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First posted on April 19th 2004, last revised on September 1st 2010







The CRIMEAN KHANATE emerged in 1438/1441 by breaking away from the Khanat of the Golden Horde. In 1478 it accepted the protection of the Ottoman Empire. Capital Bakhchisaray, religion Islam. The Crimean Tatars frequently undertook raids into the adjacent territories of the Grand Duchy of Muscovy (since 1547 Russian Empire) and of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in response to which in the borderland the Cossack Hosts formed. In 1774 the Ottoman Empire had to recognize the 'independence' of the Crimean Khanate; in 1783 the Crimean Khanate was conquered and annexed by the Russian Empire; its territory was to become Taurida Gubernia.
Following the Russian Revolution Taurida Gubernia was split; the peninsula was to form the Crimean ASSR (within the RSFSR) 1921-1945, changed into Crimean AO 1945-1954. In 1954 the Crimean AO was ceded by the RSFSR to Ukrainian SSR.
The mainland parts of Taurida Gubernia in 1921 were annexed by the newly-formed Ukrainian SSR.
Upon the dissolution of the USSR at the end of 1991, Ukraine became independent.

The territory of the Crimean Khanate was thinly populated, as the CRIMEAN TATARS had lived a lifestyle of warlike pastoral nomads. The Russian conquest opened the country up for the settlement of Russians and Christian immigrant settlers from Germany and from the Christian regions of the Balkan peninsula. The Russians established new administrative centers (Simferopol), causing the traditional, Tatar center of Bakhchisaray to decline. The Tatar population had to adjust their lifestyle to the new reality, giving up on their raids and accepting restrictions on the usage of the steppe as pasture.
While the non-Tatar population grew steadily, the Tatar population was marginalized and declined, as there were several waves of Tatar emigrations (to the Ottoman Empire). The Crimea repeatedly was the site of military conflicts, during the Crimean War 1853-1856, in WW I (1918) and the subsequent Russian Civil War (1918-1920) and in WW II (1941-1944). The belligerents attempted to get the Crimean Tatars choose their side, and the loyalty of the Crimean Tatars to the state was questioned, which after the conflict resulted in repressive policy causing an exodus (Crimean War) or in the mass deportation ordered by Stalin in 1944.
The Crimean Tatars first became an ethnic minority in what used to be their land, in 1944 were collectively deported to Uzbekistan, where not permitted to return to the Crimea in 1957 (when other ethnicities deported in 1943/1944 were given such permission) and only could return from the implementation of Perestroika onward, 1985ff. Crimean Tatar organizations have striven to maintain their culture and identity.

Crimea until 1478
Crimea 1478-1584 . Ottoman Empire
Crimea 1584-1696 . Ottoman Empire
Crimea 1696-1774 . Ottoman Empire
Crimea 1774-1783
Crimea 1783-1853 . Taurida Gubernia . Russian Empire
Crimea 1853-1889 . Taurida Gubernia . Russian Empire
Crimea 1889-1917 . Taurida Gubernia . Russian Empire
Crimea 1917-1921 . Ukraine
Crimea 1921-1944 . Ukraine . USSR
Crimea 1944-1991 . Ukraine . USSR
Crimea since 1991 . Ukraine

For the History 1783-1917 see also History of Russia

Timelines : Crimean Tatars, Blue / Golden Horde, Russian Crimea
Historic Encyclopedias : Crimea 1857-1884
Historical Atlas : Crimean Tatars, Blue / Golden Horde
List of Wars, Crimean Tatars Page


Students' Paper : Kim, Hong, The History of Crimea and Circassia as Portrayed in 19th Century Encyclopedias (2009)







