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First posted on February 15th 2009, last revised on March 6th 2010

19th Century Encyclopedias on Circassia

Countries home to communities of Circassian refugees : Ottoman Empire, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Kosovo, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine 1917-1948, Israel

Successor Republics : Adygeya, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachai-Cherkessia

For the time (1917) 1922-1991 see USSR
For the time 1864-1917, see Russian Empire

Students' Paper : Kim, Hong, The History of Crimea and Circassia as Portrayed in 19th Century Encyclopedias (2009)

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Article Circassia, from Wikipedia; from UNPO
Links, General Books & Links, from Circassian World; from Genocide Watch
Timelines A Brief Chronology of Circassian History (-1622), from History Forum
Accounts of History General Accounts Article Circassia, from Wikipedia
Circassian History, by Edris Abzakh
History of Circassians, from Circassian World
L. Moser, The Caucasus and its people, with a brief history of their wars, 1856, GB
Specific Periods
Military Article : Russian-Circassian War, from Wikipedia
Russian-Circassian War 1763-1864, from Circassian World
Economy & Finances Circassia, pp.360- in vol.1 of : H.A.S. Dearborn, A memoir on the commerce and navigation of the Black Sea and the Tade and Maritime Geography of Turkey and Egypt, 1819, GB
Social History
Ethnography The Circassian Genocide, from Circassian World; Circassian Genocide Project;
S.A.S.I. Rosser-Owen, The 'First Circassian Exodus' to he Ottoman Empire 1858-1867, and the Ottoman Response, Based on Contemporary British Observers, thesis 2007
A. Kaya, Circassian Diaspora in Turkey : Stereotypes, Prejudices and Ethnic elations, from Circassian World; Turkey : Circassian Minority Asserts its Identity, from Genocide Watch
The Circassians in Jordan and Syria, from Circassian World
Circassians in Syria, from Adyghe Ektob; Syria - Information on the Circassian Tribe, from UNHCR
The Circassians in Jordan, by A. Jaimoukha
Circassian Mamluks (1382-1517), from Circassian World
The Circassians in Israel, from Circassian World
The Circassians in Kosovo Polje in the Yugoslav Federation, by A. Jaimoukha
Article Circassian Language, from Wikipedia; from Circassian World, by A. Jaimoukha
Article Circassians, from Wikipedia
Local History

