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First posted in July 2002. last revised on January 5th 2011

In the early Middle Ages, what is Belarus today formed part of Kievan Rus, and subsequent to the Tatar invasion of 1240, of Apanage Principalities. In the early 14th century the area was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, of which it formed part until the Polish Partitions of the late 18th century. From 1772/1795 until 1918 it formed part of the Russian Empire; a Belorussian Soviet Republic was founded in the course of the Russian Revolution; it joined the USSR in 1923, but had a separate seat in the League of Nations. With the disintegration of the USSR in 1991, Belarus became fully independent.

Belarus since 1991 . Belarus 1945-1991 . Belarus 1939-1945 . Belarus 1922-1939 . Belarus 1917-1922

Russian Empire, Governments Grodno, Minsk, Mogilev, Vitebsk, Vilna

Historical Atlas, Belarus

Country Profiles modern from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook Country : Belarus
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Belarus
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World, from BUBL
from Interesting WWW sites in and about Belarus, from SSEES
on History from Virtual Library History; from Virtual Library Women's History
Belarus : Culture and History, links from Slavophilia
Organizations Byelorussian Association of Historians, from Euroclio
Rogneda, the History Teachers?Association of Belarus, from Euroclio
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Institute of History
European Humanities University, Institute for Historical Research on Belarus (EHU moved from Minsk to Vilnius in 2004)
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from BBC News
from Radio Free Europe
from timelines.ws
Accounts of History General, Modern Notes from the History of Belarus, from Jauhen Reshatau
from Wikipedia
General, Historical
Specific Periods St. Kutrzeba, The rights of Russia to Lithuania and White-Ruthenia (1919), posted on Internet Archive
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Belarus; Country Report : Belarus, from Polity IV
For the Record 2000 : Belarus, from UN Human Rights System
Article Politics of Belarus, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Belarus
Article Economy of Belarus, from Wikipedia
Social History
Ethnography Languages of Belarus, from Ethnologue
Assessment for Poles in Belarus, from CIDCM
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Belarus
Religion Via Crucis. 450 Years of Protestantism in Belarus, in English / Belarussian / Russian
History of the (Greek Catholic) Byelorussian Church, from Eastern Catholic Pastoral Association of Southern California
Jewish Belarus
The Jewish Virtual History Tour : Belarus; Belarus, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Patron Saint Index : Belarus
Catholic Church in Republic of Belarus, from GCatholic
History of Regions
Local History History of Minsk, from Belarus Guide; from Wikipedia
History of Vitebsk, from Wikipedia
History of Mogilev, from Wikipedia
Institutions Article Radio Station Belarus, from Wikipedia
Postal History of Belarus, from L'Europe de la Poste vers 1860, posted by Roland Goutay and Didier Lebouc, in French
Belarus, from Airline History
Structurae : Belarus
Biographies Chinese Ambassadors to Byelorussia, from PRC MOFA
Others Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Belarus
Category : Disasters in Belarus, from Wikipedia
Category : Sport in Belarus; Article Belarus at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
Alexandra Goujon, Case Studies : Kurapaty (1937-1941): NKVD Mass Killings in Soviet Belarus , from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Bishops
Lists of Ambassadors
Statistical Data Responsible Institution National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Belarus, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Historical Abortion Statistics - Belarus, from Johnston's Archive
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Federal Reserve (U.S.) : Foreign Exchange Rates, Historic
Inflation Rates Historical Inflation Rates, from Index Mundi, since 2000
Election Results Election Results, from Psephos (since 2001); from IFES Election Guide (since 2000); Belarus, from Elections and Electoral Systems
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes Flare, Union List of Official Gazettes, Belarus
Entire Newspapers, Magazines
Historical Newspaper Articless
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Online Yearbooks - Belarus Entries
Propaganda Films
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Russian State Photo Archive
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Belarus
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports, scroll down
Airline Timetable Images : Belarus
Archival Deposits Russia - Belarus - Ukraine - Uzbekistan Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Anna M. Bourguina, Michael Jakobson, Guide to the Boris I. Nicolaevsky collection in the Hoover Institution archives, 1989, GB
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Belarus, from ILO, 48 docs. since 1954
Internet Law Library : Belarus
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections
Document Collections European History Primary Sources : Belarus
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Map Agencies : Ukraine : State Committee on Land Resources Geodesy and Cartography BELGEODESY (Byelorussian National Topographic and Geodetic Enterprise), Minsk
collections click here
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Belarus
U.S. Army Map Service, Topographical Maps Eastern Europe 1:250,000, PCL, UTexas
U.S. National Imagery and Mapping Agency, Topographical Maps Russia 1:250,000, PCL, UTexas
Belarus Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Maps of the History of Belarus, Old Maps of Belarus, Wikimedia Commons
Belarus, hindsight
Belarus, contemporary Belarus Ethnographical Map 1953, from Pravapis
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles : Governments : Grodno, Minsk, Mogilev, Vitebsk, Cities Brest-Litovsk, Grodno, Homel, Minsk, Mogilev, Pinsk, Vitebsk, from EB 1911
Articles Weissrussen, Weissrussland, Grodno, Homel, Minsk, Mohilew, Pinsk, Witebsk, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Diocese of Minsk, Mohileff, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Articles Brest-Litovsk, Grodno, Homel, Minsk, Moghilef, Pinsk, Vitebsk, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 edition
Geographical Weiss-Russland, p.602 in vol.2 of Neue Europ?sche Erdbeschreibung nach den Friedensschl?sen von 1800 bis 1802, in German, GB
Weissrussland, pp.153-154 in F.H. Ungewitter, Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde, 1859, in German, GB
Ethnological Races : White Russians, p.15 in J.R. Morell, Russia as it is: its court, its government, and its people, 1854, GB
White Russians, pp.320-321 in R.G. Latham, The native races of the Russian empire, 1856, GB
Parliamentary Debates
Historic Tour Guides, Travelogues
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives Archives of Belarus
The Belarusian State Archives of Films, Photographs and Sound Recordings
Monuments Tentative List : Belarus, World Heritage List, scroll down for Belarus; from UNESCO World Heritage
Libraries National Library of Belarus
Libraries in Belarus, from LibDex, 5 entries
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Belarus, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Belarus Coins, from Don's World Coin Gallery

