Sankt Petersburg Gubernia - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries



Historic Encyclopedias on Sankt Petersburg Gubernia : Pierer 1857-1865, Anskjaer 1858-1863, Nordisk Familjebok 1890, Meyer 1885-1892, Meyer 1902-1909, Nordisk Familjebok 1915



Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Sankt Petersburg
Government in European Russia, formed of former Ingermanland, parts of Karelia and Novgorod, 813.37 square miles. Borders in the North on the Gulf of Finland, the government Viborg, Lake Kadoga and the government Olonets, in the east on Novgorod, in the south on Pskov, in the west on Lale Peipus and Estonia. The soil is mostly plain, only interrupted by the Duderhoff Hills (300 feet high); swampy, sandy or forested. In he government there are many small lakes; 125.16 square miles of Lake Ladoga and 23.40 square miles of Lake Peipus belong to the government. The main rivers are the Neva which leaves Lake Ladoga and feeds into the Gulf of Finland, the Luga, Narowa, Sestra, Volkhov and others. The Ladoga Canal, along the southern coast of Lake Ladoga, connects Neva and Svir. The climate is rough in general, the winter cold and long, the summer short and hot. The inhabitants (in 1856 : 1,080,398) are in part Russians, in part Finns, in part of the tribe of he Izhorians (Ingermanlanders), Latvians, Estonians, also immigrants, mainly Germans. Occupations and products : agriculture (rye, some barley, oats, legumes, some flax), horticulture (vegetables of all kinds, in the vicinity of the capital even melons, pineapple and oher fine plants), a little livestock keeping (especially poultry); bature provides blueberries, timber, wild fowl, hares, fish in large quantity, among minerals brick, granite, limestone similar to marble. Indusry is mainly found in the capital, much less in the countryside; the capital is also the center of trade. The government is divided in 8 districts : St. Petersburg, Sophia, Schlüsselburg, Novaya Ladoga, Gdov, Luga, Yamburg and Oranienbaum.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article : Petersborg, Sankt
Governmeny in western Russia, surrounded by the Gulf of Finland, Finland, Lake Ladoga, the governments Olonets, Novgorod and Pskov, by Lake Peipus and by Estonia, 778 square miles with 1,080,398 inhabitants (1856). Another and probably more reliable figure for the area is 813 square miles. The surface overall is even, the highest in the south; in the northeastern part very low and swampy. About'half of the land is covered by forest, swamp or lake. Of the rivers are the most imortant the Svir, Siasi and Volkhov, which feed into Lake Ladoga, the Neva through which the Ladoga sends her surplus into the Gulf of Finland, he Luga and Narowa, which feed into the Gulf of Finland. he climate is cold and humid and not suited for agriculture. Timber is the main product of the government, and despite the forests having been treated badly, they are still very important. The government is divided in 9 districts.
source in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Sankt Petersburg.
Sankt Petersburg, Russian government largely coinciding with the formerly Swedish territory of Ingermanland, is bordered by Finnland, the governments Olonets, Novgorod, Pskov, Estonia and the Gulf of Finland, in 1885 on an area of 44,167 square km (according to Strelbistkiy 53,767 sq. km; 976 square miles) numbered 1,646,057 inhabitants (37 per square km), among whom over 1 million Orthodox, the remainder Old Believers, Armenian-Gregorian, Roman Catholic, Protestants, Jews and Muslims. In 1885 10,825 marriages were concluded, the number of deceased was 54,569, that of births 57,910. The government is plain a small part of it is swampy, and, as is the strongly varying climate, not favourable for agriculture. Average annual temperature + 3.8 degrees Celsius. The government is rich in lakes. Besides Lake Ladoga and Lake Peipus, which both in part belong to it, the government has the Neva (with the Tosna and Ishora), the Syass, the Volkhov, the Narova with the Plyussa, the Luga and an extensive system of canals. The area conststs of 13 % farmland, 20.7 % meadows and pastorage, 44.8 % forest, 21.5 % inutile land. Agriculture only flourishes among the German colonists. Cultivated are rye (1885 1.2 million hl), oats (1.5 million hl). barley and potatos (1.8 million hl), also some flax. Livestock keeping similarly is not good. In 1883 142,763 horses, 193,332 head of cattle, 13,381 hogs, 75,884 ordinary and only 102 fine-wool sheep were counted. Fishery is extensively conducted everywhere, as the waters, namely Neva and Peipus, are rich in fish. Quarries (also of limestone) are plenty. The industrial importance of the government is excellent. In 1885 the combined production value amounted to 149 million Roubles. 793 factories with 77,451 workers were counted. The leading branches of industry were cotton spinning (21.3 million R.), liquor production (15.4 million), machine industry (15 million), tobacco processing (13.9 million), steel works (9 million), sugar refineries (8.5 million), printing and dying (8.1 million), rubber industry (6.6 million), leather industry (6.5 million), cotton weaveries (5.1 million), breweries (6.1 million). The government in 1885 had 1287 schools with 93,365 students, among them one university with (1888) 2053 students, 67 vocational schools with 11,078 students, 1123 elementary schools with 58,234 students. Among the latter there are 40 private institutions with 5695 students. The government is divided in 8 districts, Gdov, Yamburg, Luga, Novaya Ladoga, Peterhof, Sankt Petersburg, Schüsselburg and Tsarskoe Selo.
