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Livonia Grand Duchy of Lithuania
First posted on August 24th 2006, last revised on December 15th 2011

Political History . The Duchy of Muscovy emerged as a principality of Kievan Rus. The Kipchak Tatar conquest of Kiev in 1240 destroyed the bracket which held Kievan Rus together, turning the individual principalities of the former into vassall states of the Kipchak Tatar Khanate (the Khanate of the Golden Horde).
In the Battle of Kulikovo (1380) the Grand Duchy of Muscovy threw of the Tatar yoke. During and after the disintegration of the Kipchak Tatar Khanate 1440-1480, Muscovy began a policy of expansion, uniting the Russian lands (except for those under the Grand Duchy of Lithuania) under her rule; the Republic of Novgorod was annexed in 1478.
In 1547, Ivan the Terrible (in Russia called Ivan the Great) had himself crowned Czar of all the Russias, thus creating the Russian Empire. In 1552, Kazan Khanate was conquered and annexed, in 1556 Astrakhan Khanate annexed, in 1584 Sibir Khanate conquered.

Alternative Titles . Since 1547, Czardom oo all the Russias (plural), a change which was not immediately recognized internationally. Especially reluctant in the recognition was the Rzeczpospolita (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). Contemporary non-Russian language historical sources continue to refer to the country as Muscovy, rather consistently throughout the 17th century, and in some cases far into the 18th century. For this reason, below sources up to the ascent of Peter the Great to the Russian throne are also listed here.
The Wikipedia claims the correct title to be : Grand Duchy of Moscow.

Church History . Since 988 Orthodox Christianity official religion. When Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Metropolitanate of Moscow claimed autokephalous status for the Russian Orthodox Church. It claimed to be in charge of the entire Russian Orthodox Church (which included areas of modern Ukraine and Belarus, at that time part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania); a claim at that time rejected by Lithuania and her successor, the Rzeczpospolita.

Historical Atlas, Russian Empire, Europe Page

Students' Paper : Kim, Jae Hee, History of Polish-Russian/Soviet Relations (2009)

