Saratov Gubernia - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries



Historic Encyclopedias on Saratov Gubernia : Pierer 1857-1865, Anskjaer 1858-1863, Nordisk Familjebok 1890, Meyer 1885-1892, Meyer 1902-1909, Nordisk Familjebok 1915



Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Saratow
Russian government in Russian Asia [!], located between Pensa, Simbirsk, Orenburg, Astrachan, Voronezh and the land of the Don Cossacks, has 1486.34 square miles and 1,650,000 inhabitants, Russians and Ukrainians, Tatars, Mordvinians, Chuvashes, Voguls and colonists, mostly of Greek confession. In the fertile parts they engage in agriculture (grain, legumes, hemp, some tobacco, but often devastated by locusts), in horticulture (melons, cucumbers etc.), fruit cultivation, some viticulture, considerable livestock keeping (horses, cattle, wide tail sheep, hogs), fishery (namely in the Vlga which is rich in fish), hunt, salt production (from the salt lakes Elton, Gorka etc.), trade (especially on the Volga). Coat of arms : three stars in blue. Saratov used to belong to Astrakhan, but forms a separate government since 1780 (1782).
source in German, posted by Zeno

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article : Saratow
Saratov, government in European Russia, surrounded by the lands of the Don Cossacks, the governments of Voronezh, Tambov, Pensa, Simbirsk, Samara and Astrakhan. 1486.34 square miles with 1,622,147 inhabitants (1856). Saratow overall is plains country; only in its northern part and on the right bank of the Volga do elevated parts interrupt the uniformity of the plain. The Volga flows about through the middle of the government [!], from its western part the Choper and Medviditza flow toward the Don and so to the Sea of Azov. In the southeast there are several salt lakes, of which the Elton is the largest. The soil west of the Volga is very fertile, and there mainly wheat, hemp, tobacco and madder are grown; on the banks of the tributaries of the Don large forests are found. Many are occupied in the fishery in the Volga. The foremost industrial products are linen cloth and leather.The government is divided in two districts. The capital has the same name.
source in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Saratow.
Saratov, Russian government, borders in the north on the governments Pensa and Simbirsk, in the east on Samara (from which it is separated by the Volga), in the south on Astrakhan, in the southwest on the land of the Don Cossacks, in the west on Tambov and Voronezh, it contains an area of 84,492 square km (1534.46 square miles). The country is hilly in the east, especially on the banks of the Volga, where it falls off steeply toward the river. The soil is mostly very good, only in the south waterless salty and sandy steppe stretches. The main river is the Volga, which forms here several large islands and sandbanks, and which takes in the Terishka. In the west the Choper, Medvyeditsa and Ilovya flow toward the Don; the latter of which only approaches the border of the government. The climate is entirely continental. The inhabitants, by number (1885) 2,222,000 (26 per square km), are Russians, Tatars, Mordvinians, Chuvashes and more than 120,000 German colonists, who live in now more than 100 villages on the Volga. The former mostly belong to the Graeco-Russian church, the colonists are mostly of Lutheran faith. Main sources of revenue are agriculture, horticulture and livestock keeping. Main products are grain, beets, tobacco and fruits, horses, cattle, fish and bees. From the entire area, 57 % are farmland, meadows and pastorage 20 %, forest 13 %, inutile land 10 %. The harvest of 1885 brought in 10.8 million hl rye, 2.8 million hl oats, 1.2 million hl wheat, 700,000 hl potatos; also barley, peas, spelt, buckwheat, millet in smaller quantities. The livestock numbered in 1883 : 535,749 head of cattle, 978,387 sheep with coarse wool, 450,532 sheep with fine wool, 533,857 horses, 139,690 hogs, 21,001 goats. The industry is developed only in certain areas. he value of the combined production of the 1300 factories in 1880 is given as 30,829,000 Roubles. Among the industried stand out : distillery (12.5 million R.), grain milling (10 million), oil extraction (1.8 million), liquor production (1.5 million R.). Further of importance are leather processing, cloth weaving, tobacco processing, production of candles, sawmills, breweries, cottonwoolweavery. Trade is much favoured by the location of the government, as it is connected which the Sea of Azov by the Don, with the Caspian Sea and with Nizhniy Novgorod by the Volga. Among institutions of ducation there were in 1885 : 775 schools with 102,491 students, of them 752 elementary schools, 18 middle schools and 5 vocational schools (among which 2 priest seminaries, one seminary for teachers, an agricultural school and one for craftsmen). The government is divided in 10 disricts : Atkarsk, Balashov, Khwalynsk, Kamyshin, Kuznezk, Petrovsk, Saratov, Serdovsk, Volysk and Tsaritsyn.
