Ukraine - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries

Brockhaus 1809-1811, Brockhaus 1837-1841, Pierer 1857-1865, Anskjaer 1858-1863, Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, Meyer 1885-1892, Meyer 1902-1908, Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926

Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, Article : Ukraine
The name it received from the Russian Ukrayu, border location. A province in the southwestern part of European Russia, also called Little Russia, it is as large as old Russia was before the conquest of Siberia, Astrakhan and he Asiatic possessions. It once belonged to Poland, but was ceded to Russia during the First Partition of Poland (1772) [!]. The fertility of the country is of such a scope, that the soil without fertilization produces all kinds of field and garden crops, among which especially the watermelons and melons, in quantity. Also livestock keeping is of an excellent level, especially here a beautiful race of horses is bred which is the basis for a considerable export abroad. As famous are the Ukrainian black sheep fleeces, usually called Ukrainians, which have small grey and shining curls; especially those called baranches, with small curls of fine wool, which are said to come from unborn lambs cut out of their mothers' wombs. The rivers are very rich in fish. A fish indigenous to the country, the Wyresub, in the head of which a peculiar cartilage-like mass shaped like the seed of a plum is found, which, if it is placed in oil, takes on amber colour and becomes transparent. The fish dies immediately if it is put in a pond. The fields are teeming with larks, quails, partridges etc. The provinces inhabitants, largely Cossacks (see there) still enjoy, because of their earlier constitution, great freedoms and privileges; they love to drink, but not as much as the Russians, also they produce famous fruit liquors (Naliski). Their main passions are ance and song.
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Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon 1837-1841, Article : Ukraine
Ukraine, which means borderland, used to be the name of a landscape now located in southern Russia on both banks of the river Dniepr which now form the governments Podolia, Slobods-Ukraine, Kiev, Poltava and Chernigov, excelling in the breeding of cattle and horses. It long gave cause to disputes and wars between Poland, Russia and Turkey. Cossacks form part of the population of his area with 3100 square miles and 6 million inhabitants, of which the parts east of the Dniepr were ceded to Russia in 1667, and since were called Russian Ukraine. The Polish Ukraine located on ther western part of the Dniepr consisted of the former Voyevodships Kiev and Brailav, but in Poland's second partition also fell to Russia.
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Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1854-1857

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1854-1857, Article : Ukraine
in Russian : Ukraina, i.e. border land, because it long formed the border between Russia and Turkey.
(1) Landscape in Russia on both sides of the Dniepr, contains lower Volhynia, Kiev, Wraclaw and lower Podolia, is divided in the governments Podolia, Kiev, Poltava and Slovods-Ukraine. Important cities : Braclav, Kharkov, Cherkask, Poltava and Kiev; the latter is generally regarded Ukraine's capital. The Ukraine stretches from southwest to northeast, about 70 miles wide, from north to south about 20-30 miles wide. It is fertile and now well-cultivated, has a lot of pastorage, in which the grass often grows so high that men and animals can hide in it. The population is not low, but culd be much larger. This is to be credited to the wars between Russians, Poles and Turks from the mioddle of the 16th to the middle of the 18th century. A part of Ukraine in 1673 was ceded in the Treaty of Buchacz under King Michael of Poland ceded to Turkey by the crown field marshall Sobieski, and only regained in the Treaty of Karlowitz. It is the land of the Cossacks whi in part have their main seat here.
See : Beauplan, Description de l'Ukraine, Paris 1860, Engel, Geschichte der Ukraine und der ukrainischen Kosacken, Halle 1796
(2) in a narrower definition the Polish Voyevodships Kiew and Braclav,
(3) otherwise also the land to the northwest up into Hungary, as the Ungvar district used to be called Lower Ukraine. see under Slovods-Ukraine.

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Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1854-1857, Article : Slowods-Ukraine
now Kharkov, government in Little Russia, between Kursk, Voronezh, Ekaterinoslav, the land of the Don Cossacks and Poltava, has 986.4 square miles with 1,366,188 inhabitants, including 197,171 in the Russian military settlements, mostly Little Russians and Cossacks, further Great Russians, Jews, foreign colonists, Kalmyks and Gypsies. Sandy, without forest, mostly flat, rivers : Donets (with Oskol, Torets, Aidar and others), Psiol, Worskla with the Suma and many others; mild climate, occasionally harsher bcause of rough winds. Occupation : agriculture (production of all kinds of grain, among which Egyptian barley, maize, spelt, Siberian buckwheat, oil plants, legumes and trade plants, among these cinnamon, saflower, fructus capsici, tobacco, and recently a lot of potatos, the cultivation of fruit which gains in importance, livestock breeding (horses, cattle, sheep, bees), hunt. Industry very little (liquor and brandy), trade (livestock, tallow, honey, wax etc.), coat of arms : golden cornucopia filled with flowers and fruits, over it wo crossed mercury's staffs in a green field, capital Kharkov.