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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Articles : Crimea, Crimean Khanate, from Wikipedia
Crimean Khanate 1438-1783, from Oz Turkler
Historical G. le Vasseur, Beschreibung der Ukraine, der Krim, und deren Einwohner, 1780, German trsl. of French or., GB
H.E. Thunmann, Beschryving van de Krim, 1786, in Dutch, GB
F. von Tott, Nachrichten von den Türken und Tataren, vol.1, 1787, vol.2, 1788, in German, GB
A. Neilson, The Crimea: its towns, inhabitants, and social customs , 1855, GB
Links General Category : Crimea, Crimean Tatar People from Wikipedia
Karaim (Crimean Tatar) Homepage, from SOTA
Links, from Tatar.net
on History Category : Crimean Khanate, from Wikipedia
Organizations International Committee for Crimea
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Crimean Branch of the Institute of Archaeology
Underwater Archaeology Research and Training Center of Kiev University, Underwater Archaeology of the Black Sea : Crimean Coastal Survey 1997
Historical Dictionary
Timelines Chronology for Crimean Tatars in Ukraine, from Minorities at Risk (1917-)
Accounts of History General, Modern Alan W. Fisher, The Crimean Tatars, 1978, GB
History of the Crimea, from Black Sea Travel
General, Historic J. de Guignes, Histoire generale des Huns, des Turcs, des Mongols et des autres Tartares vol.1 pt.1, 1756, vol.1 pt.2, 1756, vol.2, 1756, vol.3, 1757, vol.4, 1758, vol.5, 1758, in French, GB
F. Becattini, Storia della Crimea, piccola Tartaria, 1785, in Italian, GB
G. Castelnau, Essai sur l'histoire ancienne et moderne de la nouvelle Russie, vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, 1827, in French, GB
H.H. Howorth, History of the Mongols: from the 9th to the 19th century, pt.2.2 : The So-Called Tartars of Russia and Central Asia, 1830, GB
J. Hammer-Purgstall, Geschichte der Chane der Krim unter Osmanischer Herrschaft , 1836, in German, GB
Th. Milner, The Crimea, its Ancient and Modern History, 1855, GB
W.B. Barker, A short historical account of the Crimea, 1855, GB
A. Grant, An historical sketch of the Crimea , 1855, GB
H. Sauppe, Skizzen aus der Geschichte der Krim, 1855, in German, GB
Th. Mundt, Der Kampf um das schwarze Meer: historische Darstellungen aus der Geschichte, 1855, in German, GB
Specific Periods Articles : Crimean Khanate, Crimean ASSR, Crimean Oblast, Deportation of the Crimean Tatars, from Wikipedia
F. von Erdmann, Vollstaendige Uebersicht der aeltesten tuerkishcen, tatarischen und mogholischen Voelkerstaemme nach Raschid-ud-Din's Vorgange, 1841, in German, GB
Administration Category : Administrative Division of Crimea, from Wikipedia
Articles : Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People, Supreme Council of Crimea (Verkhovna Rada), from Wikipedia
Military History
Economy & Finances H.A.S. Dearborn, A Memoir on the Commerce and Navigation of the Black Sea, and the Trade and Maritime Geography of Turkey and Egypt, vol.1, vol.2, 1819, GB
Ethnography Articles Crimean Tatar Language, Crimean Tatars, from Wikipedia
Crimean Tatars, from World Culture Encyclopedia
Assessment for Crimean Tatars in Ukraine, from Minorities at Risk
Crimean Tatar, from Ethnologue
Crimean Tatars, Crimean Jews (Krymchaks), from The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire
Crimean Tatars and Noghais in Turkey, by Henryk Jankowski, posted by Int'l Committee for Crimea
Crimean Tatars, from Kresy
Religion The Eparchy of Simferopol and Crimea, from Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Islamic Cultural Identity of Crimean Tatar People- a resource for Heritage Tourism.
D.A. Chwolson, Achtzehn hebräische Grabschriften aus der Krim, 1865, in German, GB
Geschichte des Karäerthums, J. Fürst, vol.3 : 1575-1865, 1869, in German, GB
Article : Crimean Karaites, from Wikipedia
History of Regions
Local History Sevastopol History, from Sevastopol.org