source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, Article : Saratov (1890)
Saratov, government in eastern Russia, in 1780 formed from parts of the Khanate of Asrakhan. It extends along the western bank of the Volga and has an area of 84,494 square km, with about 2,222,000 inhabitants, mainly Russians, but also Ukrainians, Chuvashes, Mordvinians, Tatars, Kalmyks and about 120,000 German colonists. In he north and along the course of the Volga the country is mountainous, in the south covered by steppe. Among the rivers the Medvedjitsa and the Choper, tributaries of the Don, and the Terishka, a tributary of the Volga, all of which flow in southwesterly direction, have to be mentioned. The soil is in general fertile and well-cultivated, only 12 % of the area is covered by forest. Of importance is the cultivation of grain, especially wheat, also hemp, tobacco and madder are grown. One of the main sources of income is fishery in the Volga. Among industries wool weaving and distillery stand out. The land, which only a hundred years ago was wilderness, on the call by Catherine II. (1762-1796) was colonised by Germans.
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, Article : Saratow
Saratov, Russian government, borders in the north on the governments Pensa and Simbirsk, in the east on Samara (from which it is separated by the Volga), in the south on Astrakhan, in the southwest on the Don Territory, in the west on Tambov and Voronezh, it contains an area of 84,493.9 square km (1534 square miles). The country is hilly in the east, especially on the banks of the Volga, where it falls off steeply toward the river. The soil is mostly the rich black soil. The main river is the Volga, which forms here several large islands and sandbanks, and which takes in the Tereshka. In the west the Choper, Medvyeditsa and Ilovya flow toward the Don. The climate is entirely continental and shows sharp contrasts. The average annual temperature in Saratov is 5.9 degrees Celsius. Of the inhabitants, in 1897 2,405,829 (28 per square km), 83.1 % are Russians, 7.2 % Germans (166,528), 5.0 % Tatars, 4.7 % Mordvinians. By confession almost 89 % were Greek Orthodox, 5.6 % Protestants, 3.9 % Muslims, 1.4 % Roman Catholics. The main sources of revenue are agriculture, horticulture and livestock keeping. Of the entire area 63.3 % fell on farmland, 16 % on meadows and pastorage, 12 % on forest, the remainder on inutile land. The harvest of 1903 amounted to 44,230 tons of wheat, 930,075 tons of rye, 221,465 tons of oats, 17,604 tons of barley, 12,702 tons of peas, 179,598 tons of potatos. Further hemp, some tobacco, rapeseed, and in the district of Tsaritsyn, mustard seed are cultivated. According to the livestock count of 1903 there were 640,000 horses, 1 million head of cattle, 1,900,000 sheep (of which 750,000 with fine wool), 55,000 goats, 195,000 hogs. In 1900 there were 9579 factories with 40,001 workers who produced a combined value of 38.6 million Roubles. The most important branch of industry is grain milling, which produced a value of 16.3 million Roubles, and is largely concentrated in the city of Saratov. Then follow distillery, the extraction of oil, and sawmills. Trade is much favoured by the location of the government, as it is connected which the Sea of Azov by the Don, with the Caspian Sea and with Nizhniy Novgorod by the Volga. The government is divided in 10 disricts : Atkarsk, Balashov, Khwalynsk, Kamyshin, Kuznezk, Petrovsk, Saratov, Serdovsk, Volsk and Tsaritsyn.
source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, Article : Saratov (1916)
Saratov, government in eastern Russia, in 1780 formed from parts of the Khanate of Asrakhan. It extends along the western bank of the Volga and has an area of 84,494 square km, with about 3,185,400 inhabitants (1913 estimate), mainly Russians, but also Ukrainians, Chuvashes, Mordvinians, Tatars, Kalmyks and about 170,000 German colonists. In he north and along the course of the Volga the country is mountainous, in the south covered by steppe. Among the rivers the Medvedjitsa and the Choper, tributaries of the Don, and the Terishka, a tributary of the Volga, all of which flow in southwesterly direction, have to be mentioned. The soil is in general fertile and well-cultivated, the so-called black soil, only 12 % of the area is covered by forest. Of importance is the cultivation of grain, especially wheat, also hemp, tobacco and madder are grown. One of the main sources of income is fishery in the Volga. Among industries grain mills, wool weaving and distillery stand out. The land, which only a hundred years ago was wilderness, on the call by Catherine II. (1762-1796) was colonised by Germans. The government is divided in 10 disricts.
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg





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First posted on May 3rd 2009

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