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Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article : Ukraine
the old name of a landscape in Russia, on boh sides of the Dniepr. It is now included in the governments Kiev and Poltava.
source in Danish, posted Project Runeberg

Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, Article : Ukraine (1892)
Ukraine, borderland, the name given by the Poles to the Russian borderland in the southeast conquered by the Lithuanians in 1320. Later this name was understood to describe the fertile stretch of land on the middle Dniepr. This stretch, which until the time of Peter the Great was disputed between Poland and Russia, made up the larger part of Little Russia (see there), the name of which first seems to have been used in 1654, when 10 Cossack regiments on the eastern bank of the river first placed themselves under Russian protection. By the Treaty of Andrussovo 1667 and the Treaty of Grzymultowsk 1686 Poland ceded this part of Little Russia located east of the Dniepr (the so-called Russian Ukraine), but the Little Russian Cossacks on the western bank of the river (Polish Ukraine) remained under Polish rule until in 1793 also this region came to Russia in the Second Polish Partition. The Polish Ukraine now formed the government Kiev and part of the government Podolia, while from Russian Ukraine the governments Chernigov and Poltava were formed. The slobodish Ukraine, traversed by the Don, where many Litle Russians had fled in the time of the Polish rule, now forms the government Kharkov.
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Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Ukraine
"Border area", at the time of the old Polish kingdom the name for its furthestmost southeastern border lands, laer for an extended stretch of land on both banks of the middle Dniepr, including Cossack territory, which presently makes up the larger part of Litle Russia (see there). By the Treaty of Andrussovo 1667 and the Treaty of Moscow 1686 Poland ceded the lands east of the Dniepr (the so-called Russian Ukraine) to Russia, while the part of the country located to the west of that river (the Polish Ukraine) temporarily remained under Polish rule and only came to Russia in the Second Polish Partition in 1793. The Slobodian Ukraine, crossed by the Donez, into which many Ukrainians had fled during the Polish era, now forms government Kharkov. On Ukrainian language and literature see "Little Russian language and literature".
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Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, Article : Ukraine
"Border area", at the time of the old Polish kingdom the name for its furthestmost southeastern border lands, laer for an extended stretch of land on both banks of the middle Dniepr, including Cossack territory, which presently makes up the larger part of Litle Russia (see there). By the Treaty of Andrussovo 1667 and the Treaty of Moscow 1686 Poland ceded the lands east of the Dniepr (the so-called Russian Ukraine) to Russia, while the part of the country located to the west of that river (the Polish Ukraine) temporarily remained under Polish rule and only came to Russia in the Second Polish Partition in 1793. The Slobodian Ukraine, crossed by the Donez, into which many Ukrainians had fled during the Polish era, now forms government Kharkov. On Ukrainian language and literature see "Little Russian language and literature".
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Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, Article : Ukraine
Ukraina, the name used in the country, in contrast to the Russian Ukra'yna, meaning borderland.
(1) in its proper meaning a term occasionally since the middle ages, which later became customary to describe the area inhabited by eastern Slavs living on the middle Dniepr, once the core of the Swedish-Slavic state of Rus created c.800 (see there), in the 14th century annexed by Lithuania-Poland, and later, in the later part of the 17th century, annexed into the Muscovite state. The "Great Russians", the population of the Czardom of Russia, which ethnically differs from the Ukrainians, the land was called "Little Russia" (see there). Ukraine roughly made up the later Russian governments Kiev, Chernigov, Poltava and Kharkov, an area of 207,000 square km with 14,710,000 inhabitants (1910), of whom 12.5 million were Ukrainians (Little Russians), the remainder largely Great Russians.