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Belarus survey of bibliographies National Bibliography of Belarus, from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University Library
bibliographic database EBSEES (European Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies)
Bibliographieportal zur Geschichte Ostmitteleuropas - LitDok Ostmitteleuropa
English Language (Abstracts of Russian Language) Dissertations from the CIS
general bibliographies pp.229-294 in Jan Zaprudnik, Historical Dictionary of Belarus, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Library R 947.8 FZ35h
Belarus Miscellany : General Books about Belarus, including its History 2010
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies
serial publications The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Institute of History, Publications
general bibliographies
Russia (Belarus) entries
Historia Russiae, pp.498-502 in vol.8 of J.D. Reuss, Repertorium commentationum a societatibus litterariis editarum, 1810, GB
The Russians, no.261-2004 in R.J. Kerner, Slavic Europe; a selected bibliography in the Western European languages, comprising history, languages and literatures, 1918, IA
Online Libraries general Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; e-corpus
on Belarus
Online Journals Links
full text online Cahiers du Monde Russe 1959-2008, Persee
Russia mediaevalis 1973-, BSB
Revue des Etudes Slaves 1921-2005, Persee
Jahrbücher für die Geschichte Osteuropas 1936-2006, BSB
Contents Online
General Accounts Adrian Webb, The Longman Companion to Central and Eastern Europe since 1919, London etc.: Longman 2002 [G]
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionary Jan Zaprudnik, Historical Dictionary of Belarus, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1998
Joseph L. Wieczynski, The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet History, vols. 10, 23, 31, 33, 37 [G]

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