russian defensive line against the Caucasus. Already in the 16th century Cossacks had settled on the Terek, later others on the Kuban. In 1722 the Terek and Kislar Cossacks were organized here, to whom other Cossack regiments were added according to necessity. So in all 14 regiments were formed, which were o form an uninterrupted line from the Caspian to the Black Sea. Among all Cossacks, these Cossacks of the Line were the most courageous. Because of the constant raids of the Caucasians livng in the permanent condition of war, the competed with the Circassians in courage and ploy. They also wafe taken over dress, weaponry, and some customs and tradirions from the latter. According to an Imperial order of 1840, every member of a Cossack unit was given 30 dessyatin land, every officer 60 dessyatin, every staff officer 300 dessyatin. In 1860 they were divided in two separate hosts, the Terek Cossacks and the Kuban Cossacks. The former, to which in 1770 the Volga Cossacks relocated here were added, in peacetime provide 4 cavalry regiments with 8 cannon and 3,500 men, in wartime 12 cavalry regiments with 12 cannon and 9,182 men. The Kuban Cossacks, who were merged with the Chernomorian Cossacks, in peacetime provide 10 regiments, 64 sotnies on horseback and 8 sotnies on foot with 20 cannon and 15,060 men, in wartime 30 regiments, 184 sotnies on horseback and 24 on foot with 30 cannon and 37,391 men. To guard squadrons of the Kuban Cossacks form the Emperor's escort, which takes turn with the Terek Cossacks' guard squadrons, and 2 of their sotnies are garrisoned near Warsaw. These two hosts now live in the Terek and Kuban stretches north of the Caucasus.
The Little Russian or Ukrainian Cossacks are already frequently mentioned in the 14th century. King Stephan Bathory of Poland trusted in them the guard of the entire southeastern border of his kingdom, the former Grand Principality of Kiev, hence the name Ukraine ("borderland"). In the 16th century, when under Hetman Predslav they exended their settlements far beyond the Dniepr Falls, the separate status of the Little Russian Cossacks becomes apparent. Until them they had almost the same constitution as the Zaporozhe Cossacks. But while the latter maintained their traditional constitution, the former became the so-called City Cossacks. They lived with their families in settlements. Stephan Bathory, through Hetman Roshinsky, had formed 20 regiments of 2000 men each. The regiments were recruited from young Cossacks, a list of whom was kept and constantly updated, so they also were called the "Immatriculated Cossacks". When the union had been formed, and Poland had to fear the growing power of the Cossacks, and attempted to destroy their autonomy by the use of the harshest means, the Cossacks in 1654 under Ataman Bogdan Chmelnitskiy placed themselves under the Russian Czar, in consequence of which the entire western babk of the Dniepr paid homage to the Czar. Numerous groups of Cossacks already two years before had emigrated, and were allocated land in the present government Kharkov. The latter formed 5 regiments, which were called Slobodian Cossacks. The Czar swore on he new constitution, according to which all Cossacks were equal, and they alone qualified for offices [in the Cossack organization]. When Peter the Great designed his plans to move the Russian border forward to the Black Sea, and when his successors executed these plans, the Cossacks, as the border guardians of Russia, lost their advantages, and therefore gradually were moved aside. Mazeppa, the Ataman of Ukraine who foresaw the total ruin of his people, as a last resort attempted to restore the old independence by allying with Charles XII., but the decisive [Russian] victory near Poltava (1709) was soon followed by the conquest of Syetch [Sich], the central seat on the island Khortitsa, and while only a small number of Ukrainians had rebelled, the entire country had to suffer the consequences. 12,000 of them, against their will, were resettled on Lake Ladoga, where they were forced to do hard labour (construction of a canal). The same fate hit the same number in he following year, and in 1722 10,000 had to move off to Persia. So the autonomy of the Little Russian host had ended. Catherine II. in 1784 dissolved the host and terminated all its privileges. The entire land was laced under a governor, and was given equal treatment to Russia's other provinces. In 1812 peasants of he governments Kiev and Podolia were formed into 4 regiments of a Ukrainian Cossack host, but already in 1816 they were transformed into ulan regiments.