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
Newspaper, Magazine Articles (Articles) Declaration of Circassian Independence, addressed to the Courts of Europe, pp.187-, State and Prospects of Circassia, pp.231-, State and Prospects of Circassia, pp.297-, State and Prospects of Circassia, pp.370-, State and Prospects of Circassia, pp.478-, in vol.1 of The Portfolio, or, a collection of state papers: illustrative of the History of our Times, 1836, GB
Affairs of Circassia, Persia and Turkey, pp.369-, Effect of "The Portfolio" on the Populations of Turkey, Circassia and Georgia, pp.614-, in vol.4 of The Portfolio, or, a collection of state papers: illustrative of the History of our Times, 1836, GB
Report from Circassia, pp.15-, Report from Circassia, pp.93-, Despatch from Count Nesselrode to M. Boutenieff, July 19th 1836, on the Blockade of Circassia, pp.313-, Russia's Pretensions to Circassia Canvassed. Extent, Character, and Object of her latest Outrage, pp.403-, Russia's subsequent Aggressions, pp.436-, Farther Observations on the Pretensions of Russia to the Territory southward of the Kuban, pp.488-, in : vol.5 of The Portfolio, or, a collection of state papers: illustrative of the History of our Times, 1837, GB
The Protocol of April 4, 1826, a Bar to Russia's Claim on Circassia, pp.1-, Sketch of the Circassian Coast, pp.253-, In the Schooner Vixen, on the Coast of Circassia, pp.262-, National Independence of Circassia, pp.305-, in vol.6 of The Portfolio, or, a collection of state papers: illustrative of the History of our Times, 1837, GB
The Present State of Circassia, Invasion of Circassia by the Russians, Circassia, pp.371- in Annual Register for 1836, Volume 78, GB
Circassia, pp.105- in : The Asiatic journal and monthly register for British and foreign India, China and Australasia vol.XXIII May-Aug. 1837, GB
Circassia, pt.1, pp.636- pt.2, pp.747- in : Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Volume 42, 1837, GB
Spencer's Travels in Circassia and Krim Tartary and the Chevalier Taitbout de Marigny's Three Voyages to the Coast of Circassia, pp.603- in : Tait's Edinburgh magazine, Oct. 1837, GB
Three Voyages in the Black Sea to the Coast of Circassia. By Chev. T. de Marigny. 1837, pp.385- in The Gentleman's magazine, Volume 8, 1837, GB
Foreign Miscellany : Circassia, pp.373- in : Army and Navy chronicle, Volumes 4-5 ed. by B. Homans, 1837, GB
Russia. The Circassians, pp.387- in : A.W.A. Pollock, The United service magazine, Volume 26, 1838, GB
Russia in Reference to Circassia, Persia and India, pp.342- in Parbury's oriental herald and colonial intelligencer, vol.2, July to December, 1838, GB
Travels in Circassia (Spencer), pp.286- in : The New monthly magazine and Humorist, part 2, 1839, GB
Review of Spencer 1836 in : The London quarterly review, Volume 5; Volume 95, 1837, GB
Image Databanks
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws
Document Collections The Secret of Russia in the Caspian and Euxine : The Circassian War as Affecting the Insurrection in Poland, 1863, GB
Individual Documents Letter XIV : to Sala Tircheni Ermin, Superintendant of the Royal Arsenal in Constantinople (reference to Circassia), in : G.P. Marana, The eight volumes of letters writ by a Turkish spy, volume 4, 1753, GB
Historical Maps Circassia 1841, from Finnosforum
Circassia 1840, from Circassian World
Circassia 1916, from Trophyroom Books
Map : Ethnolinguistic Groups in the Caucasus Region, from A Brief Chronology of Circassian History
Map of Cherkessia 1830, from Justice for North Caucasus
Map : Caucasus Region 2006, from Caucasus Spiders
Encyclopedia Entries
general Article Circassia, from EB 1911
Article Tscherkessen, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Circassia, pp.205- in : Encyclopaedia Americana, vol.3, 1830
economic In der Provinz Tscherkessien, p.183 in : K.S.A. Richter, Handelsgeographie oder Lehrbuch der Erdbeschreibung, 1829, in German, GB
geographic Circassie, pp.286-290 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, 1643, in French, GB
Circassia, pp.87- in : J. Bell, A system of geography, popular and scientific, vol.4, 1836, GB
Sketches of Circassia, pp.136-, Circassia and Circassians, pp.335- in : Tales of travellers: or, A view of the world, vol.1, 1838
Entry : Circassia, pp.326-327, in : T.G. Smoillett, The Present State of the World, vol.7 1768, posted on Google Books
The Circassians, pp.97- in : The Percy anecdotes: original and select, Volume 20, 1826, GB
(The Circassians), pp.506- in S. Morewood, A philosophical and statistical history of the inventions and customes of ancient and modern nations in the manufacture and use of inebriating liquors .. 1838, GB
Circassia and Georgia, 1828 edition pp.91-, 1838 edition, pp.134- in : W.Ch. Woodbridge, Rudiments of geography, on a new plan, GB
Circassia, pp.609- in G.N. Wright, A new and comprehensive gazetteer, Volume 2 : BID-DON (out of 4), 1835; has numerous entries on locations in Circassia in the same volume; vol.1, 1834, vol.3 1836, vol.4, 1837, vol.5 (suppl.) 1838, GB
Circassia, pp.542- in : The London general gazetteer, or Geographical dictionary, 1825, GB
Circassia p.250 in W. Hughes, A manual of geography, 1861, GB
The History of Russia. The Circassians, in : G. Sale, An universal history: from the earliest accounts to the present time, Volume 35, 1783, GB
Tscherkessien, in : G. Hassel, Vollständige und neueste Erdbeschreibung des Russischen Reiches in Asia nebst Dshagatai, 1821, in German, GB
Circassia, p.865 in W. Hurd, A new universal history of the religious rites, ceremonies and customs, of the whole world, and a complete and impartial view of all the religions in the various nations of the universe, both ancient and modern, 5th ed. 1814, GB
historical Circassie, p.6 in vol.9 of L.P. Anquetil, Précis de l'Histoire Universelle ou Tableau historique présentant les vicissitudes des Nations ... , 1799, in French, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Ship Vixen, pp.4969- in : The Mirror of Parliament for the First Session of the Thirteenth Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland .. Nov. 15 1837 - August 16 1838, 2nd Series Volume 6, 1838
Trade with Circassia, p.1516 in : The Mirror of Parliament Session 1839 vol.2
Increase of the Navy (reference to Circassia), pp.744- in : The Mirror of Parliament for the First Session of the Thirteenth Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland .. Nov. 15 1837 - August 16 1838, 2nd Series Vol.1, 1838
Travelogues E. Spencer, Travels in Circassia, Krim-Tartary etc., 1836, GB
E. Spencer, Travels in Circassia, Krim Tartary, &c (1837), vol.1, vol.2, IA
E. Spencer, Turkey, Russia, the Black sea, and Circassia (1855), posted on IA
T. de Marigny, Three voyages in the Black Sea to the coast of Circassia, 1837, GB
E.T. de Marigny, Three Voyages in the Black Sea to the Coast of Circassia (1837), posted on IA
G.L. Ditson, Circassia, or, A tour to the Caucasus (1850), posted on IA
J.St. Bell, Journal of a residence in Circassia during the years 1837, 1838, and 1839 (1840), vol.1 , vol.2, posted on IA
R. Lyall, Travels in Russia, the Krimea, the Caucasus, and Georgia, vol.1 1825, vol.2, 1825, GB
R. Wilbraham, Travels in the Trans-Caucasian provinces of Russia, and along the southern shore of the Lakes Van and Urumiah, in the Autumn and Winter of 1837, 1839, GB
Institutions Archives
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of the Circassian People, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes

Bibliography Search ISBN Database for Circassia ..
RHS Bibliography, search for Circassia
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Circassia
Online Journals full text online Journal of Central Asian and Caucasian Studies 2006-
Circassian Journal 2009-
Table of Contents
History of the Caucasus
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionary Articles : Circassia pp.127-130, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]

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