Podolia - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries

Historic Encyclopedias on Podolia Gubernia : Brockhaus 1837-1841, Anskjaer 1858-1863, Meyer 1885-1892, Nordisk Familjebok 1915

Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon 1837-1841, Article : Podolien
Podolien or Podolsk, a government in western Russia which was acquired by Catherine the Great in the first Polish partition in 1773. Now it contains 738 square miles and 1 1/2 million inhabitants. It is divided in 12 districts. It is largely fertile, irrigated by Dniesr and Bug and their tributaries and lakes, several premontories of the Carpathians creae unevenness; in the south the soil is sandy. Agriculture and livestock keeping are the main occupation of Russians, Poles and immigrated Germans. Center of industry and trade is capital Kaminiec with 16,000 inhabitants, near the mouth of the Smotryez where it joins the Dniestr, at the foot of a rock where a now razed fortress was found. Here a Greek and a Catholic bishop reside, and much frequented fairs are held. Of historic importance are the cities of Bar (2500 inhabitants) where in 1770 a noble confederation was held against Russian interference in Polish affairs, and Taergowicza, where another nobles' confederation in 1792 which rejected the Polish constitution of May 3rd 1791 and which called upon Russian aid against the latter.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article : Podolien
Podolien, government in the Southwest of Russia, surrounded by Austria (Galicia), the governments Volhynia, Kiev, Cherson and Bessarabia. The area is given in differing figures, from 750 to 771 square miles, with 1,730,547 inhabitants (1856). The land is traversed, from northwest to southeast, by a ridge which begins at the Carpathians and forms the watershed between Dniestr and Bug. The Dniestr forms the border to the Southwest and accepts a large number of tributaries. The Bug crosses the entire country and similarly accepts a number of tributaries, the most important of which are the Kodyma from the right and the Sinuche from the left, both of which form the border with Cherson. The Bug passes throughCherson until it enters Dniepr's Liman. Podolia overall is rather fertile, beautiful, and it also contains large stretches of moors and forests. Grain harvests are substantial, a lot of grain is exported and also a considerable quantity of grain is used by distilleries. Further maize and all kinds of fruit, further flax, hemp, hop and tobacco are grown. Important livestock and horse breeding. Important minerals are salpetre, chalk, gypsum and salt. The government is divided in 12 districts. Capital Kamenetz Podolskij.
source in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Podolia.
Podolia ("Lowland"), government in western Russia, borders in the North on the government of Volhynia, in the East on Kiev, in the South on Kherson and Bessarabia (separated from the latter by he Dniestr), in the West on Austria (Galicia), contains 42,017 square km (763 square miles). The land, which is among the most blessed and fertile parts of the Russian Empire, forms a land ridge smoothly declining toward the Dniestr, from North to South; which separates the river systems of Bug and Dniestr; it is traversed by a number of hill chains. In the South a sand steppe extends. The climate is mild and healthy, similar to that of Cwentral Germany. The main rivers are : the Bug (in the East) and the Dniestr (border toward SW). Podolia has (1885) 2,364,869 inhabitants, 56 per square km, for the most part Russians and Ukrainians, also Poles, by confession, except for 400,000-500,000 Catholics, Protestants and Jews, almost exclusively Greek Orthodox. In 1884 there were 119,851 births and 70,749 deaths; the number of marriages was 23,387. Main industry is agriculture. Of the area 63,5 % are farmland, 14.7 % forest, 17 % pastorage, 4.8 percent inutile land. In 1884 the harvest produced 3 million hl rye, 3 million hl wheat, 4 million hl oats, 1 1/2 million hl barley, 1 million hl maize, 1 million hl potatos; buckwheat, peas, millet in smaller quantities. Further melons, watermelons, wine and tobaccio are grown. In 1883 677,580 head of cattle, 807,458 sheep, 448,597 horses, 519,515 hogs, 17,912 goats were counted. Podolian oxen are famous. Horticulture is nglected, so is forestry. The value of industrial production (1884) is estimated at 48,911,000 Roubles; it is conducted in 1616 factories with 24,083 workers. The main branches of industry are beet sugar production and refinery (47 factories, 21,933,000 Roubles), distilleries (14,624,000 Roubles), grain mills (11 million Roubles). Cloth weaving industry, tobacco industru, breweries, leaher industry and a few other industries seem poorly developed. Among institutions of learning there were in 1885 1445, with 41,220 students, namely 1131 elementary schools, 11 middle schools and 3 specialized schools (1 priest seminary, a school for midwives, a vocational school for craftsmen). Trade mainly is conducted by Jews. Main trading places are Kamenez-Podolsk, Mohilew and Balta. The government is divided in 12 districts : Balta, Brazlaw, Gajssin, Jampol, Kamenez-Podolsk, Letitschew, Litin, Mohilew, Nowaja-Uschiza, Olgopol, Proskurow, Winniza. Resdence of the governor is Kamenez-Podolsk. see. "Sbornik (Sammlung) von Daten über das Gouvernement P." (russisch 1881). - In the old days the Voyevodship Podolia belonged to the Old Russian Principalities of Kiev and Vladimir Volynsk (in Volhynia), but later was conquered by Lithuanians and Poles.On the occasion of the First Polish Partition (1772) a smaller western part of the Voyevodship fell to Austria, during the later partitions of 1793 and 1795 the remainder to Russia. In 1796 Empress Catherine II. merged Russian Podolia with the Voyevodate Brazlaw and formed the present government Podolia.
source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, Article : Podolien (1915)
Podolien (lowland), in Russian : Podolskaya Gubernia, bordered by Volhynia in the North, Kiev and Cherson in the East, Bessarabia in the South West and Austria (Galicia) in the West, where the border is formed by the Sbrutsj, a tributary of the Dniestr. 42,018 square km, 3,882,700 inhabitants (1912), for the most part Ukrainians, with Poles (4 %), Jews (13 %), further Romanians, Germans and Armenians. The land, from North to South, is traversed by two almost parallel low hill chains, one between Dniestr and Bug, the other east of the Bug on the border to Kiev. The former reaches an altitude of 360 m, the latter of 320 m. The main rivers are the Dniestr which forms the border to Bessarabia, and the Bug. The soil is, almost everywhere, the black soil, and POdolia belongs to the most productive areas of the Russian Empire. Agriculture is the main industry and produces large quantities of grain for export. Even industry has developed in recent years, especially sugar industry and distilleries. Trade is transmitted via the navigable rivers and the railroad Lemberg-Odessa with branch lines to Kiev and Poltava. The government capital is Kamenets-Podolski. In older times Podolia belonged to the Russian principalities Kiev and Volhynia, was conquered by the Lihuanians in the mid of the 13th century, and, with Lithuania, came to Poland. On the occasion of Poland's First Partition (1772), a smaller part of it came to Austria; in the later partitions(1793 and 1795) the remainder came to Russia; Russian Podolia in 1796 was merged with Brazlav to form the present government.
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg


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First posted on March 9th 2009

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