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Country Profiles Current Articles : Grand Duchy of Moscow, from Wikipedia
Historical A. Possevino, Moscovia, 1587, in Latin, GB
A. Possevino, Commentarii della Moscovia, 1610, in Italian, GB
Officina Elzeviriana, Russia seu Moscovia itemque Tartaria commentario topographico atque politico, 1630, in Latin, GB
G. Fletcher, Government of the emperour of Muscovia, 1643, GB
J. Crull, A. Roper, The Antient and Present State of Muscovy, 1698, GB
F. de la Neuville, Relation curieuse et nouvelle de Moscovie, 1699, in French, GB
Links, on History Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Organizations Institute of History, Russian Academy of Sciences, from FEEFHS
Russian Historical Society, from St. Petersburg Encyclopedia
Early Slavic Studies Association
Historical Dictionary Book of Life : Russia -- Sixteenth Century Terms in Relation to Muscovy
Rusnet Encyclopedia
Category : History of Moscow, from Wikipedia
Timelines of Russia Timelines, Russia to 1910, from timelines.ws
Timelines of Muscovy
Accounts of History Russia modern Library of Congress, Country Studies : (former) Soviet Union
Russian History, from Bucknell
A History of Russia, from Xenohistorian
Russian History on the Web, from russianhistory.org
Russia historical W. Tooke, History of Russia : from the Foundation of the Monarchy by Rurik, to the Accession of Catherine the Second, vol.1, 1800, GB
A.L. Herrmann, Die Geschichte Russlands, 1826, in German, GB
N.M. Karamsin, Geschichte Russlands, vol.1 : Vom Ursprung des Staates bus Dmitri Donskoi, 1362, 1828, vol.2 : Von Dmitri Donskoi bis auf Johann IV., 1831, in German, GB
Ph.P. Segur, History of Russia and of Peter the Great, 1829, GB
Th. Willcocks, History of Russia, 1832, GB
Ph.C. Strahl, E.A. Herrmann, Geschichte des Russichen Staates, vol.1, 1832, vol.2, 1839, vol.3, 1846, vol.4, 1849, vol.5, 1853, vol.6, 1860, vol.7, 1866, in German, GB
R. Bell, A history of Russia, vol.1, 1836, vol.2, 1836, vol.3, 1838, GB
N.G. Ustrialov, Die Geschichte Russlands, 1840, in German, GB
W.K. Kelly, The history of Russia : from the earliest period to the present vol.1, 1854, vol.2, 1855, GB
A. Rabbe, The History of Russia, 1854, GB
A.F.L.M. Haxthausen-Abbenburg, The Russian Empire, its People, Institutions, and Resources (1856), vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
H. Tyrell, History of the Russian Empire: from its Foundation, by Ruric the Pirate, to the Accession of the Emperor Alexander II (1859), posted on Internet Archive
Saki, The Rise of the Russian Empire (1900), posted on Internet Archive
W.R. Anderson, Sketches of the History and Present State of the Russian Empire ... with politcal and personal memoirs of the imperial court (1915), posted on Internet Archive
Muscovy, general Articles : Grand Duchy of Moscow, from Wikipedia
J. Crull, A. Roper, The Antient and Present State of Muscovy, 1698, GB
Manuel de Villegas y Pinateli, Historia de Moscovia, 1736, in Spanish, GB
Specific Periods A. Yanov, The origins of autocracy: Ivan the Terrible in Russian history, 1981, GB
J. Curtin, The Mongols in Russia, 1908, GB
F.R. Grahame, The archer and the steppe; or, The empires of Scythia, a history of Russia and Tartary from the earliest ages till the fall of Mongol power in Europe, in the middle of the sixteenth century, 1860, GB
P. Krug, Forschungen in der älteren Geschichte Russlands vol.1 1848, vol.2 1848, GB
Das Grossfürstentum Moskau im 15. Jahrhundert unter Iwan III. Part I, Part II, Das russische Zarenreich im 16. Jahrhundert unter Wassili III., from Deutsche in Russland, in German
Historiography Category : East Slavic Chronicles, from Wikipedia
Article : Primary Chronicle 850-1110, from Wikipedia
Article : Novgorod First Chronicle 1016-1471, from Wikipedia
Article : Laurentian Codex, from Wikipedia
Pereyaslavl-Suzdal Chronicle, GB, ed. 1851, in Russian
Administration Bureaucracy M. Poe, The Muscovite State and its Personnel, 2003, Draft
M. Poe, Muscovite Personnel Records, 1475-1550 : New Light on the Early Evolution of Russian Bureaucracy, Draft
M. Poe, Elite Service Registry in Muscovy, 1500-1700, Russian History/Histoire Russe 21 (1994) pp.251-288, Draft
M. Poe, The Russian Elite in the Seventeenth Century,
Volume 1: The Consular and Ceremonial Ranks of the Russian "Sovereign's Court," 1613-1713. 2004, not for citation
Volume 2: A Quantitative Analysis of the "Duma Ranks," 1613-1713. 2004, not for citation
State Structure P.B. Brown, How Muscovy Governed: Seventeenth-Century Russian Central Administration, (2009). Faculty Publications. Paper 43.
Government and Political System of Russia in XVI century, from Russia the Great
V. Kivelson, Muscovite "Citizenship": Rights without Freedom, The Journal of Modern History 74 (September 2002) pp.465-489
S. Bogatyrev, The Sovereign and his Counselers. Ritualised Consultations in Muscovite Political Culture 1350s-1570s, thesis Helsinki 2000
C. Soldat, The limits of Muscovite autocracy. The relations between the Grand Prince and the boyars in the light of Iosif Volotskii's Prosvetitel', Cahiers du monde russe Numero 46/1-2 (2005)
M. Bond, Ivan the Terrible: Centralization in Sixteenth Century Muscovy, thesis Western Oregon Univ. 2008
M. Perrie, The Muscovite monarchy in the sixteenth century : "National," "popular" or "democratic"? , Cahiers du monde russe Numero 46/1-2 (2005)
Foreign Relations general Foregn Policy, from Russia the Great
with neighbours J. Pelenski, The Contest between Lithuania-Rus' and the Golden Horde in the Fourteenth Century for supremacy over Eastern Europe, De Re Militari
Relations of Moscow with The Great Lithuanian Princedom and The Golden Horde, from Russia the Great
P.C.B. Armstrong, Foreigners, Furs and Faith : Muscovy's Expansion into Western Siberia, 1581-1649, thesis Dalhousie Univ. 1997