Further two more hosts have to be mentioned here, which, despite of other origin, have existed for sime time in Little Russia, the Bug or Dniestr Cossack Host and the Chuguyev Cossack Host. The former lived in the steppe of Ochakov between Dniestr and Bug, and as a reward for having gone over from the Turks to the Russians with their arms, were organized in the Cossack manner, as border guardians. The Chuguyev Cossacks were formed from inhabitants of the land on the Don, were given the environs of Chuguyev in the Slobodian Ukraine as their residence. Both were transformed in regular ulan regiments.
The New Russian Cossacks, originally Danube Cossacks, formed in 1829 from Moldavians, Bulgarians, and from Zaporozhians returning from Turkey, were settled in Bessarabia and were abolished in 1868.
The Orenburg Cossacks (not to be confused with the former "Orenburg line") were formed in 1836 from Cossacks of the cities of Samara, Ufa and of small border fortifications (also the Bashkirians belonged to this corps); presently in peacetime they provide 6 cavalry regiments with 12 cannon and 6,582 men, in wartime 18 regiments with 52 cannon and 20,166 men.
The Transbaikal Cossacks were organised in 1815 from a part of the Siberian city Cossacks, and from aborigines of these regions. They mainly guarded the Chinese border and in peacetime provided 1 regiment, 6 sotnies on horseback and 10 on foot, with 8 cannon and 3,242 men, in wartime 3 regiments, 18 sotnies on horseback, 30 on foot with 18 cannon and 9,507 men.
The Zaporozhian Cossacks (i.e. the Cossacks living beyond the Dniepr Falls), together with the Little Russian Cossacks, with whom they share their origin, are the eldest. There Ataman Kritikiya is mentioned in a document of 1304. In their constitution the Zaporozhe Cossacks have similarities with the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, despite their constitution having been a genuinely democratic one. All Zaporozhians were equal amongst each other, and so that no part of the household evaded the duties of a Cossack, the unmarried state was law. When in the course of time cases of immigration repeated, and families settled among them, this condition was changed so that the unmarried Cossacks formed the ruling class, and members of the government could be only chosen from among them. The central seat (Syetch [Sich]) mostly was an inaccessible place, later the island of Khoritsa. Further every single association had their own center (Polanke) for their internal affairs. Every year on newyears the leaders were newly elected by popular assembly. The Ataman ruled absolute during the year he was in office, in wartime as commander-in-chief, in peacetime as supreme judge. He was assisted by the Eldest (Starshines), who were the executors of his will. There was no written law. Disputes were setled according to tradition. The land of the Zaporozhian Cossacks was divided in districts, which were headed by Polkovniks. The Syetch was divided in Kurenes, which were headed by Kurenoy Atamans. In general, 40 to 60 Cossacks lived in a house, in a common household, only the weapons, in the beginning bow and arrow, later rifle and pistol, lance and sabre, and horses they owned individually. At the Syetch the host treasury was kept, the arsenal and the state symbols - flag, bulava (command staff), horsetail and seal. Outside of the Syetch and of the Polankes lay the Simowniki, a kind of magazines. The villages were only inhabited by married Cossacks and their families, while the peasants, mostly prisoners, lived on outlying estates, and in the summer moved around in the wide steppe with their herds. Their piratic raids in the 16th and 17th century were of such a scope that the Turks built two fortresses, Ochakov and Kinburn, on the mouth of the Dniepr and blocked the river by a chain. But the cleverness of the Cossacks soon defeated this measure, they not only raided Trebizond, Sinope and other cities of Asia Minor more than once, but even attacked Constantinople. Since 1589 in a continuous war with Poland, which deprived them of their privileges, in 1654 they submitted to Russia, together with the Little Russian Cossacks. After Mazeppa's rebellion Peter the Great destroyed their Syetch, and the Zaporoshians fled to the Turks, to the Crimea and the Dniepr mouth, and placed themselves under the protection of the Tatar Khan. Their old hatred of the Tatars soon reawoke, and resulted in a breach, which caused the Cossacks to offer their submission to Czaritsa Anna. After having proven their faithfulness in struggles against the Turks, in 1742 and 1750 they were returned their state symbols which Peter had conquered. But also for them, the times had changed. Raids into Russian territory were punished with severity, against the defenseless Tatars and Poles they were no longer needed, and now plans were to reduce their power. The Czaritsa sent emissaries into the lands on the Danube to call on Serbs to leave Turkey and to settle on the Bug, thus on Zaporozhian territory. Within a short period of time, 50 setlements with 60,000 inhabitants emerged. The entire district was given the name "New Serbia". Soon conflicts emerged between the new settlers, industriously engaging in agriculture, and the free-Tataric inclinations of the Zaporozhians, which lead to intentable conditions. So in 1775 the Czaritsa ordered the Syetch surrounded and abolished. A part of the Zaporozhians fled to Turkey, others scattered over Russia. Tired of Turkish rule, the former returned in 1828 and formed the Azov and New Russian Host (see above); thiose who had fled to Crimea did not find calm there, because two years later the Crimea alsdo became Russian province. They were allocated seats on the Kuban, but were no longer called Zaporozhians, but instread Chernomorian Cossacks (see below).