(2) In the 17th and 18th century, Ukraine was the political and cultural life of the people who were ethnically related to its inhabitants, who were the protagonists of its national independence. In reference hereto, in recent times the Ukrainian national propaganda used this name to describe the entire area which has a predominantly Ukrainian population. In this wider definition, the Ukraine, the borders of which, given the lack of natural borders, cannot be precisely established, roughly extends from 43 to 54 degrees northern latitude and 21 to 47 degrees eastern longitude. It stretches from the Tatra (Carpathians), the San river (Galizien) and the central Bug with he forest of Bialystok (gov. Grodno) in the west to the Don and (with a slight dent) to the Caspian Sea in the east, from the Pripet and the middle Dniepr and Don in the north to the Danube delta, the Black Sea, the northwestern extensions of he Caucasus and the Terek in the south. It thus includes (see figure 1) almost the entire southern part of the former European Russia (775,000 square km, with 28.5 million Ukrainians), northern and northwestern Bukovina (5,000 square km, 300,000 Ukrainians), the eastern part of Galicia (56,000 square km, 3.38 million square km) and a part of northeastern Hungary, namely the larger part of the comitats Matamaros, Ugocsa, Bereg, Ung, now belonging to Romania, with c.14,000 square km and 470,000 Ukrainians, together 850,000 square km, with a total population of about 45 million (1910), of whom about 33 million (73 %) are Ukrainians (see under them). (For Ukrainians living outside of the afore-described terriory, see under Ukrainians).

Blended among the Ukrainians live Russians, Poles, Jews, Romanians, Taars, Germans and other people. Almost the entire krainian population lives in the countryside, only 2 to 14 %, dependent on the region, are urban residents. By confession 2 million are Roman Catholic (of them 700,000 in Galicia) but to the largest part Polish hierarchy, 4 million united with the Roman Catholic Church, but maintaining Greek rite, Greek calendar and Old Slavonic language in liturgy (mainly in Eastern Galicia and in Hungary), the remainder Orthodox. In physical-geographic respect Ukraine may be regarded to form a closed-off entity and characterized as a country largely of steppe character (more than half of Ukraine's inhabitants are steppe residents) with its typical black soil (Chernozem), which makes up 3/4 of the land; forest is mainly found in the west and north (in the south and east the steppe dominates), but covers according to a calculation only 1/5 of the total area. Across the entire Ukraine, from the Carpathians in the west to the Donets in the east stretch a number of plateaus (highest point 515 m above the sea), the country's proper morphological core; they are traversed by the country's large rivers flowing toward the Black Sea, and adjacent to it in the north and in the south are a number of low plains, in the north Polesia's swamp (around the Pripet) and the Dniepr lowlands, in the south of the Pontic or Dniepr steppe (see here) along the coast of the Black Sea from the Danube delta to the Kuban, but on its rim in the south rise the Carpathians, Jaila Mountains (Crimea) and the Caucasus. Agriculture is of a low level, because of the ignorance of the inhabitants, and livestock keeping is the main occupation of the Ukrainians. Farmland, 45 million ha (53 % of the area), is inhabited by almost 9/10 of the population and in 1910 produced a harvest of wheat, rye and barley of 15 million tons, a production only surmounted by that of Germany or Russia. The tobacco production of 1908 was 69 % of the production of the entire Russian Empire that year. Livestock breeding is of greater scope than that of neighbouring countries, and the number of animals given is around 34 million. Among minerals the first place is held by iron ore (in Russian Ukraine in 1911 over 5 million tons were produced, 73 % of the entire Russian production) and coal (only on the Donets Plateau, but there the deposit covers 23,000 square km and delivers an annual production of 20.3 million tons, 70 % of the production of the entire former Russian Empire); in regard to petrol, Ukraine (mainly Galicia, which in 1911 produced about 15 million tons) is Europe's richest country and takes the third place in the world; sources for salt are rather large. The factory industry, almost completely in the hands of foreigners, is still in its beginnings (the sugar production here made up about 70 % of that of the entire Russian Empire), but the crafts are important. Trade, because of the lack of education among the Ukrainians, almost exclusively lies in the hands of Russians, Jews, Greeks, Armenians, and is mainly conducted on markets. Ukraine exports grain (more 60 % of the grain export of the former Russian Empire came from Ukrainian regions), livestock, wool, petrol, iron ore, manganese, coal. Imports are almost entirely fabricated products. Communications are atrocious. Land roads (in Russian Ukraine) are the worst in the world, of railroads are found in Galicia 5 km, in Russian Ukraine only 1 km per 100 square km. In 1919 there were about 17,800 km of railroad in operation, further 4,000 km under construction. Waterways (most of all the Dniepr) since ancient times have had great importance for Ukraine and are estimated at about 7,000 km, but only two canals are found, the Oginski Canal (55 km, see under Oginsky) and the Dniepr-Bug Canal (see there, 80 km); they are outdated and dilapidated and barely suitable to anything but float timber in them. Navigation on the Black Sea is in a miserable condition. In 191? 410 steamboats with 223,000 tons and 827 sailships wih 53,000 tons sailed under Russian flag; the main port is Odessa.