E. Matsuki, The Crimean Tatars and their Russian-Captive Slaves An Aspect of Muscovite-Crimean Relations in the 16th and 17th Centuries, Mediterranean Studies Group at Hitotsubashi University, The Mediterranean World 2006
P. Pierling : Un nonce du pape en Moscovie; préliminaires de la treve de 1582, 1884, in French, IA
with the West N.K. Bogushev-Bogushevskij, The English in Muscovy during the sixteenth century, no date, IA
I. Gruber, The Muscovite Embassy of 1599 to Emperor Rudolf II of Habsburg thesis McGill 1999
Maija Jansson, England and the north: the Russian embassy of 1613-1614, 1994, GB
Military Wars Articles : List of Tatar and Mongol Raids against Rus 1223-1480, Russo-Kazan Wars, Great Stand on the Ugra River 1480, Russo-Swedish War 1495-1497, Muscovite-Lithuanian Wars (-1537), Russo-Swedish War 1554-1557, Livonian War 1558-1583, Russo-Turkish War 1568-1570, Russo-Crimean Wars 1570-, Conquest of the Khanate of Sibir 1582, Russo-Swedish War 1590-1595, Polish-Muscovite War 1605-1618, Ingrian War 1610-1617, Smolensk War 1632-1634, Russo-Polish War 1654-1667, Russo-Swedish War 1656-1658, Stenka Razin, Russo-Turkish War 1676-1681, from Wikipedia
Livland, Krieg, from Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens, in German
Army D. Smith, The XVIth Century Muscovite Army, posted by Xenophon
D. Smith, The Muscovite Army of Ivan IV., the Terrible, posted by Xenophon
A. Malov, The Muscovite Sovereign's Select Soldier Regiments. A short description of their history and organization., 2001
M. Poe, The Consequences of the Military Revolution in Muscovy in Comparative Perspective, thesis Univ. of Iowa 1996
Uniforms 17th Century Muscovite / Russian Uniforms, from Kismeta
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Russia
The origin and early history of the Russia or Muscovy company, 1830, IA; GB
J.A. Gerson, Studies in the history of English commerce in the Tudor period : I. The organization and early history of the Muscovy company, 1912, IA
Article : Muscovy Company, from Wikipedia
The History of Weksel Operations in Eastern Europe, pp.177- in G. Moshenskyi, History of the Weksel, 2008, GB
Social and Economic Development of Russia in XV century, from Russia the Great
Social and Economic Development of Russia in XVI century, from Russia the Great
Social History Social and Economic Development of Russia in XV century, from Russia the Great
Social and Economic Development of Russia in XVI century, from Russia the Great
V. Kivelson, Muscovite "Citizenship": Rights without Freedom, The Journal of Modern History 74 (September 2002) pp.465-489
D. Ostrowski, Church Polemics and Monastic Land Acquisition in Sixteenth Century Moscow, Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. 64, No. 3, July 1986
Review of N.S. Kollmann, By Honor Bound: State and Society in Early Modern Russia (1999), from H-Net Reviews
Article : Muscovite Manorialism, from Wikipedia
Article : Serfdom in Russia, from Wikipedia
Russia: the Muscovy Cycle (1460-1620), chapter 8 in P. Turchin, Secular Cycles, 2009
Religion Orthodox Article : History of the Russian Orthodox Church, from Wikipedia
Article Church of Russia, from Orthodox Wiki
Biographies of Russian Saints, from Oekumenisches Heiligenlexikon, in German
Category : Russian Orthodox Monasteries, from Wikipedia; from Orthodox Wiki
A.N. Mouravieff, A history of the Church of Russia, 1842, GB
The Church and Heresies in the second half of XV century, from Russia the Great
Autocephaly of the Russian Orthodox Church in the middle of XV century, from Russia the Great
D. Ostrowski, Church Polemics and Monastic Land Acquisition in Sixteenth Century Moscow, Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. 64, No. 3, July 1986
Archive of Russian Old Ritualist Resources
D.B. Miller, Motives for Donations to the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, 1392-1605: Gender Matters, Essays in Medieval Studies 14 1997
Orthodox Christian Information Center, The Church of Russia (1448-1800)
Islam B. Rakhimxzyanov, Muslim Iurts of Muscovy : Religious Tolerance of the Steppe in the XV-XVI Centuries
Judaism M. Taube, The Fifteenth-Century Ruthenian Translations from Hebrew and the Heresy of the Judaizers: Is There a Connection?
Article : Moscow, from the YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe
History of Regions Predecessor States, Russian List of early East Slavic States, from Wikipedia
Article : Novgorod Republic 1136-1478, from Wikipedia
Article : Pskov Republic 1348-1510, from Wikipedia
Article : Principality of Ryazan 1097-1521, from Wikipedia
Article : Tver : Grand Princedom -1485, from Wikipedia
Article : Vladimir-Suzdal Principality 1168-1389, from Wikipedia
Article : Principality of Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod 1341-1392, from Wikipedia
Article : Rostov : History -1474, from Wikipedia
Article : Principality of Yaroslavl 1218-1463, from Wikipedia
Article : Principality of Beloozero 1238-1389, from Wikipedia
Article : Principality of Murom 1097-1393 from Wikipedia
Predecessor States, Tatar M.P. Romaniello, Conquest, Colonization and Orthodoxy : Muscovy and Kazan, 1552-1682, thesis Ohio State Univ. 1998
Local History
Culture A.M. Sakharov, Muscovite Culture : The Mongols and Cultural Change
D.C. Waugh, The Development of Portraiture in Muscovy, 2000
S. Bogatyrev, Novgorod, D. Goldfrank, Muscovy/Northeastern Rus, from : D. Wallace, Europe, a literary history, 1348-1418
Biographies Biographies of Russian Saints, from Oekumenisches Heiligenlexikon, in German
The Muscovite Biographical Database
Others M. Khodarkovsky, Kazan in the Muscovite Ideology and the Foundation of a Russian Empire, 2005
L. Bernadini, The Image of Muscovy in Early XVII Century Polish Literature