Articles : Bakhchisaray : History, Kerch : History, Perekop, Sevastopol : History, Simferopol : History, Sudak : History (Kaffa), Yalta : History, Yevpatoria : History (Eupatoria), from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions
Culture Crimean Tatar Architecture, from ICC Crimea
Biographies Th. Mundt, Krim Girai, Khan of the Crimea, 1856, trsl. from German, GB
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Crimea, from World Statesmen
List of Khans of the Crimean Tatars, from The Proceedings of the Friesian School
List of Crimean Khans, from Wikipedia
Population Figures
Documents Historical Newspapers
Historical Newspaper Articles An Account of the Krim, or Crimea, pp.644-648, 847-851 in vol.60 of The Gentleman's magazine, 1786, GB
An Account of the Crimea, pp.120-134 in vol.28 of Annual Register, 1786, GB
Die Auswanderung der Krim-Tataren, p.147 in vol.14 of Allgemeine Auswanderungs-Zeitung, 1860, in German, GB
Image Databanks Ethnic Costumes : Turks and Tatars who live in Romania, from Romanian Museum
Bundesarchiv : B 145 Bild-F016218-0029A, Krim, Panzerzug, Besichtigung Hans v. Ahlfen, B 145 Bild-F016218-0033A, Krim, Panzerzug, Besichtigung Hans v. Ahlfen, N 1603 Bild-067, Krim, Simferopol, Kameramann im PKW, N 1603 Bild-079, Krim, Simferopol, Soldaten, deutsche Wegweiser, B 145 Bild-F016213-0015, Krim, Feodosija, Hans v. Ahlfen mit Offizieren, Bundesarchiv N 1603 Bild-100, Russland, Krim, Erholung am Strand, posted by Wikimedia Commons
Archive Deposits National Archives (UK) : Looking for records of the Crimean War
Archives Nationales d'Outre-Mer, search IREL for Crimee
Search Russian Archives Online for Crimea
Document Collections
Historical Maps Little Tartary 1663, from Duval Maps
Southern Russia 1757 (de Vaugondy), from Heritage Antique Maps
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Maps : Europe in the Year 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, from Euratlas
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article : Kleine Tartarey. pp.39-42 in vol.42 of Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon Aller Wissenschafften und Künste (Zedler), 1744, in German, GB
Article : Tartars, Crim, pp.151-152 in vol.22 of Encyclopaedia Perthensis, 1816, GB
Articles : Tatarei, Tataren, p.61 in vol.11 of Allgemeine deutsche Real-Encyklopädie für die gebildeten Stände, 1827, in German, GB
Articles : Tatarei, Tataren, pp.737-739 in Wigand's Conversations-Lexikon fur alle Stände, 1851, in German, GB
Article : Tataren, in Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, in German, posted by Zeno
Article : Tataren, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek
Article : Tatars, from EB 1911, posted by Classic Encyclopedia
Religious Article : Crimea, Krimchaks, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Economic Du commerce de Pelleteries ou Fourures que se transportent a Constantinople, de Moscovie, de Natolie, de Caffa, Dazac et de Krim, Ville capitale de la Tartarie, pp.627-630 in vol. 1 of J.S. de Bruslons, Le Parfait Negociant, 1726, in French, GB
Commerce de Turquie et du Levant : Caffa, pp.1034-1039 in vol.5 of J.S. de Brulons, Dictionnaire universel de commerce, 1765, in French, GB
Of the Levant Trade and that of Barbary, pp.614-619 in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva: or, The merchant's directory, 6th ed. 1773, GB
Article : Krim, pp.409-479 in vol.53 of J.G. Krünitz, Oeconomische Encyclopädie, 1791, in German, GB
Geographical N.S. Vsevolozhskij, Dictionnaire geographique-historique de l'empire de Russie, vol.1, vol.2, 1823, in French, GB
Entry : Little Tartary, pp.183-185 in Geography anatomiz'd: or, the geographical grammar, 1737, GB
Article : Crimea, p.231 in R. Brookes, The London General Gazetteer, 1838, GB
Ethnological Die Tataren, pp.63-66 in Liebe, Heirathen und Ehestand verschiedener wilder und halbwilder Völker, 1816, in German, GB
Die Tataren, pp.764-765 in vol.4 of W. Wachsmuth, Europaeische Sittengeschichte, 1837, in German, GB
The Pure Tatars, p.15 in R. Phillips, A geographical view of the world, embracing the manners, customs, and .., 1838, GB