The Ukrainian national research emphasizes the physical-geographic and anthropo-geographic unity of Ukraine, but it does not form a political unit and has never formed one. The formation of nation states has taken place in its territory. The largest was the one established in the 9th century by Swedish Vikings called Rus, under the Slavic tribes (Polanes among others), created on the middle Dniepr (see under Russia). Ukrainian historians argue the purely Slavic origin of the state and limit the Scandinavian participation to pure soldiering. The Empire, which was called Rus, afyer which soon the entire population was called Russians, had its center in Kiev and containd the larger part of the present Ukraine with the exception of the regions furthest to the east, southeast and south, which only in more recent times have been colonized by Ukrainians. But Kiev's position as the center was lost in the 12th and 13th century, in consequence of the partition of the country among the dynasty's various branches, wars among the princes, and because of the devastating invasion of the Tatars (Mongols; Kiev Tataric in 1240). Further to the north, among the Slavs and Finns on the upper and middle Volga, which by nationality were distinct from he Rus, gradually, under descendants of the Rurikid dynasty emerged the Grand Duchy of Muscovy, which never gave up her claim on the Kievan Empire. But the Russian people did not completely perish in the disaster of the 13th century. Its political and cultural life was preserved in the wesern parts of the empire, in the principality Halicz-Volynia, created by the merger of the principalities Vladimir (Volynia) and Halicz in 1199 (since 1252 kingdom), until it was split in 1340, when Halicz (with Podolia and the Cholm territory) as annexed into Poland, and Volynia came under a Lithuanian prince. Even the Dniepr region, which was to suffer Tatar raids and abductions of her residents for 5 centuries and quickly saw depopulation, in the 14th century became a Lithuanian principality. But in 1569 it separated from Lithuania (which since 1386 was in union with Poland) and was directly annexed into the Polish Republic, and flooded by its nobility. The beginnings to a national reawakening were made in the 16th century by burghers' fraternities (for the establishment of Ukrainian schools, printing shops etc.) in Galizien, but in vain. Better luck was befalling a couple of times the national movement in the Dniepr region, which from that time on is called Ukraine. The Cossacks (see there) organised there as a warrior state with Sich, below the Dniepr Falls, as their center, rose again and again. The events in Ukraine were followed with great interest in the 17th century in Sweden, which for long periods was engaded in open feud with Poland. Especially brutal became the rising of 1648, marked by several glorious victories, which was lead by the leader of the Cossack state, (hetman) Chmielnicki, who was engaged in a lively correspondence with Christina and Karl X. Gustav. He expelled the Poles from Ukraine, but inner unrest, Tatar raids etc. caused him to look for support, and by the Treaty of Pereyaslavl 1654, which he concluded with the Czar of Moscow (not the least because of confession, as Moscow as much as Ukraine by religion were Orthodox), a union was established, which granted autonomy to Ukraine, which the Muscovites ("Great Russians") at that time began to call "Little Russia". By the treaties of Andrussovo (1667) and Moscow (1686) Poland was forced to cede Ukraine on the left (eastern) bank of the Dniepr, and on the right (western) bank the city of Kiev, but was to hold on to he remainder [of Ukraine] on this side. The union with the Muscovite state ("annexion", as it is called by Russian authors), resulted as time progressed in more and more infringements in the liberties of the Cossacks (see there). The latter never gave up the idea of their independence. Ukraine transferred the idea into action, when Charles XII. in his war with Czar Peter crossed into Ukraine with his victorious army in 1708. Hetman Mazepa joined him, and in a manifest Charles called upon the people of Ukraine to fight for their freedom. This attempt of a Swedish group of warriors to again after more than 800 years interfere on the Dniepr ended at Poltava. This was the end of freedom in Russian Ukraine, even if it was until 1764, with some interruptions, that they had their own hetman. Not long after Poland lost its share of the old Rus state. In the First Polish Partition (1772) Galicia came to Austria, which in 1775 even became master of a piece of the Bukovina, separated from Moldavia and to a large extent inhabited by Ukrainians; with the Second Polish Partition, the Kievan land, Volynia, Podolia and more of Dniepr fell to Russia. Both the Poles and Russians introduced serfdom, refused to recognize the Ukrainians as a separate nationality, declared their language to be merely a farmers' dialect of their own (the Russians in 1720 forbade the printing of texts in Ukrainian, among these abc books) and tried with all means available to a stronger power to suppress their character, and to assimilate them (f.ex. the placement of Hetman-Ukraine's Church under the patriarch of Moscow in 1687). This assimilation policy succeeded with the upper classes, they either Polonized or Russified, but it did not succeed with the great mass of the people, sunken in deep ignorance, which remained untouched by foreign language and customs. The transfer of Galicia and Bukovina to Austrian rule in the course of time lead to the reawakening of Ukrainian national life, thanks to government measures to improve the Ukrainians' (here called Ruthenians) social, intellectual and material conditions (abolition of serfdom etc.) As a consequence of the combination of Polish Western Galicia and Ukrainian Eastern