Mordovians (Mordvinians) - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries



Brockhaus 1837-1841, Pierer 1857-1865, Nordisk Familjebok 1890, Meyer 1885-1892, Meyer 1902-1909, Nordisk Familjebok 1915



Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon 1837-1841, Article : Mordwinen
Mordvinians, they belong to the Finnish peoples living in Asiatic Russia [!], are divided in three tribes, the Mokshans, Erfans and Karatays, who are distinguished by differences in language, dress and the maintenance of old traditions. They have their seats on the Volga and Oka.
They live in small villages, are lazy and dirty, conduct beekeeping, livestock keeping, hunting and fishery, almost completely confess to Christianity and number about 100,000 heads. Excellent is the dress of their women ... ornated with glass pearls, coins on strings, colorful sashes, tassels and embroidery, which differs among the tribes by the usage of higher or lower caps or bandana as headpiece.

source in German, posted by Zeno

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Mordwinen
Mordvinians (Mordva) a people in Russia which belongs to the Volga group of the Finnish family of peoples and which dwells in the Russian governments of Pensa, Simbirsk, Saratov, Samara, Nizhegorod and Tambov. They are divided in two tribes, the Ersha or Ersanes, and the Moksha or Mokshanes; the central point of the former is the parish of Teryushevo in the government of Nizhegorod, for the latter the city of Krasnoslobodsk in the government of Pensa; their total number is given as 480,240; in addition to agriculture, livestock keeping, hunting, fishery and beekeeping are their main sources of revenue. By religion they confess to the Graeco-Russian Church, but they still maintain a lot of Shamanist tradition. A third tribe of the Mordvinians, the Karatays, except for minor remnants (three villages in the government of Kazan, a few more in the district of Ssengiley in the government of Simbirsk) have vanished. The Mordvinians already are mentioned by Jordanes, who reports that they were subjected to Ostrogothic king Ermanaric. After repeated attempts, which faild because of the courage of the Mordvinians, the Russian princes succeeded in the 12th century to force them to pay tribute. After the rule of the Mongols was broken, they again stood up against the Russians, until finally the rule of the latter in the Volga area stabilized. While the Mordvinians still speak their own language (see Mordvinian language), still a considerable part of the once numerous population has undergone Russification.
See Ahlquist, Über die Mordwinen, Erman, Zeitschrift für die Kunde Russlands, 1860.

source in German, posted by Zeno

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Mordwinen.
Mordvinians (in Russian : Mordva), Finnish ethnic group, lives in the lands on the central Volga, to the east until the southern Ural mountains, to the west until the Moksha. They are estimated to number 792,000, of whom most live in the governments Simbirsk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Saratov, Tambov, Pensa and Samara. The Mordvinians have much blended with the Russians and in part even forgot their earlier language. They are very strong people; among them frequently persons are found who are 100 years old or older. They are mostly blond, with blue or grey eyes. Their bodily height is average, the face flat, wide, with somewhat protruding jawbones and slight prognathism. It is noteworthy that among them he women rarely marry before the age of 30. The Mordwinians are divided in three tribes : the Mokshans on the Moksha, the Ersha (Ersanes) and the Karatays. The latter only live in the districts of Sengilhey (Simbirsk) and Tetyushi (Kazan). Only the Mordvinians living in Tetyushi confess to Islam, and in general by language and customs have become Tataric, the others belong to the Greek Catholic Church. The Mordvinian language belongs to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Ural-Altaic language family.
See : The Mordvinian language belongs to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Ural-Altaic languages. See : Wiedemann, Grammatik der ersa-mordwinischen Sprache (Petersburg 1865), Ahlquist, Versuch einer mokscha-mordwinischen Grammatik (Petersburg 1861)

