Kherson - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries



Historic Encyclopedias on Kherson Gubernia : Brockhaus 1809-1811, Brockhaus 1837-1841, Pierer 1857-1865, Anskjaer 1858-1863, Meyer 1885-1892, Meyer 1902-1908



Historic Encyclopedias on Kherson

Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, Article : Cherson
Cherson (or Kerssan), a Russian fortress and port on the western bank of the Dniepr, in the Government Nikolajew, a newly founded city (1778) which to general astonishment suddenly grew. At the beginning filled with colonists of diverse origin, within 10 years it grew to the size of 15,000 inhabitants. In 1787 it was visited by the Empress Catherine II. and Emperor Joseph II., and an Austrian consul was posted here.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon 1837-1841, Article : Cherson
Cherson or Nikolajev, a government in southern Russia on the Black Sea, with an area of 1664 square miles and 480,000 inhabitants, mostly treeless steppe, but also good pasture, and the expanding cultivation of wine, mulberry trees and sericulture and other cultures which are favoured by a southern climate and fertile soil. The capital of the in part only in 1792 in the Treaty of Jassy by the Ottoman Empire to Russia ceded province is Cherson with 10,000 inhabitants, on the right bank of the Dniepr which here is 1 mile wide; it feeds into the Black Sea 4 miles from here. The city is the seat of a military governor and of a commission in charge of the colonists in Southern Russia; it consists of 4 parts : of the fortress, of the former admiralty which is to be regarded as a citadel, of the Greek and of the Soldiers' Suburb. Cherson used to be the main navy port on the Black Sea, but the river is not sufficiently deep and even large merchant vessels have to unload their cargo 2 miles below Cherson. The merchants of Cherson trade in grain, meat, salt, iron, skins and other products of the country, in not inconsiderable scale. Of historic importance is the meeting here of Catherine II. and Joseph II. in 1787, on the occasion of which elaborate festivities were held and an alliance against the Turks was concluded. The admiralty was moved from Cherson to Nikolajev, a city located on he mouth of theIngul, founded in 1789, with 10,000 inhabitants and a naval port. The roads are lined with colonnades, and the ciy has been beautifully built, but suffers from the lack of timber and drinking water, as the rivers are already salty. Further noteworthy Elisabethgrad with 12,000 inhabitants, established in 1754, Odessa (q.v.); the former fortress of Oczakow, taken by general Suvorov in 1788, with 1000 inhabitants; the military colonies of Woinieszensk and 39 German colonies with about 18,000 inhabitants.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article : Cherson (excerpts)
Cherson, government in the southern part of European Russia, located between 46 degrees 12 minutes and 49 degrees 4 minutes northern latitude, and between 46 degrees 50 minutes and 55 degrees 51 minutes east of London, bordering in the North on the Governments Kijew and Poltawa, in the East on Jekaterinoslaw, in the Southeast on Tauria, in the South on the Black Sea, in the Southwest on Bessarabia and in the Northwest on Podolia; it includes an area of 1336 square miles with a population of 889,205 inhabitants in 1851. The province is extended grassland which is sandwiched between the rivers Dniepr and Dniestr. Only in the northeastern and northwestern parts are hilly stretches covered by forest; the remainder of the land is almost treeless steppe, but with a rich cover of grass. The most important rivers, apart from those already mentioned, are the Inguletz, which flows into the Dnepr, and the Bug with its tributary Ingul, which flow into the Dniepr's Liman. The climate is rather variable; in the summer temperatures reach 26 degrees; but nights are cold, and in the winter the rivers freeze over. Thunderstorms are frequent in summer. The soil, properly worked, is well-suited for the cultivation of grain, but not sufficient an area is cultivated with it yet, and production barely covers local demand. Hemp and oats are grown to satisfy local demand, tobacco, mustard and safran as trade products. Also various kinds of wine are cultivated. There is considerable breeding of cattle and sheep. The wool of domestic sheep is coarse, but the breeding of Merino sheep is making great progress. The number of oxen and buffalo is very great, as is that of horses; of the latter many wild ones are found. Of crawling animals, many snakes, large poisonous millipedes and an incredible number of lizards are found. Large swarms of insects, notably mosquitos, are a health threat to the population; but even worse are the insatiable locusts, who almost every other year denude the vegetation in the country's southern part. There are few mineral products; the most important are chalk, pottery clay, slate, saltpetre, agates and granates. Industry is of litle importance and generally limited to the city of Odessa. The government, outdide of he ciy of Odessa, which forms a district by itself, is divided in 5 districts, besides there are military colonies. The latter number not less than 256,310 inhabitants. The population is rather mixed, and consists of Russians, Poles, Moldavians, Serbs, Bulgarians, Tatars, Greeks, Armenians, Jews and Gypsies. A large number of foreign colonists, most notably Germans, have settled in the country at various times.
source in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Cherson. (excerpts)