Galicia into an administrative unit (Kronland Galizien), the Poles certainly were politically and communally dominant, and they exercised strong pressure, but in the later part of the later part of the 19th century the Ukrainians achieved a number of national victories (among others Ukrainian being declared language of education, administration and jurisdiction, followed by the establishment of 6 state-run and 12 private gymnasia, as well as thousands of public libraries, by the association for public education "Prosvitas". This lead to the result that they recognized themselves as a separate national organism. Eastern Galicia, especially Lemberg with its university, where separate Ukrainian chairs were to be established, since the 1880s has been the focus of the national life of the entire Ukrainian territory ("the Ukrainian movement's secular Piemonte"), especially after the death blow, which in 1876 was struck in Russian Ukraine against the utterances of national literature which had begun in the first half of the 19th century (Shevchenko, Kostomarov, Kulish; see there), nourished by the pride of Cossack times, a rich folk poetry, theatre performances and sunday schools in the vernacular. Signs of separatism were not lacking either. The Cyril and Methodius society existing actually aimed at transforming Ukraine into a democratic republic wihin a large Slavic confederation, and following the abolition of serfdom in 1861 revolutionary and separate movements arose in the population. In order to terminate the national strife, an ukase in 1876 determined that no Ukraine existed, but only a "united, indivisible Russia" and forbade any literature (especially newspapers), lectures, theatre performances and concerts in Ukrainian language, and blocked the border for books and press products printed abroad in Ukrainian language. The Russian-Ukrainian intelligentsia then moved her activity into Galicia, where with their contribution the important Shevchenko Society was founded and newspapers were issued. Parallel with it, and competing with this by the nature of the matter radical colored movement, worked in Galicia a conservative party, secretly supported by the Russian government, formed by Pan-Slavists (the "Russian National Party" or "Russophiles", by the Ukrainians called "Moscowphiles"). It worked on persuading Galicia's Ukrainians that they belonged to "the large united Russian nation", i.e. they prepared Russian annexion and thus excluded themselves from Ukrainism. In the meantime, the recognition of national characteristics awoken by literature developed in the service of a of a national political movement all the more naturally as the region's large population and its rich natural resources could form the foundation for a strong state. The Russian Revolution of 1905 {"the cradle for the modern Ukrainian rebirth in Russia") seemed to bear the prospect to it. Ukrainians were represented in the first Duma (1906, 80 members) and the second Duma (1907, 42 members), but, as the radical Duma majority showed, in the question of Russia's reform, that it did not want to deal with any decentralization of the Empire in favour of autonomy of the various nationalities, and in the fllowing Dumas no nationally conscious representatives of the Ukraine were represented, mainly because peasants, by changes in the electoral ordinnance practically lost their right to vote. Certainly by the press ordinnance of 1906 all special regulations concerning the various national languages were removed, but the [electoral] victory of the reaction in 1907 was practically followed by the reintroduction of the principles of 1876, despite the Academy of Litterature in St. Petersburg in 1905 declared Ukrainian to be a language separate from Russian, and Ukrainian literature to be necessary for the enlightenment of the people, as they did not understand Russian. The right to form associations, created by the Russian "constitution", which in Ukraine was made use of, was abolished, and many of the earlier Ukrainian Duma representatives were punished by expulsion or imprisonment. Only an overthrow of the European system of states could help Ukraine to gain her freedom. The World War of 1914 raised hopes in this direction. In Galicia immediately the "General Ukrainian National Council" was formed, in which Russian Ukrainians were represented. But they protested against the plans of the former to divorce from the Austrian monarchy, but demanded instead that the remainder of Ukraine should form an autonomous unit leaning closely on the Central Powers. Shortly after emerged a "Union for the Liberation of Ukraine" partially formed by Russian Ukrainians, which, with its seat in Vienna, issued "Ukrainische Nachrichten", worked toward the establishment of an Ukraine ultimately conquered from Russia, its establishment as a constitutional democratic monarchy, or, if only a part of the country could be liberated, for its unification with Austrian Ukraine, as an autonomous territory within Austria's borders. A corps of Austrian Ukrainian volunteers, the Sich rifles, the first Ukrainian national army since the 18th century, fough on the side of the Central Powers against he Russians, as more eager, as Austrian politicians promised them as a reward their liberation from the Polish yoke. The hope one raised in the beginning was disappointed; the Russians occupied Galicia and Bukovina, and implemented terrible persecutions among the Ukrainians (the usage of Ukrainian language in school, church, public institutions, press and literature was forbidden, archives and libraries destroyed, Metropolit Sheptytsky and many others were carried off to Russia etc.). But by the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the occupation of Ukraine by the Central Powers the tide turned, and Ukraine's independence was proclaimed.