The Siberian Cossacks are descendants of the Cossacks who moved into Siberia under Yermak, who conquered the land and who sent its crown to Czar Ivan II. in 1582. Since spreading over the entire country, in 1716 they were settled on the Irtysh, and militarily organized. Later they were joined by immigrant Cossacks and Bashkirs, by Zaporozhians sent here and' by Poles, also the sons of 2000 Siberian soldiers were incorporated in them. From all these elements grew for Russia an extremely important guard for the entire southern border of western Siberia, and the taming of the wild peoples Russia has to credit to these Cossacks only. Because of their isolation, the old traditions and customs of the Cossacks have been preserved most purely among them. They are divided in city Cossacks, providing security in the interior, and in Cossacks of the Line, who live in Stanitsas and who guard the border. Presently in peacetime they provide 3 cavalry regiments of 3,117 men, in wartime 9 cavalry regiments of 9,108 men.
Of a part of the Siberian Cossacks in 1867 the Semirechensk Cossacks were formed. They live in the land to the southwest of Lake Balkhash in Central Asia, in peacetime they provide 1 cavalry regiment of 701 men, in wartime 3 cavalry regiments of 2,016 men.
The Chernomorian Cossacks, formed in 1787 of Zaporozhians, whom were allocated a number of Don Cossacks, were given their military organization in 1792, in which they were granted the land on the Kuban, in all 33,000 square km (600 square miles). Until 1860 it formed a separate government, Ciscaucasia, with he capital Yekaterinodar. The unhealthy climate decimated their numbers to such an extent that Alexander I. in 1809-1811 resettled not less than 20,000 persons to Chernomoria, of whom a third died, so that further 25,000 Little Russians had to be settled there in 1820. The bulk was settled on the right bank of the Kuban, up to the mouth of the Laba, to form a protective line against the raids of the hostile Caucasians. In 1860 this host, as a separate host, was terminated, and integrated into the Kuban Cossacks.
The Ural Cossacks were given their organization in 1774, until then they were called Yaik Cossacks. They were granted the land on the right bank of the Ural, which is rich in fish, up o the Caspian Sea, an area of 64,400 square km (1177 square miles). They engage in livestock keeping, on the excellent pastures, and in fishery, and presently in peacetime provide 2 1/2 cavalry regiments of 2535 men, in wartime 7 1/2 cavalry regiments of 7471 men, among hem 1 guard squadron and 1 training sotny.