Cherson, government in southern Russia, which covers the larger part of the former provinces of New Serbia (between Dniepr and Bug) and the western Nogay or Ochakov Steppe, and which borders in the North on the governments Podolia, Kiew and Poltawa, in the East on Jekaterinoslaw and Tauria (the western Nogay Steppe), in the South of the Black Sea and in the West on Bessarabia, with an area of 71,282.3 square km (1294.6 square miles). The land largely consists of steppe, along the seashore monotonous and infertile, further into the interior, where it connects with the region of black soil, all the more fertile. The country's rivers are the Dniepr and Dniestr, which form the borders o the East and West, further Bug, Ingul and Inguletz, which, with their tributaries, flow through the country's center, which inundate the country in the year's mid, and leave behind fertile soil and mud. At their mouths they form lakes or limans which contain saltwater and which are too shallow for shipping. At certain locations nature has been corrected and artificial ports have been constructed. The climate is variable; dry in the summer, cold and stormy in the winter. Feared are the January storms (Mjatjelje), which coming from the northeast blows across the plain with immense violence and often bring heavy snowfall. The average annual temperature ranges between 7.5 and 10 degrees Celsius. The population numbers (1881) 1,803,155 (25 per square kilometer) and modtly adheres to Greek Orthodox faith; further there were in 1870 47,703 Catholics, 60,413 Protestants, 3,332 Gregorian Armenians and 131,916 Jews. This government, next to those of Moscow and Saint Petersburg, has the highest urban population (25.9 % of the total population). Concerning the dominant church, Cherson forms a separate eparchy headed by an archbishop, who calls himself "Archbishop of Cherson and of Taurida". The governments' protestant inhabitants belobg to the consistorial district of St. Petersburg; the Roman Catholics are under a bishop residing at Tiraspol. By nationality the population consists of Russians and Ukrainians, which form the bulk, of Romanians, Bulgarians, Serbs, Poles, Greeks, Armenians, Germans, Swedes, Talmudic and Karaitic Jews and Gypsies. In Cherson the largest number of the German settlements in southern Russia is found, about 70, with about 50,000 colonists. Most numerous are these in the vicinity of Odessa, here we find Gross-Fontan, Gross-Lustdorf, Gross- and Klein-Liebenthal, Franzfeld, Strassburg, Leipzig etc., the inhabitants, mostly Swabians, supply Odessa with agricultural products. Further to the northwest are located Baden, Hoffnungsthal, Glücksthal etc. Among fruit trees peach, apricot, cherry, plum and mulberry are cultivated, also wine. Horticulture has progressed a lot. Tobacco (annually 20,000 Pud), mustard, flax, hemp and all kinds of grain, among it arnautic wheat, maize and millet, thrive excellently and Cherson belongs to the Russian Empire's breadbaskets. Very considerable is also livestock keeping in Cherson, especially in concern of the breeding of ameliorated sheep Cherson is the vanguard of the Russian Empire. Here estate owners are found who own up to 31,000 merino sheep. The Duke of Richelieu, under Czar Alexander I., is to be credited for great achievement in the field of breeding and amelioration of sheep. In 1881 were counted 1,413,088 Merinos and 856,353 common sheep. In 1876 the total number of horses was 283,000, of head of cattle 761,000, of hogs 311,000. The breeding of poultry, beekeeping and sericulture are improving, fishery in the Black Sea, the Limans and the rivers already brings in great catches. Unted are hares, wild cats, fowl, wild ducks etc. The sea delivers lobsters and turtles in quantity. In regard to minerals, clay, chalk, sandstone, salpetre, salt and a limestone consisting of a conglomerate of perifications are found. As there is a shortage of timber, animal dung, reed or straw has to be used in place of firewood. Industry develops in the flourishing land blessed by the vicinity of the sea, good waterways, railroads and numerous markets. While in 1822 12 factories were counted in Cherson, the number was 77 in 1830, 128 in 1879 (with 2345 workers and a production value of 6,428,000 roubles), namely 8 woolwasheries (3,885,000 roubles), 2 ropemakers (331,000 roubles), 5 iron foundries (30,000 roubles), 24 grinding mills (1,748,700 roubles), 14 machine factories (2 million roubles), 12 factories turning out horse wagons (120,000 roubles), 17 tanneries (66,000 roubles). The governments' distilleries, Odessa excluded, in 1883 produced 23 1/3 million grades spirits. At all markets combined, sales in 1871 numbered 8,996,464 roubles, of which Jelissawetgrad alone counted for half. Big transactions were made especially in wool, furs, flax, hemp, wheat, flour and livestock. In the government 4 sea-, port-, wharf- and trade cities are found : Cherson, Nikolajew, Otschakow, Odessa. Inland trade focusses on the cities Berislaw, Alexandria, Jelissawetgrad, Wosnessensk, Olwiopol and Tiraspol. The government contains excellent teaching institutions, most notably the University of Odessa established in 1865. It is divided in six districts : Alexandria, Ananjew, C., Jelissawetgrad, Odessa, Tiraspol. The land, a hundred years ago still uncultivated, has been developed thanks to the colonisatory aqctivity of Czarina Catherine II., who established the cities Cherson (1778), Nikolajew (1789), Odessa (1792) etc. When the Russian border was pusdhed forward to the Pruth, colonization intensified; Germans, Serbs, Bulgarians (from the delta of the Danube), Moldavians and Wallachians settled on Dniestr, Ingul, Bug and Dniepr.
source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek





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First posted on March 9th 2009

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