(3) The Ukrainian People's Republic. After the Russian Revolution in March 1917 and the fall of the Czar's Empire, in the Russian Ukraine the independence movement grew in strength. In the beginning its goal was autonomy with its own administration and national militia, within a federative Russia. In Kiev a central Rada, at the top of various administrative commissions were placed a number of ministers, general secretaries, the attempt was made to organize a national Ukrainian regiment in order to support the independence movement, and in July 1917 negotiations were held with representatives of the Russian central government, on Ukraine's autonomy. But the Soviets in Kiev, Kharkov and other cities, where the mass of the workers was of Russian nationality, worked against the movement, and the difficulties, which the attempt to gain self government in a union with Russia met, resulted in the appointment of men by the Central Rada (Professor Khruschevskiy and others) who in their decision all the more clearly determined Ukraine's complete independence from Russia. As by the November Revolution of 1917 the Bolsheviks came to power in Russia, quickly a sharp conflict arose between their government in Petersburg and the Rada in Kiev, mostly caused by the Rada's refusal to permit free passage through Ukraine for Bolshevik troops, which were to be sent against Kornilov, Kaledin and other leaders of the armed Anti-Bolshevik movement in southern Russia. Already on November 16h 1917 the Central Tada had declared, that it, as the supreme representative body should exercise all governmental power in all Ukrainian territory. Thorough military peparations were undertaken by the general secretary for the army, Simon Petlyura, and on December 18th that year the Independent Ukrainian People's Republic was proclaimed. Its first constitution dates of December 23rd. But the idea of a federative union with Russia was not given up completely; the Ukrainians participated in he election of a Russian Constituant Assembly, and contributed considerably to its moderate socialist (social revolutionary) majority. The conflict with the Bolsheviks exacerbated, when these on January 18th dispersed the Constituant, and further undermined the authority of the Rada by organizing as a counterweight an Ukrainian Soviet in Kharkov. Then (on January 26th) the Rada issued the "universal" and finalized the breach by proclaiming Ukraine's right to on her own conclude peace with the Central Powers. In the meantime the Council of Russian People's Commissioners had principally recognized Ukraine's right to autonomy and even to separation from Russia and suggested negitiations for the regulation of the borders, an eventual federation and other connections. The new Ukrainian republic was represented at the peace conference with the Central Powers in Brest-Litovsk (in January 1918) by several emissaries. With them already on January 21st a provisional agreement was signed on the termination of the state of war and on the opening of diplomatic relations as soon as possible. The leading negotiator of the Russian Bolsheviks, Trotsky, in vain pressed that the treaty the Ukrainians entered in should only become valid after its approval by a federative Russian government. Regardless of this protest, the Central Powers on February 2nd formally recognized Ukraine as an independent state, on February 9th concluded a separate peace with Ukraine, which was representede by the emissaries of the Rada, and expressed the prospect of armed support against the Russian and Ukrainian Bolsheviks, who during these negotiations moved on Kiev in order to topple the Rada. Now German troops under General von Linsingen entered Ukraine, united with the Rada troops who had been chased out of Kiev by the Bolsheviks, retook Kiev (March 1st) and even pushed forward to Odessa (March 13th). The Bolsheviks, hard pressed by a simultaneous German offensive in Estonia, were forced (March 3rd) to conclude the Peace of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, and in it to oblige themselves to evacuate Ukraine, to recognize its peace with the Central Powers, and itself to conclude peace with the new people's republic. As German army commander and supreme commissioner for Ukraine was selected Field Marshal von Eichhorn, who extended the occupation onto the Crimean peninsula. The Central Rada, in which the Social Revolutionary Party held the majority, to counter the Bolshevik agitation among the peasants, had promised a thorough land reform at the expense of the large landowners, and thereby caused the hostility of the latter. Their opposition was supported by the Germans, and with their support on April 29th a coup was implemented, in the consequence of which the Rada was replaced by a dictatorship under German protection. The highest government authority was given to an esate owner and former general in Russian service, P. Skoropadskiy, who took on the title Hetman of Ukraine. Actual government in Ukraine now, for a period of time, was exercised by the Germans, who, because of the passive resistance of the peasants, never succeeded in exporting Ukrainian grain and other necessities, in the hope of which they had undertaken the Ukrainian intervention. Among the lower classes hatred against the Germans grew, and on July 31st vn Eichhorn fell victim to an assassination by revolver. Border conflicts with the Don Republic, established in January 1918 under General Krasnov as ataman, took place in the summer, and were settled by a treaty (August 7th) according to which the cities Rostov and Taganrog with environs were allocated to the Don Republic.
