Kiev Gubernia - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries



Anskjaer 1858-1863, Meyer 1885-1892, Nordisk Familjebok 1915



Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article : Kijew
Kijew, government in southern Russia, surrounded by the government Minsk in the North, Chernigov and Poltava in the East, Kherson in thje South and Podolia and Volhynia in the West, area 914 square miles, 1,636,839 inhabitants (1851). Kiev belongs to the Dnepr river system; it is a magnificently bulge-shaped plain which rises toward SW. - Next to the Dnepr, which forms the eastern border, its most important rivers are the tributaries from the right, Prypec, Teterow, Irpin, Ross and Tiasmin. From the government'southwest a few small rivers flow in the direction of the Bug. Kiev is part of the old Polish province Ukraine and is rich grain country; it also has beautiful forests and grasslands. The most important industries are clothing industry, sail cloth production, tanneries, soap production and distilleries. The province is divided in 12 districts.
source in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Kiew (Gouvernement).
Kiew (better Kijew, Polish Kijow) Russian government, contains the larger part of the formerly Polish Ukraine and the city of Kiew with its disrict, borders in the North on the government Mnsk, in the East on Poltava and Chernigov, from which it is separated by theDnepr, in he South on Podolia and Kherson and in the West on Volhynia nd Podolia, and contains 50,998.1 square km (926 square miles). The land in general is flat, but a few pictoresque places can be found on he Dnepr, the banks of which at some places rise up to 50 m. In Tschigirin district a small chain of hills extends from the river in northwesterly direction until Podolia, forming slight waves. The southern part is a large steppe. In geognostic view the eastern part of the area belongs to paleotertiary (eocene) system while in the west plutonic formations rise to he urface. In the tertiary formations nice deposits of clay, sandstone, grindstone, iron, lignite and turf are found. The soil in the southern part is black soil, almost a meter thick; in northerly direction it decreases in thickness and is mixed with clay and sand, until it is relaced by sand and clay in the northern part. The most important river is the Dniepr, which only touches the border; to its system belong rivers irrigating the land. Famous are Kajetanow springs. The climate is very dry, namely in the stretches without forest. The average annual temperature is +6.5 degrees Celsius, in the summer +12.5 degrees, in the winter -10.5 degrees. The population numbers (1883) 2,492,112 inhabitants (49 per square km) of whom the majority are Ukrainians, about 11 % Jews, a small percentage Poles and Lithuanians. By confession most inhabitants adhere to the Greek Catholic church, only a small part is Roman Catholic, Jewish, Protestant and Sectarian. 57 % of the land are farmland, 16 % meadows, 20 % forests, barren land 7 %. Given the wealth in forests hunting is not without importance, less important fishery. Flora produces in quantity ray and oats, further wheat, barley, beets, millet, Turkish and buckwheat, potatos, vegetables, fruit, hemp and lineseed. In 1884 the harvest was per ha : in the case of rye 13.8 hl, winter wheat 14.7, summer wheat 9.6, oats 17.9, potatos 79.5 hl. In Kiev even Welsh nuts, pears, chestnuts, watermelons, melons, tobacco grow well; in many gardens mulberry trees are found. In 1883 454,000 head of cattle, 866,000 sheep, 373,000 hogs and 283,000 horsesw (1861 : 117,000, 1851 : 112,000) were counted, which leads to the conclusion that horse breeding has strongly developed. Annually 13 horse markets are held with considerable sales; the mot important are those of Berdichev and Byelaga Tserkovi. Livestock keeping is favoured by excellent pastures; the Ukrainian oxen raised in Kiev in large numbers are exported into he Empire's interior, up to Petersburg. The industry is in the process of quick development. While in 1843 the total production value was 2 million Roubles, in 1859 it was 14 1/4 million, in 1883 75 million Roubles. The number of industrial enterprises was in 1882 : 594, with 39,403 workers. First in importance is beet sugar industry, conducted n large scale; in 1883-1884 there were 68 factories with 22,868 workers, producing for 47 million Roubles. Second are distilleries (14,8 million Roubles); then the tobacco industry (2,8 million Roubles), flour mills (2,3 million Roubles), machine industry (1,9 million Roubles), tanneries (1,5 million Roubles). In lesser quantities are produced : soap, tallow, wax, metalwares, cottonballs, paper, oil, fayence and bricks. The Ukrainian peasants produce almost all their tools, also boats, carts, sledges etc. and are masters in the art of wood carving. Trade is exclusively in the hands of the numerous Jewish population. The most important export articles are grain and sugar.In the cities annual fairs are held. The number of schools is 1299, the number of students 54,176, among them one university, 28 middle schools with 8134 students, 1262 elementary schools with 42,457 students and 8 vocational schools with 1876 students. The exarchy of Kiev and Galich dates back to the era of aint Vladimir and was the first in Russia. The diocesis contains 1421 churches (1359 Greek-Catholic, 51 Roman Catholic, 9 of Sectarians, 2 Lutheran), amng them 12 cathedrals and 30 monasteries. Further there are 69 synagogues and 268 Jewish prayer houses. The government is divided in 12 districts : Berditschew, Kanew, Kiew, Lipowetz, Radomysl, Skwira, Swenigorodka, Taraschtscha, Tscherkassy, Tschigirin, Uman und Wassilkow. - The present government of Kiev is not o be confused with the one established by Peter the Great in 1708. The latter encompassed the entire easern Ukraine and a large part of Central Russia, with the cities Orel, Kursk and others (55 in total). In 1782 the stadholdership Kiev was formed of parts of the present governments Kiev, Poltava and Chernigov. In 1796 the government Kiev in its present form was established.
source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, Article : Kiev (1910)
Kiev, government in Little Russia, surrounded by the governments Tjernigov, Poltava, Cherson, Podolien, Volynien and Minsk. Area 51,000 square km. By nature Kiev is a plain, which goes over into the southern steppe, in the north there are large swamps. A remarkable elevation also is found on the eastern border, where the Dnepr flows alongside 50 m high banks, and creates a pictoresque landscape. The Pripet, Teterev and Ross flow into the Dnepr, the latter tributary of which in its fork-shaped mouth creates an island of considerable size. The climate is in general, because of the lack of forest, very dry, but does not negatively affect cultivation. Average annual temperature 7.1 degrees Celsius, annual rainfall 569 mm. The common fruits and walnuts produced here are excellent. Agriculture, which uses more than 60 % of the land, makes use of the steppe's fertile black soil and produces grain far beyond local consumption. The culuivation of sugar beets lays the ground for the government's most important industry. The excellent pastures (16 % of the land) provide feeding for a lot of livestock, which in large quantity is sold, even to Petersburg. Imortant industries other than sugar are mainly distilleries, flour, clothing, leather and tobacco. Trade, which exclusively lies in the hands of Jews, has iots leading export products in grain and sugar. The population in 1908 was counted as 4,355,000 inhabitants (85 per square km), the largest part of which Ukrainians, 12 % Jews, 20,000 Germans and a few Poles and Lithuanians. Kiev gotr its present circmference in 1796 and mostly consuists of the formerly Polish Ukraine.
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg





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First posted on March 9th 2009

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