Perm - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries



Pierer 1857-1865, Meyer 1885-1892, Meyer 1902-1909



Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1837-1841, Article : Perm
Russian government, part of its territory belonging to Europe, part to Asia, named after ots original inhabitants, the Biarmians, located between Vologda, Tobolsk, Orenburg and Vyatka. The government covers an area of 6,050.12 square miles, of which 3,768.99 square miles fall on the European part, 2,281,13 square miles on the Asiatic part. Both parts are separated by the Ural Mountains, which are here called the Middle Urals or Verkhoturian Urals, in the south the Ekaterinburg Urals. They are very rich in a plethora of ores; the highest peaka are the Pavdinskoy, the Kontshakovskoy and the Kasvinskoy-Kamen. Among the many rivers the most important one is the Kama, which takes in all rivers flowing westward (on the right the Kossa, Inva and Obva, on the left the Vyshera, Yasva, Yaiva, Kosva, Chussova, Silva etc.), in the north the sources of the Pechora are found, in the east the Nevda, Sosva, Tura etc. flow toward the Tobol, in the south the sources of the Ufa are found. Lakes are found especially in the southeast, also several mineral springs. The climate is rough, and especially in the mountains rather inhospitable. The population (2,050,000 souls) are Russians, Tatars, Bashkirs, Teptyars, Permians (Permyaks), Cheremisses, by religion mostly Greeks, they still speak a dialect of their own, but otherwise have been much assimilated by the Russians. Their main occupation is mining for gold, platinum, especially copper, iron, salt, precious stones etc., mainly on behalf of private individuals, and it is supported by extensive forests, which are not sufficiently protected. Otherwise livestock keeping (horses, cattle, sheep, goats, poultry), a little agriculture, several branches of industry, mainly related to the mining industry, leather processing, linen weaving, pottash production, distillery. Perm has been given its constitution in 1781. The coat of arms is a standing silver bear carrying an evangeliary on a golden cover on his back, above him a silver cross in a red field. It used to be divided in the Perm territory (western part) and in Ekaterinburg (eastern part), presently in 12 districts. In earlier times here was the state of the Biarmians, which had been established by the Biarmians, a Finnish people, on the banks of the Kama. Under their rule they united many Finnish tribes living in northern Russia, in the present-day governments Vologda and Archangelsk, and maintained important trade connections with Scandinavia and with Asia. History does not report its end; when the Russians conquered Perm in 1472, they did not find any independent people. In 1708 Perm was allocated to the government of Kasan, but in 1781 made a separate government.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Perm
Russian government, borders in the north on Vologda, in the west on Vyatka, in the south on Ufa and Orenburg, and in the east on Tobolsk. It has an area of 332,054.2 square km (6030.8 square miles). The Ural Mountains traverse Perm from north to south. The rivers belong to the systems of the Tobol and Kama, for trade are important the Kama, Chussovaya, Sylva and Kolwa. Of the area, 9.6 % are farmland, 6.4 % by meadows, 71 % by forest and 13 % are inutile land. Large swamps are found especially in the northern part, therefore the southeastern part is richer in lakes, of which as the largest the Uveldü, the Irtyat and the Mayan are to be mentioned. The immense forests (in the district of Cherdyn they cover 95 % of the land) consist predominantly of pines, firs, birches, oaks, larches and Siberian cedars. The climate is cold, specially on he eastern slope of the Ural. The average annual temperature near Ussolye is 1.1 degrees Celsius, near Ekaterinburg 0.7 degrees, near Cherdyn 0.5 degrees and at Bogslovsk - 1.4 degrees. Among the inhabitants (in 1883 2,593,420 in number, 7.8 per square km) in 1870 71,419 were Raskolniks, 13,456 pagans, 92,267 confessed to Islam, 1200 were members of various churches, the remainder Greek Orthodox. Except for Russians live in Perm c.70,000 Bashkirs, Teptyars and Mestcheryaks, 59,000 Permians or Permyaks, 24,000 Tatars, 8,000 Cheremisses and just over 2,000 Voguls. Except for agriculture and livestock keeping, hunt, bee keeping, forest industry and mining industry provide ample occupation. The harvest in 1885 was 10.6 million hl oats, 8.2 million hl rye, 2.8 million hl wheat, 2.4 million hl barley, potatos, buckwheat, peas in small quantiy. The value of industrial production for 1884 is given as 28,745,000 million Roubles, the number of factories as 1211, with 12,336 workers. The first place is taken by grain milling (18 million R.), followed by distillery and liquor production (8,434,000 Roubles), the leather processing industry (1,803,000 R.), tallow production, cloth weaving, machine production, chemical industry, brewery. In 1884 987,558 horses, 911,727 head of cattle, 1,037,362 sheep (all with coarse wool), 519,525 hogs and 17,912 goats were counted. The mining industry is rather developed; gold, silver, platinum, copper, iron, lead, nickel, also iridium, osmium and others, further coal, salt (1884 15.4 million Pud), marbles, and large numbers of Precious stones (...) were produced. The most important places where hey are found are the mines of Adolphovsk, Murzovsk, Shaitansk, Sarapul. Of the many mineral springs those of Serainsk, Kluchevsk and Yelovsk are to be mentioned. The trade of Perm flourishes, especially important is transit trade with Siberia. Main trading places are Ekaterinburg, Perm, Kamyshlov and Shadrinsk, as well as the annual fairs, of which there are over 180, of which the one at Irbit (1887) has sales of 50 1/2 million R., that of Ivanov in the parish of Krestovskoye (district Shadrinsk) over 5 million R. The number of educational institutions in 1883 was given as 773, with 54,364 students, of which 750 were elementary schools, 18 middle schools, 5 vocational schools (1 priest seminary, 4 schools for craftsmen). The government is divided in 12 districts, of which 5 (Irbit, Ekaterinburg, Kamyshlov, Shadrinsk, Verkhoturye) are located on the eastern slope of the Ural, thus in Asia, the other seven (Krasno-Ufimsk, Kungur, Ossa, Okhansk, Perm, Solikamsk and Cherdyn) are located on its western slope.
The territory of Perm was once inhabited by the Permians, they were called Bjarma by the Scandinavians, Permia by the Persians. The oldest historical report of it is given by the Norwegian Oter under King Alfred in the 9th century. Already the Novgorodians obtained silver from them, and since the 11th century collected tribute there. With the fall of Novgorod in 1471 Perm fell to Moscow. In the 15th century Germans discovered copper there. Since the conquest of Siberia in the 16th century Rusian colonies were established here. The Stroganov family is to be credited for the development of the local mining industry. They introduced proper mining in the 16th century; in 1745 gold was discovered, precious stones in 1766. In 1780 Perm was elevated to a separate stadholdership, in 1796 transformed intio a government.
See : Zerrenner, Erdkunde des Gouvernements Perm, Leipzig 1853, Ludwig, Geognostische Studien im Ural, Darmstadt 1862, Ludwig, Zur Paläontologie des Urals, Kassel 1862