source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, Article : Petersburg (1888)
Government in northwestern Russia, between the Ladogo and Lake Peipus, corresponds roughly to the former Swedish province Ingermanland , and borders in the north on Finland and government Olonets, in the east on Novgorod, in the south on Pskov, in the west on Livonia and Estonia. The area is 53,767 square km (without its share of the lakes Ladoga and Peipus). Along the border to Finland there are a few hills, otherwise the land is plain, except for a few heights near Krasnoe Selo, and consists to 40 % of swamps and forests (in the 18th century 70 %). The main rivers are the Neva, Luga and Narova, which feed into the Gulf of Finland. Into Lake Ladoga flow Volkhov, Syass and Svir; the two latter form part of a canal system which connects the Neva with the Volga. The population (except for that of the capital) in 1882 numbered 635,480, of which 82 % were Russians, 15 % Finns, 0.5 % Estonians and 1.7 % German colonists who immigrated after 1765. 20 % are protestants, the remainder for the most part belongs to the Greek church. Agriculture is little developed and produces a small harvest; but the industry (production of cotton textiles, silk, paper, machinery and other ironwares) is rather vivid, especially around Tsarskoe Selo and Yamburg. Several larger industrial establishments producing army and navy supplies, especially in Kronstadt, belong to the state.
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, Article : Sankt Petersburg
Sankt Petersburg, Russian government largely coinciding with the formerly Swedish territory of Ingermanland, is bordered by Finnland, the governments Olonets, Novgorod, Pskov, Livonia, Estonia and the Gulf of Finland, in 1897 on an area of 53,768.2 square km (976 square miles) numbered 2,112,033 inhabitants (39 per square km), among whom 1,741,395 were Russians, 219,651 Estonians and Finns, 63,457 Germans, 10,251 Latvians. By eligion 83 % were Greek Orthodox, 12.6 % Protestant. The government is plain, a small part of it is swampy, and, as is the strongly varying climate, not favourable for agriculture. Average annual temperature + 3.8 degrees Celsius. The government is rich in lakes. Besides Lake Ladoga and Lake Peipus, which both in part belong to it, the government has the Neva (with the Tosna and Ishora), the Syass, the Volkhov, the Narova with the Plyussa, the Luga and an extensive system of canals. The area conststs of 13 % farmland, 20.7 % meadows and pastorage, 44.8 % forest, 21.5 % inutile land. The harvest of 1903 amounted to : 82,295 tons rye. 82,811 tons of oats, 23,584 tons of barley, 220,824 tons of potatos. There is an intensive cultivation of vegetables and berries, namely in the vicinity of the residence. The same can be said of the dairy industry. The livestock census of 1903 counted 215,000 head of cattle, 35,000 hogs, 160,000 horses. The waters, namely the Neva and Lake Peipus are very rich in fish. Quarries (also of limestone) are plenty. The industry, except that of the ciy of Sankt Petersburg and its suburbs, in 1900 consisted of 631 enterprises qith 35,289 workers who produced a combined value of 34.3 million Roubles, of which 9 million R. were contributed by the state-owned artillery factory in Kolpino, 4 million R. by the paper industry, 2.5 million R. by the glass industry, 3.8 million R. on brick factories. The government is divided in 8 districts, Gdov, Yamburg, Luga, Novaya Ladoga, Peterhof, Sankt Petersburg, Schüsselburg and Tsarskoe Selo.
source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, Article : Petersburg (1915)
Government in northwestern Russia, between the Ladogo and Lake Peipus, corresponds roughly to the former Swedish province Ingermanland , and borders in the north on Finland and government Olonets, in the east on Novgorod, in the south on Pskov, in the west on Livonia and Estonia. The area is 53,767 square km (without its share of the lakes Ladoga and Peipus). Along the border to Finland there are a few hills, otherwise the land is plain, except for a few heights near Krasnoe Selo, and consists to 40 % of swamps and forests (in the 18th century 70 %). The main rivers are the Neva, Luga and Narova, which feed into the Gulf of Finland. Into Lake Ladoga flow Volkhov, Syass and Svir; the two latter form part of a canal system which connects the Neva with the Volga. The population (except for that of the capital) in 1910 numbered 975,192, of which 82 % were Russians, 15 % Finns, 0.5 % Estonians and 1.8 % German colonists who immigrated after 1765. 20 % are protestants, the remainder for the most part belongs to the Greek church. Agriculture is little developed and produces a small harvest; but the industry (production of cotton textiles, silk, paper, machinery and other ironwares) is rather vivid, especially around Tsarskoe Selo and Yamburg. Several larger industrial establishments producing army and navy supplies, especially in Kronstadt, belong to the state.
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg





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First posted on May 3rd 2009

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