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Russia, by Ben Cahoon; Rulers : Russia by B. Schemmel (Russian pronunciation in English transcription)
List : Grand Princes of Moscow, from Wikipedia
List of Ambassadors Polscy ambasadorzy w Rosji, from Wikipedia Polish edition
List of Bishops List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow, List of Bishops and Archbishops of Novgorod, from Wikipedia
Documents Yearbook Entries Pierre d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, Entry : De l'Estat du Grand Duc ou Empereur de Moscovie 1613, pp.811-831, GB; 1614, pp.809-829, GB; 1616, pp.809-829, GB; 1617, pp.809-829, GB; 1621, vol.II pp.74-94, GB; 1628, pp.811-833, GB; 1630, pp.576-590, GB; 1633, pp.811-831, GB; 1659, pp.749-761, GB; 1665, pp.749-755, GB
Annal Entries etc. Affairs of Poland and Muscovy in the year 1660, 1661, 1662, 1663, 1664, 1665, 1666, 1667, 1668, 1669, 1670, 1671, 1672, 1673, 1674, 1675, 1676, 1677, 1678, 1679, 1680, in : Annals of the universe: containing an account of the most memorable actions ..., 1709, GB
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits National Archives (UK) : Miscellaneous papers including memorials of Muscovia Company 1714 and 1717, account of affairs in ...
Document Collections Ancient Rus through 1440, From Muscovy to Russia, 1440-1584, Russia 1584-1696, Regional : Moscow, from Eurodocs
Historical sources in MSU's History Faculty's virtual library : Russian History
F.F. Martens, Recueil des traites et conventions conclus par la Russie avec les puissances etrangeres, vol.1, traites avec l'Autriche 1648-1762 (1874), vol.5, traites avec l'Allemagne 1656-1762 (1880), in French and Russian, posted on Internet Archive
Russian Historical Texts in English, posted by John Slatter, Univ. Durham
Russian History Digital Library, extensive collections of links to primary sources
Primary Sources, from russianhistory.org
Ch.30 : De Scriptoribus Historiae Polonicae, Lithuanicae, atque Moscoviticae, pp.746-764 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Individual Documents
Historical Maps Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Maps : Europe in the Year 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, Muscovy in the year 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, Muscovy Rus in 1700, from Euratlas
Map : Muscovy 1300-1462, from Wikimedia Commons
Map : Kievan Rus 1015-1013, Russia 1389, Muscovy 1390-1525, from Wikipedia
Map : Russchelli 1572, Moschovia, from Geographicus Archive
Map : La Feuille 1747, Muskovien, from Geographicus Archive
M. Poe, Muscovy in European Cosmographies, 1504-1544, Draft
Map : Grand Duchy of Muscvovy (Meyers 1888), posted on Wikipedia
M. Sach, Die bildliche Darstellung des Moskauer Großfürsten auf der Carta marina und in der Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus des Olaus Magnus
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles : Russisches Recht, pp.412-414, Russische Sprache, pp.414-415, Russland, pp.415- in vol.32 of Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon Aller Wissenschafften und Künste, 1742, in German, GB
Article : Russia, pp.500- in vol.19 of Encyclopaedia Perthensis, 1807, GB
Article : Russisches Reich : Geschichte, from Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, in German, posted by Zeno
Articles Russia, Russian Literature, from Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 edition
Religious Articles Russia, Russian Religion, Russian Language and Literature, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1912 edition
Political Estats du Grand Duc de Moscovie, pp.777-862 in Pierre d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, 1660 Part 4 : Description de l'Europe, Quatriesme Partie du Monde, avec tous ces Empires, Royaumes, Estats et Republiques, vol.3, 1660, GB
Discours du Grand Duc ou Empereur de Moscovie, pp.790-810 in vol.2 of P. d'Avity, Nouveau theatre du monde: contenant les estats, empires, royaumes, et principautez, representez par l'ordre et veritable description des pays, moeurs des peuples, forces, 1661, in French, GB
Geographical Muscovy, pp.93-94 in E. Wells, A treatise of ancient and present geography, 1706, GB
Concerning Moscovia, pp.79-84 in P. Gordon, Geography anatomiz'd or The geographical grammar, 1708, GB
Historical Chapter XI : Muscovy, pp.377-382 in : Samuel von Pufendorf, An introduction to the history of the principal kingdoms and states of Europe, 1719, GB
The Present State of Muscovy, or Russia, pp.601- in vol.1 of Thomas Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
The History of Russia, vol.35 of The Modern Part of a Universal History, 1762, GB
Russland, pp.3-115 in vol.4 of J.G. Eichhorn, Geschichte der drey letzten Jahrhunderte, 1817, in German, GB
The Russian Empire, pp.1039-1043 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, A history of all nations, from the earliest periods to the present time, 1856, GB
Travelogues Cl. Adams, Chancellor's Voyage to Muscovy: Being Clement Adam's Anglorum Navigatio Ad Muscovitas .., 1886, IA
R. Hakluyt, The discovery of Muscovy, from the collections of Richard Hakluyt. With the Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan from King Alfred's Orosius, 1889, IA
Institutions Archives ArcheoBiblioBase (Russian Archives listed)
Musea Article : Moscow Kremlin, from Wikipedia
The Moscow Kremlin
Monuments Article : Moscow Kremlin, from Wikipedia
The Moscow Kremlin
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Article : Coat of Arms of Moscow, from Wikipedia
Coins Search Coin Archives for Muscovy, Moscow, Russia
Search Early Dated Coins for Muscovy, Moscow, Russia
Russia, from World Coin Catalogue (has chapters on Muscovy coins)
Category : Coins of Muscovy, from Wikimedia Commons
G. Anaszewicz, Early Coinage of Moscow
Russian Medieval Coins, commercial site