source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, Article : Perm
Russian government, borders in the north on Vologda, in the west on Vyatka, in the south on Ufa and Orenburg, and in the east on Tobolsk. It has an area of 332,054.2 square km (6030.8 square miles). The Ural Mountains traverse Perm from north to south. The rivers belong to the systems of the Tobol and Kama, for trade are important the Kama, Chussovaya, Sylva and Kolwa. Of the area, 12.4 % are farmland, 9.4 % by meadows, 71 % by forest and 7.2 % are inutile land. Large swamps are found especially in the northern part, therefore the southeastern part is richer in lakes. The immense forests (in the district of Verkhoturye they cover 93 % of the land) consist predominantly of pines, firs, birches, oaks, larches and Siberian cedars. The climate is cold, specially on he eastern slope of the Ural. The average annual temperature in Perm is 1.6 degrees Celsius. Among the inhabitants (in 1897 3,002,008 in number, 9 per square km) 60,000 Bashkirs, Teptyars and Mestcheryaks, 50,000 Permians or Permyaks, 20,000 Tatars, 8,000 Cheremisses and just over 2,000 Voguls. By religion 87.2 % were Greek Orthodox, 7/2 % Sectarians, 5 % Muslims. Except for agriculture and livestock keeping, hunt, bee keeping, forest industry and mining industry provide ample occupation. The harvest in 1902 was 331,600 tons of wheat, 434,900 tons of rye, 546,000 tons of oats, 138,100 tons of barley, 33,700 tons of buckwheat, 153,500 tons of potatos. Also flax and hemp is grown. The amount of livestock held is insufficient. In 1902 1,298,000 head of cattle, 1,476,000 sheep (all with coarse wool), 223,000 hogs and 979,000 horses were counted. The mining industry is rather developed, thanks to the abundance of rich iron ores, gold, platinum, precious stones, salt etc.; in 1901 334 washeries were in operation which produced 3591 kg of gold. The Russian production of platinum is entirely concentrated on Perm and in 1901 120 mines produced 6,379 kg. In 1901, 1,390,575 tons of iron ore were produced, and 49 steel mills produced 561,700 tons of pig iron. The lack of coal (production of 1901 only 496,000 tons) and the difficulty to transport it here are felt as rather inconvenient; therefore steel mills largely have to operate with charcoal. Other minerals prodiced here include copper (1901 3,219 tons), manganese ore, chromite, asbestos. Salt production lately has declined drastically. The processing industry is little developed. Of importance are only flour mills, distillery and leather processing. The government is divided in 12 districts, of which 5 (Irbit, Ekaterinburg, Kamyshlov, Shadrinsk, Verkhoturye) are located on the eastern slope of the Ural, thus in Asia, the other seven (Krasno-Ufimsk, Kungur, Ossa, Okhansk, Perm, Solikamsk and Cherdyn) are located on its western slope.
The territory of Perm was once inhabited by the Permians, they were called Bjarma by the Scandinavians, Permia by the Persians. The oldest historical report of it is given by the Norwegian Oter under King Alfred in the 9th century. Already the Novgorodians obtained silver from them, and since the 11th century collected tribute there. With the fall of Novgorod in 1471 Perm fell to Moscow. In the 15th century Germans discovered copper there. Since the conquest of Siberia in the 16th century Rusian colonies were established here. The Stroganov family is to be credited for the development of the local mining industry. They introduced proper mining in the 16th century; in 1745 gold was discovered, precious stones in 1766. In 1780 Perm was elevated to a separate stadholdership, in 1796 transformed intio a government.
See : Zerrenner, Erdkunde des Gouvernements Perm, Leipzig 1853

source in German, posted by Zeno





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First posted on March 9th 2009

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