When in the fall of 1918 the defeat of the Central Powers became complete, and the German troops began to evacuate Ukraine, Skoropadskiy attempted (in November) to orient his policy on the victorious allies, and with this object appointed a new cabinet (under Gerbel), but shortly after he was toppled by the "National Unity Party" and on December 14th was forced to abdicate. Now again the Independent Ukrainian People's Republic was proclaimed, and a directory of 4 members was charged with its government, of which the author Vinnichenko, who prior to Skoropadskiy's coup had been president of the council of ministers, became president of the directory, and Petlyura the supreme commander over Ukraine's army. The new moderate socialis government immediately attempted to enter into diplomatic relations with both the allies, in the hope that Ukraine would be recognized by them, and represented at the peace conference in Paris, and with Soviet Rusia, where the Bolsheviks, after the departure of the Germans from Kharkov, again have made themselves master of the city, and began to show a threatening disposition. When the Bolsheviks reentered Kiev (January 28th 1919), the directory had to flee to Vinnitsa (in Podolia), and an Ukrainian Soviet Government under Bolshevik Rakovskiy was proclaimed on March 4th (it had since entered an intimate federal connection with the All-Russian Soviet Republic).
In the meantime the Ukrainians in Austria had not been inactive. After the defeat of the Central Powers, Emperor Karl had attempted to save the Habsburg monarchy by, in a manifest of October 16th 1918, grant all its nations the right to form autonomous state organizations in their territories, as part of a federative state. Several national states emerged, but none was interested in entering any federation. The Ukrainian National Association on October 19th in Lemberg decided to form an independent republic on Austria-Hungary's Ukrainian territory. Since Lemberg by a coup on November 1st was taken from the Poles, a "National Council" took over the administration of Galicia and on November 15th proclaimed the West Ukrainian People's Republic, comprising of the Ukrainians in Hungary, Eastern Galicia and the Bukovina. The Poles quickly expelled the Ukrainians from Lemberg and Przemysl, and under the pressure of their superior power, the unification of Eastern Galicia with the Russian Ukrainian Republic to form the Greater Ukrainian People's Republic was proclaimed [by the West Ukrainian People's Republic] on January 21st 1919, which thus should result in the unification of all Ukrainian lands; however the West Ukrainian government (under Holubovich) did not end her activities, which were more or less independent of the Ukrainian directory. Vinnichenko left the directory (February), and the republic's generalissimus Petlyura, who among others was addressed by the title hetman, now also formally became its leading figure. The seat of the directory moved first to Proskurov (in Podolia), and later to Rovno (in Volynia, in April), the West Ukrainian government resided in Stanislaviv (in Galicia), and its troops since January laid siege to Lemberg. In Rovno in May a new cabinet under Martos was formed, which declared their foremost task to be the realization of the unification of West Ukraine with the Ukrainian People's Republic, and which further spoke out against Bolshevik anarchy, and for a democratic land reform. An Ukrainian delegation was sent to Paris; it was represented in the highest council, but did not succeed in gaining recognition of Ukraine's independence by the allies.