As the last host, the Volga Cossacks have to be listed. In the time of the rule of Ivan I. in the middle of the 15th century they were in the service of the Golden Horde; they were called Ordinski Host, but probably were identical with the Don Cossacks. A century later, when the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan, which had broken off from the Golden Horde, had been annexed by Ivan II. of Russia, groups of these Cossacks plundered caravans in the lands on the Volga and merchants on the Caspian Sea. In order to erminate this abuse, the Stolnik Murashkin undertook a campaign against the Cossacks and dispersed them. A part of them, under Yermak, fled up the Kama, from where they undertook the conquest of Siberia, others fled to the Caspian Sea, others again settled on the Volga, and joined by migrants from he Don and from the Ukraine, formed the Volga Cossacks. In 1737 by Imperial decree they were recognized as a Cossack corporation. Participating in all rebellions, they supported Rasin, later Pugachev, and therefore were resettled on the Terek and on the line between Mozdok and Azov. The last remnant of the Volga Cossacks, which had remained in Dubrovka and Alexandrov, in 1804 was incorporated in the Astrakhan border guard.
See : Lesur, Histoire des Cosaques, Paris 1814, 2 vols., Bronewskiy, Istoria Donskova Voyska, Petersburg 1834, 2 vols., Riegelmann, Istorija o Donskich kasakow (Moscow 1846), Köppen, Reise ins Land der Donischen Kosaken, Petersburg 1850, A. von B., Die Kosaken in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwickelung und ihren gegenwärtigen Zust"auml;nden, Berlin 1860, Krasnow, Das Land der Donischen Kosaken, Petersburg 1863, Springer, Die Kosaken, deren historische Entwickelung etc. Wien 1877, Erckert, Der Ursprung der Kosaken, Berlin 1882, Choroschihin and von Stein, Die Russischen Kosakenheere, in : Petermanns Mitteilungen, 71st supplement Gotha 1883.

source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, Article : Kosaken
Russian Kazak, plural Kazaki, in earlier times independent, now subjected to the government, militarily organized peoples in the Russian Ampire. The word is of Turkish-Tatar origin and in Turkish means highway robber, in Tatar a free warrior. Already at the end of the 14th century elements unhappy wih the conditions in Muscovy emigrated, and, by the neighbourhood of the Tatars having developed military skills, formed the basis of the Cossack armies. At the end of the 16th century existed the Don, Greben, Terek, Volga and Jaik Cossack hosts. The Don Cossacks, respectable early on because of their numbers and pillaging raids, were given their first gramota (grant) by Ivan the Terrible in 1570, and from then on, at first voluntarily, begin to appear in the Czar's armies. From the Volga, Cossacks moved into Siberia (the tribe of the present Siberian host) and to the Yaik (the tribe of the present Ural host). The Greben host (after Greben = mountain ridge) later was merged into the Terek host, which, formed of adventurers, emigrants and refugees of various nations, soon provided military service to the Czar.
Also in Poland Cossacks developed in a similar way, and first in the 15th century formed the Little Russian Cossacks, who in part because of Polish oppression moved into Russian territory (foundation of Kharkov 1653). Another part of the emigrants from Poland, in part also from Russia behind the Dniepr falls, formed the Zaporozhe host (Ukrainian Cossacks).
In the 17th century, in the consequence of religious strife and because of the introduction of serfdom in Russia, the Cossacks were much strengthened by immigration. The Czars were not able to enforce their suzerainty everywhere. During their penetration of Siberia, the Cossacks proved to be extraordinarily tough; this penetration already in he 17th century resulted in conflicts with China. Cossacks also settled in cities.
Peter the Great firmly established his authority over the Cossacks. The Little Russian and Zaporozhe Cossacks under Mazeppa had joined Charles XII., and after the latter's defeat at Poltava were deprived of their autonomy. Also the Don Cossacks, after their rebellion under Bulavin, were submitted with bloody severity. The government now used the Cossack armies as a welcome tool to secure the borders against neighbouring peoples, such as the Tatars, Caucasian mountain tribes, Kalmyks, Kirghizians, Bashkirs and Mongols. In 1732 the new Volga host as formed by relocating thousands of families from the Don, later a number of smaller hosts were formed, especially in the Caucasus area. Hand in hand went an increasing restriction of the Cossack's autonomy, so that the Ataman (eldest), which used to be an independent political position, became a high Russian official (Hetman).