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Russia, Muscovy Russian and East European Studies - list of books published by Routledge Curzon
Infography : Russia - History - Muscovite
M. Poe, Foreign Descriptions of Muscovy : An Analytic Bibliography of Primary and Secondary Sources, 2nd revised ed., 1995-2008
on Specific Issues
Concerning Russia/Muscovy
Bibliography : Battle of Kulikovo, from Xenophon
Women in Medieval Russia Bibliography, from H-Net
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Eastern Central Europe National Library of Estonia : E-Library
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Online Journals links Alphabetical List of Journals Dealing with Russian History and Russian History Journals, from Virtual Library Russian History
full text online Cahiers du Monde Russe 1959-1999, from Persee
ToC online Cahiers du Monde Russe 1999-
Slavonic and East European Review, vol.79/2001-89/2011
General Accounts on Eastern Europe Adrian Webb, The Longman Companion to Central and Eastern Europe since 1919, London etc.: Longman 2002 [G]
David G. Kirby, The Baltic World 1772-1993, London : Longman 1995
Francis Dvornik, The Slavs in European History and Civilization, New Brunswick : Rutgers UP 1962 [G]
on Russia Melvin K. Wren, Course of Russian History, Waveland 1997, 617 pp., KMLA Lib.Sign. 947 W945
Charles E. Ziegler, The History of Russia, Greenwood 1999, 272 pp., KMLA Lib.Sign. 947 Z66t
on Muscovy
Specific Topics
Historical Atlas John Channon, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia, London : Penguin 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947 C458p
Martin Gilbert, Atlas of Russian History, no place : Dorset Press 1972 [G]
Atlas Oficera, Moscow 1984 [G]
Historical Dictionary B. Raymond, P. Duffy, Historical Dictionary of Russia, Methuan : Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.8 R268h

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