On the extreme left : a stamp of the Ukrainian National Republic
Center left : a stamp issued by the Ukrainian Soviet Republic
On the right : stamps of the Western Ukrainian National Republic

Ukraine 1917-1921

In March 1917, during the FEBRUARY REVOLUTION, the Ukrainian CENTRAL RADA was established. In November, during the OCTOBER REVOLUTION, it claimed authority over the 9 provinces with Ukrainian population. On Jan. 22nd 1918 INDEPENDENCE was proclaimed.
While peace negotiations were going on, Austro-Hungarian and German troops occupied much of the Ukraine in order to exert pressure on the Russian delegation. On March 3rd the PEACE OF BREST-LITOVSK was signed, according to which the RSFSR conceded Ukrainian independence. On April 29th 1918, MYKHAYLO HRUSHEVSKY was elected Ukrainian president; central powers' forces were withdrawn from Ukraine. On November 3rd 1918 Austria-Hungary signed an armistice; already on November 1st, a WESTERN UKRAINIAN NATIONAL REPUBLIC was founded in what was Austrian EASTERN GALICIA. On January 22nd 1922, both Ukrainian republics merged. By late July 1919, Poles had seized control of Eastern Galicia (= Western Ukraine); the Poles held on to it during the POLISH-RUSSIAN WAR of 1919-1920 and it remained part of Poland until 1939.
In the meantime, the RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR had begun. Entente forces had landed on the Crimea in summer 1918, supporting generals DENIKIN and WRANGEL operating from/on Ukrainian soil. By December 1919 the RED ARMY took control of Ukraine (except the Crimea and the Western Ukraine) and formed an UKRAINIAN SOVIET REPUBLIC. By October 1920 the Red Army took the Crimea; Gen. Wrangel went into exile.
The POLISH-RUSSIAN WAR of 1919-1920 was fought over Ukrainian and Belorussian territory. In June 1920 the Red Army stopped a Polish invasion outside Kiev; soon afterward Red Army units marched on Warsaw, where they again were defeated. The peace TREATY OF RIGA (1921) left Eastern Galicia (= thw Western Ukraine) with Poland.
Smaller regions also inhabited by Ukrainians (Ruthenians) - Carpatho-Ukraine was integrated into Czechoslovakia, northern Bukovina into Rumania.

Chronology of Ukraine's History, from Univ. of Kiev
Ukraine, from Encyclopedia of Ukraine
The Austro-Hungarian Army in the Ukraine : March-November 1918, by Dan Grecu
Ukraine - History of the Flag (illustrated), from FOTW
World War I and the Interwar Period, from Abridged History of the Ukraine
The Last Hetman of Ukraine, from Ukraine Postal Express
Timeline Ukrainian History in the 20th Century, from Brama
Entry Crimea, Republic of, from Footnotes to History, by James L. Erwin
DOCUMENTS German postcard 1918 : Peace with Ukraine, from DHM
Presidents, Hetmans etc. of the Ukrainian National Republic, from World Statesmen by Ben Cahoon
Map : Ukrainian Lands, 1914-1919, from Historical Atlas of Ukraine (placenames, comment in English)
Banknotes Ukraine 1918-1919, from Wad Nensberg's Collection of Russian Banknotes, numerous images
Lenin's Ultimatum Against Ukrainian Independence, 17 December 1917, from First World War.com
Peace Treaty Between Ukraine and Central Powers, 9 February 1918, from First World War.com
Richard von Kühlmann on the Ukraine Brest-Litovsk Peace Settlement, 9 February 1918, from First World War.com
Alexander Severyuk on the Ukraine Brest-Litovsk Peace Settlement, 9 February 1918, from First World War.com
Emperor Karl I on the Ukraine Brest-Litovsk Peace Settlement, 14 February 1918, from First World War.com

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2000, last revised on January 22nd 2005

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