The Zaporozhe Cossacks, which had committed many violations, in 1775 were annihilated by Russian troops, but already in 1788, as Chernomorian (Black Sea) Cossacks, a useful tool in the struggle against the Turks, reestablished. The Jaik host participated in Pugachev's rebellion, and in 1775, after the suppression of the former, was renamed Ural host. In 1755 all Cossacks in he government Orenburg, as the Orenburg host, were placed under an ataman of their own.
By the beginning of the 19th century, the Cossack armies had grown to imposant size, so that they supplied 90,000 cavalrymen in 1812. The Imperial ordinnance for the Don host of 1835, which was to become the model for the organization of the Cossack armies, described the Cossacks as a closed caste of warriors which to leave was impossible.
Newly formed in 1828 were the Danube and the Azov hosts, in 1832, by merging earlier units, the Caucasian Army of the Line (to secure the line = border) and the Astrakhan host. The extension of the Imperial borders in 1822 caused the establishment of the Border Cossacks in Transbaikalia, which in 1851 were to form the Transbaikal host. It was to secure the border against China between Argun River and Lake Baikal, to protect the mines of Nerchinsk and the road from Kiakhta to Beijing.
Since Alexander II. the Cossacks were, while their status as a warrior caste was maintained, more and more were brought down to the general level of the remainder of the population, by the reorganisation of administration, police and jurisdiction, by making it possible for a person to give up the status of being a Cossack, by opening the areas which used to be exclusively reserved for Cossacks to the settlement of non-Cossacks, by division of the Cossacks into a serving and a non-serving category, and by the introduction of mandatory military service in 1874. The Azov host and the New Russian host (formerly Danube host) were dissolved, in 1860 the Caucasian host partitioned in the Kuban and Terek hosts, in Siberia the Semirechinsk host was formed, and the troops on the Amur and Ussuri combined to form the Amur host (1879) and the Ussuri host (1888). Also the units in Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk, which are weak in times of peace as well as war, are called "hosts". The Cossacks' peacetime strength is about 60,000 cavalrymen, the wartime strength (including reserves) 195,000 - 250,000 cavalrymen respectively infantrymen. A part of the troops is integrated into the regular forces, presently 19 cavalry regiments and 5 batteries (the body guard Cossacks); otherwise the Cossacks form separate units, which in regard to their drill, and also in national aspect should be the correct way. At the vbeginning of 1904 existed :

Cossack host in peacetime in wartime
cavalry cavalry
infantry regiments sotnies mounted batteries infantry regiments sotnies mounted batteries
Don - 19 116 (1) 8 - 54 300 23
Kuban 6 11 70 5 18 33 202 5
Orenburg - 6 32 3 - 18 104 7
Transbaikal - 4 24 2 - 12 72 4
Terek - 4 26 2 - 12 66 2
Ural - 3 18 - - 9 49 (7) -
Siberia - 3 18 - - 9 54 -
Astrakhan - 1 4 - - 3 12 -
Amur - 1 3 - - 1 1/2 9 -
Ussuri - - 2 - - - 6 -
Semirechinsk - 1 4 - - 3 12 -
Irkutsk - - 1 - - - 1 -
Krasnoyarsk - - 1 - - - 1 -
total 6 53 319 20 18 154 1/2 948 41

The service of heCossacks begins with reaching the 18th year of age, and lasts three years in the preparatory category, 12 years in the front category, 5 in the reserve category, after which the man moves to the defensive militia (corresponding the German Landwehr). In the first year of he preparatory category the Cossack is free of any [obligation to pay] taxes, but has to equip himself; in the second and third year military exercises are held in the stanitses (villages) and camps. The front category is divided in three squads, the first (4 years) is in active service, the second on leave, the third has to keep horses in preparedness. The costs are paid for by the Cosacks themselves; while on active service, he receives pay, stand and fodder [for his horse(s)]. The second squad is drawn to annual exercises, the third once drawn to exercises. The reserve categiory does not serve in peacetime. All Cossacks capable of bearing arms not belonging to he front category are regarded part of the defensive militia.