Tataren, pp.35-37 in R. Krebel, Volksmedicin und Volksmittel verschiedener Völkerstämme Russlands, 1858, in German, GB
Historical Treats of Crim and of Little Tartary and of Oczakov, or Budziack Tartary, pp.510-514 in vol.1 of Th, Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
Kipjak, and Krim Tartary, pp.113-117 in vol.5 of The modern part of an universal history,, 1759, GB
La petite Tartarie, pp.10-20 in vol.9 of F.M. de Marsy et al., Histoire moderne des Chinois, des Japonnois, des Indiens, des Persanes, des Turcs, des Russiens et des Americains, 1769, in French, GB
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues E. Craven, A journey through the Crimea to Constantinople, 1789, GB
M. & M. Guthrie, A tour, performed in the years 1795-6, through the Taurida, or Crimea, 1802, GB
J. Chr. von Struve, Travels in the Crimea: a history of the embassy from Petersburg to Constantinople, 1802, GB
M. Holderness, Journey from Riga to the Crimea, 1827, GB
J. Webster, Travels through the Crimea, Turkey and Egypt performed during the years 1825-1828 vol.1 1830, vol.2 1830, GB
E. Spencer, Travels in Circassia, Krim-tartary, &c, vol.1, vol.2, 1839, GB
X. & A. Hommaire de Hell, Travels in the steppes of the Caspian Sea, the Crimea, the Caucasus, &c , 1847, GB
J.G. Kohl, Reisen in Südrussland. Pt.2 : Die Krim und Bessarabien, 1847, in German, GB
Ch.H. Scott, The Baltic, the Black Sea, and the Crimea, Comprising Travels in Russia ..., 1854, GB
K.H.E. Koch, The Crimea and Odessa : journal of a tour, with an account of the climate and vegetation, 1855, GB
K.H.E. Koch, The Crimea : with a visit to Odessa, 1855, GB
H.D. Seymour, Russia on the Black Sea and Sea of Azof: being a narrative of travels in the Crimea and bordering Provinces, 1855, GB
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives State Archive in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, from ArcheoBiblioBase; State Archive in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (official site)
State Archives of Sevastopol City
ArcheoBiblioBase (Russian Archives listed)
Musea British Museum : The Berthier-Delagarde Collection of Crimean Jewellery in the British Museum and Related Material
The Russian Museum of Ethnography : Caucasus and Crimea
Museum of North-Western Crimea, Kara-Tobe; Panorama Museum Sevastopol
Monuments Khan Palace in Bakhchisaray, from Bakhchisaray Historical & Cultural State Preserve
Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, of the Crimean Tatars, from FOTW
Coins Odessa Numismatics Museum, Coins of Golden Horde and Crimean Khanat
Search Coin Archives for Crimea
The Early Mongol Coins of the Crimea : Ozbek Khan, 712-742 A.H. / 1312-1342 A.D.
Qrim Mint, from The Successors of Chingiz Khan and their Coins, by Konstantin Khiromov

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on the Crimea / the Crimean Tatars Recent Publications on the Crimean Tatars, from International Committee for Crimea
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
Country Specific
Online Journals full text online Turkistan Newsletter, from SOTA
General Accounts Alan W. Fisher, The Crimean Tatars, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press (1978) 1987, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.717 F553c
Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, Geschichte der Khane der Krim (History of the Khans of the Crimea), Amsterdam : (1856) Philo Press 1970 [G}
Specific Topics H.J. Kornrumpf, Zwei weniger bekannte Islamische Denkmäler in Bulgarien (1971) (Two less known Muslimic monuments in Bulgaria; one of them a Sarai of the Khans of the Crimean Tatars in Varbica), in : Analecta Isisiana LV, Istanbul : Isis 2001, pp.11-20, in German [G]
H.J. Kornrumpf, Südrussland und die Krim um 1740 (1989) (Southern Russia and the Crimea c. 1740), in : Analecta Isisiana LV, Istanbul : Isis 2001, pp.157-176, in German [G]
Historical Dictionary Articles : Crimea pp.137-140, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]