source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, Article : Mordvinerna (1887)
Mordvinians, an ethnic group spread in southeastern Russia, but mainly on the upper and central valley of the Sura, a ributary of the Volga, as between Oka and Volga, belongs to the family of Finnish languages and peoples (together with the Cheremisses they form the Volga group of its Volga-Baltic branch). Numerous are the Mordvinians in the governments Samara (175,000), Simbirsk (135,000), Saratov (100,000) and Tambov (100,000); all combined their number is estimated at around 800,000. Linguistically they are divided in two groups, the Ersa-Mordvinians in the north, and the Moksha-Mordvinians in the south (see the following article). The Mordvinians are already referred to by Jordanes who lists them under the subjects of Ostrogothic king Ermanaric. Only in the 12th century, after long, brave resistance, they submitted to the Russian princes. In appearance and customs, the Mordvinians resemble much their relatives, the Finns, they are describes as honest, industrious, hospitable, but slow and vindictive. Their occupations are agriculture, bee keeping, hunting, and the collection of plants for medical or industrial purposes.
See : Die Völker Russlands (Petermanns Mitheilungen 1877) and Müller, Der ugrische Volksstamm (1837)

source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, Article : Mordwinen
Mordwinen (in Russian Mordva), a tribe belonging to the Volga group of the Finnish family of peoples, namely living in the Russian governments Simbirsk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Saratov, Tambov, Pensa and Samara, numbering 1,023,841 heads (1897). The Mordvinians, who in the 18th century were won for the Greek Orthodox Church, in part by force, in part by the promise of material advantages, have strongly blended with Russians, and in part have forgotten their earlier language. They are very strong people, mostly blond, with blue or grey eyes, the face flat, wide, with somewhat protruding jaw bones and slight prognathism. They like to wear white clothing with red embroidery, are diligent, conduct in agriculture, livestock and bee keeping, as well as fishery. They are divided in two groups, the Moksha on the Moksha with Krasnoslobodsk in the government of Pensa as being their central place, and the less numerous Ersha (Ersan) in Nizhniy Novgorod, Kazan and Samara; the tribes differ considerably in language and outer appearance; the Ersha are blond, the Moksha brunette.
See : J. Smirnow, Die Mordwinen (in den Veröffentlichungen der Ethnographischen Gesellschaft in Kasan) and Les populations finnoises, etc., II : les Mordves (French by Boyer, Paris 1898), Heikel, Trachten und Muster der Mordwinen (Finnish and German, Helsingfors 1897) ..
The Mordvinian language belongs to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Ural-Altaic languages. See : Wiedemann, Grammatik der ersa-mordwinischen Sprache (Petersburg 1865), Ahlquist, Versuch einer mokscha-mordwinischen Grammatik (Petersburg 1861), Budenz, Mordwinische Grammatik (Pest 1876), Paasonen, Mordwinische Lautlehre (Helsingfors 1903).

source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, Article : Mordvinerna (1913)
Mordvinians, a Finno-Ugric people living in eastern Russia on both banks of the Volga, south and southeast of Nizhniy Novgorod and Kazan, and down in Saratov and Orenburg, which in 1897 was counted as numbering 1,023,841 persons, divided in many language islands in the governments Samara, Simbirsk, Saratov, Tambov and Pensa, and in smaller numbers in the governments of Kazan, Nizhniy Novgorod, Ufa and Orenburg, as well as in Siberia. They divide, by language, in two groups, a southern and smaller one, called Moksha, and a larger, northern one, called Ersa. The first time the Mordvinians are mentioned by Jordanes (under the name Morden), as belonging to the subjects of Ostrogothic king Ermanaric. Since, they have been frequently mentioned by the authors of old, and they seem to have been a rather important people. The Muroma, mentioned in Russian chronicles and long extinct, probably were a northwestern extension of the Mordvinians; their name lives on in the name of the city Murom. Only after stubborn, century-long resistance the Mordbinians submitted to the Russians, this was not completed before the end of the 14th century, after which their Christianization gradually took place. Now they are peaceful farmers and beekeepers of expressedly Finnish type. Their legal traditions and mythological concepts are described by V. Mainov in Zapiski po otdjeleniju etnografii XIV 1885, issued by the Russian Geographic Society, and in Journal de la societe Finno-Ougrienne V 1889. See also A.O. Heikel, Die Gebäde der Tscheremissen, Mordwinen, Esten und Finnen (ibid. IV 1888), and Trachten und Muster der Mordwinen, in : Traveaux ethnographiques, publies par la Societe Finno-Ougrienne I 1898-1900, as well as J. Smirnov, Les populations Finnoises des bassins de la Volga et de Kama I 1898, and A. Schachmatov's large opus Mordovskiy etnograficheskiy sbornik (1910).
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg





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