The arms consist of sabre (shashka), three-line-dragoon-rifle without bayonet, lance (only for the first line of Steppe Cossacks) and of the dagger for Caucasian Cossacks. The Cossacks ride without spores, with the nagaika (riding whip), the horses only bridled until the snaffle. The drill takes into account their national characteristics, while the principles of the raining coincide with those of the Russian cavalry. The characteristic Cossack form of attack is the lava, an attack in an opened line, followed by support troops. The uniform is a coat similar to a kaftan, stretchng down to the knee, of dark blue to dark green colour, of trousers in the same colour, high boots, field cap respectively fur cap (papakha), the Caucasian Cosacks still wear the dress they took over from the Circassians. As the men have to purchase the uniform at heir own expense, according to our standards the overall impression is not favorable. In the latest decades a lot has been done to add on to and improve the education of officers. There is a Don Cadet Corps in Novocherkassk, three Cossack cadet schools in Novocherkassk, Savropol and Orenburg, and Cossack departments at other cadet schools. But still a lot remains to be done in this field. The experience gained in the war against Japan will result in a number of changes in the organisation of the Cossacks. Even before the war the commission in St. Petersburg consulted the best regulation of mandatory military service, from the perspective of the national economy.
The high preparedness for defense and the old warrior instinct of the Cossacks, with increasing sedentary lifestyle, and the lack of military exercise which comes with it, regress more and more, and because heavy military duty often causes economic setbacks, hey still form a support of the regular Russian army of the highest value. If the Cossacks did not fulfil the expectations invested in them in the Russo-Japanese War, this may find its xplanation less in them, than in the inability of the Russian leadership to make efficient use of large numbers of cavalry for the purpose of large-scale reconnaissance and fighting actions.
The language of the Cossacks is mostly Great Russian, their legends and songs very poetic, their songs very melodious.
See : von Plotho, Die Kosaken, Berlin 1811, Lesur, Histoire des Cosaques, Paris 1814, A. v. B., Die Kosaken in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwickelung und ihren gegenwärtigen Zuständen, Berlin 1860, Springer, Die Kosaken, deren historische Entwickelung etc., Leitmeritz 1877, von Tettau, Die Kosakenheere, Berlin 1892, Bujac, L'armee russe, son histoire, son organisation actuelle, Paris 1894, Krahmer, Geschichte der Entwickelung des russischen Heeres, Leipzig 1896-1897, 2 parts, Niessel, Les Cosaques, Paris 1898, Die Heere und Flotten der Gegenwart, vol.3 : Russland, by A. von Drygalski and von Zepelin, Berlin 1898, Tettau, Die russische Armee in Einzelschriften, issue 8, Berlin 1900, Peterson, Kort öfversikt öfver Rysslands härordning, Stockholm 1901, von Drygalski, Die Organisation der russischen Armee, Leipzig 1902, von Carlowitz-Maxen, Die Einteilung und Dislokation der russischen Armee, 15th ed., Leipzig 1905, K&uum;ster, Reglement der kaiserlich-russischen Armee, Leipzig, Bronewskij, Geschichte des Donschen Heeres, Petersburg 1834, 2 vols., Riegelmann, Geschichte der Donschen Kosaken, Moskau 1846, Choroschchin, Die Kosakenheere, Petersburg 1881, Eckert, Der Ursprung der Kosaken, Berlin 1882, Pusyrewski, Die russische Armee vor dem Kriege 1877-1878, Petersburg 1889, Tschitschagow, Die Organisation der russischen Kavallerie, Petersburg 1890, Abasa, Die Kosaken, Petersburg 1891, Rediger, Ergänzung und Organisation der bewaffneten Macht, Petersburg 1892, Lobko, Die Militärverwaltung für die Kriegs- und Junkerschulen, Petersburg 1894, von Loebells Jahresberichte über die Veränderungen und Fortschritte im Militärwesen, Berlin, numerous essays in all yearly issues of the Militärwochenblatt (Berlin), of the Jahrbücher f&uum;r die deutsche Armee und Marine (Berlin), the Neue Militärische Blätter (Berlin), the Russki Invalid (Petersburg) and the Wayennu Sbornik (Petersburg).

source in German, posted by Zeno


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First posted on March 9th 2009

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