The Ukrainians had to fight a difficult fright on two fronts, against the Poles and against the Bolsheviks, and they also were exposed to the permanent threat by Russian Anti-Bolshevist General Denikins campaign in southern Russia, long energetically supported by the allies. In Paris, Poland worked against the recognition of Ukraine's recognition, and Denikin's friends succeeded in spreading distrust of Petlyura among the leading men of the Entente, whom they described as a secret Bolshevik. In April 1919, from France Poland's army under General Haller, equipped there, was brought over to Poland. As their task was given fighting the Bolsheviks, but an important part of this army instead was sent to relieve Lemberg and to occupy he Western Ukrainian capital Stanislaviv. In the summer Petlyura undertook an energetic campaign against Kiev, which he entered on August 30th, as the Bolsheviks just before had been forced to evacuate the city, but Denikin's troops, who on July 2nd had expelled the Bolsheviks from Kharkov, almost immediately drove the Ukrainians from Kiev, and the attempt in September to establish an understanding with Denikin failed because of the latter's unacceptable demand to be given the supreme command even over the Ukrainian troops. In vain an Interallied Commission attempted o mediate between Petlyura and Denikin, the latter's continuance to plunder in Ukraine caused a large peasant rebellion under him, and on October 12th the Ukrainian directory formally declared war on him, declaring that his terrorism in Ukraine threatened as a backlash to result in a new Bolshevik conquest of the country. In the fall the Ukrainian cabinet was reorganised, under the lead of Mazepa, by which the burgherly element in the government was strengthened in some way. In Galicia the Entente first had attempted to mediate between Poles and Ukrainians, and therefore, for a while, forbidden Haller's continued march, but later the Polish government was given the Peace Conference's permission to "pacify" Eastern Galicia. After a bitter struggle the Ukrainians were forced to evacuate all of Eastern Galicia, and the "pacification" turned into a reckless Polonization, which according to Ukrainian description (see M. Morosenko, Polakkernes Pacifikation", Copenhagen 1919) shall have taken on the form of a war of extermination against the Ukrainian population there (see on the other side H. Grappin, La terreure ruthene en Galicie, Paris 1919). At the same time, Petlyura's moves against Denikin resulted in heavy losses, the greatest was the treasonable switch by General Tarnowski over to the enemy. Denikin took Shmerinka and large parts of Volynia, and Petlyura was forced to ask go to Poland to negotiate a solution with the government in Warsaw. (By the end of March 1920 he was still in Warsaw). In December 1919 the Ukrainian government only controlled souhern Volynia and western Podolia, as the Poles not only occupied Eastern Galicia, but even Kamenets-Podolskiy with environs. Denikin's progress in Ukraine in the meantime ended suddenly; in December he was forced to evacuate Kharkov, and since the Bolsheviks conquered Poltava and Kiev, and forced Denikin to an uncontrolled withdrawal toward the Black Sea coast, where in February-March 1920 he lost most of his old positions. New Ukrainian peasant rebellions made his position completely hopeless. In March 1920 he Ukrainian army reported progress against the Bolsheviks both in Podolia and in the government of Kiev, as well as near the Black Sea coast, and Rakovskiy's Ukrainian Soviet government therefore again has been forced to move back to Kharkov. The Ukrainian Republic has been recognized by Estonia and Latvia, and in 1920 is regarded to have good prospects to be recognized by Poland and Romania; the allied powers in the meantime have not yet determined their policy in the Ukrainian question.
[Flag] Ukraine's flag is composed of the national colours blue and gold in horizontal fields.
See the works of Antonovich and Drahomaniv listed in the article "Little Russians", Istoricheskiya pyesni malorusskavo naroda (2 vols., 1874-1875), V. Thomsen, Ryska rigets grundläggning genom skandinaverna, 1882, Evarnitskiy, Istoriya zaporozhkich Kozakov, 3 vols., 1892-1897, M. Hruschevskiy, Istoriya Ukrayiny-Rusy (8 vols., 1897-1913, vol.1 in German translation, Geschichte des ukrainischen Volkes, 1906, Otyerk istoriy ukrainskavo naroda, 3rd ed. 1911, and Die ukrainische Frage in historischer Entwicklung (1915), Yefimenko, Istoriya ukrayinskavo naroda (1906), Lipinsky, Z dziejow Ukrainy (1912), H. Jakobssohn, Russlands Entwicklung und die ukrainische Frage (anti-Ukrainian, Kassel 1916), St. von Smolka, Die reussische Welt (anti-Ukrainian, Vienna 1916), Stefan Rudnycky, Ukraina, Land und Volk (German trsl. of Ukr. original, 1916), M. Mychaylenko, Ukraine und Russland 1654-1914, Stockholm 1918, Materiyaly do ukrayinskoy etnologiy (issued in Lemberg since 1899, now 13 vols.), Ruthenische Revue, Wien 1903-1905, Ukrainische Rundschau, Wien since 1906, Ukrainische Nachrichten, Wien 1914-1917, St. Dnistrianskyj, L'Ukraine et la conference de la paix, 1919, M. Korduba, Le territoire et la population de l'Ukraine (the same year), L'Ukraine. Un aperçu sur son territoire, son peuple, ses conditions culturelles, ethnographiques, politiques et economiques (the same year), Memoire sur la Galicie (by Commission polonaise des travaux preparatoires au congres de la paix, the same year), and Ukrainarne, in Nationernas bibliotek, ed. by Ehrenpreis and A. Jensen, vol.IV, will be published in the fall of 1920.

source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg


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First posted on March 9th 2009

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