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Gubernia Olonets Gubernia Vologda
First posted on February 21st 2008, last revised on July 16th 2010

History and Administrative Division. Arkhangelsk Gubernia was established in 1708. in 1780, Vologda, Vyatka and Perm Namistchevos were split off. Arkhangelsk Gubernia bordered on the Grand Duchy of Finland in the west, on Olonets Gubernia in the southwest, on Vologda Gubernia in the south, on Tobolsk Gubernia in the east. Archangelsk Gubernia was originally divided in 6 districts Uyezds " Arkhangelsk, Kholmogory, Pinega, Shenkursk, Mezen and Kem. Later, Kola Uyezd was split off Kem Uyezd, and Pechora and Novaya Zemlya Uyezds were split off Mezen Uyezd.
The Zemstvo Laws passed in 1864 granted regional self-government on Gubernia and Uyezd level; the regional administrative bodies are refererred to as Zemstvos. The Zemstvos were abolished in the course of the October Revolution.
Following the establishment of the RSFSR, Arkhangelsk Gubernia was partitioned into Arkhangelsk and Kola or Murmansk Oblasts (est. 1938), with vast areas being ceded to the Karelian (est. 1923) and Komi ASSR (est. 1929) respectively.

Population . The population numbered 210,000 in 1811, 225,500 in 1840, 275,800 in 1867, 315,700 in 1885 and 505,700 in 1915. The population consisted of indigenous Lapps, Samoyeds, Zyryans and Ostyaks and of immigrant Russians, Karelians.

Economy . The sparse population engaged in animal husbandry (raindeer, cattle, sheep, horses), hunting, fishery, and limited agriculture where the climate permitted. About a third of the area was covered by forest, supplying forest products. In 1881 1,635 factories with a combined total of 2,774 industrial workers were counted (Meyer). Arkhangelsk was of importance as Russia's main seaport on the White Sea (frozen from October to May), until Murmansk (ice-free year round) was founded in 1916. In 1898 Arkhangelsk was connected with Russia's heartland by railroad; in 1889 the port facilities of the city modernized.

Historical Encyclopedia Entries : Lapps 1809-1905

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Country Profiles Current Article Archangelskaya Gubernia, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Article Arkhangelsk Governorate, from Wikipedia
Historical Article : Government : Archangel, from EB 1911
Articles : Archangel, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Links General
on History
Historical Dictionary
Accounts of History
Economy & Finances List of Match Factories in the Russian Empire : Arkhangelsk Gubernia, from The Virtual Matchbox Label Museum, in Russian
J.C. Brown, Works on Forestry vol.8 : The Forests of Northern Russia (1883), posted on Internet Archive; on Olonets and Arkhangelsk Gubernia
Russia, from Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB ; search for Arkhangelsk
Ethnography Article Samoyedic Peoples, from Wikipedia
Religion Article Old Believers, from Wikipedia
Article Raskolniks, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
History of Regions Article Kola Peninsula, Novaya Zemlya, from Wikipedia
Local History Articles Arkhangelsk : History, Kola, Mezen, Murmansk : History, Onega : History, Shenkursk, from Wikipedia
History of Kotlas, from kotlas.org
History, from JSC Akhangelsk Sea Commercial Port
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Russia : Arkhangelsk, Murmansk
History of Arkhangelsk Pedagogical College

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Russia, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Document Collections
Historical Maps A History of Russian Administrative Boundaries, by Merzliakova / Karimov , with details on Arkhangelsk Gubernia; maps
Maps : NW European Russia, NC European Russia, NE European Russia, (Atlas Marksa, 2nd edition 1910), posted by M. Witkam
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles : Governments : Archangel, Cities : Archangel, Pechora, from EB 1911
Articles Archangel, Petschora, Kalgujew, Pinega, Mesen, Onega, Kem, Kola, Cholmogory, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Geographical Das Gouvernement Archangel, pp.418-422 in Th. Fr. Ehrmann, Neueste Kunde vom Russischen Reiche in Europa und Asien, vol.3 of Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde, 1807, in German, GB
Das Gouvernement Archangel, pp.141-144 in vol.1 of Das Russische Kaiserreich, seine Geographie, Statistik, Volks- und Regentengeschichte, 1847, in German, GB
W.H. Beable, Russian gazetteer and guide, being an account of the territorial divisions and a description of over 300 of the principal towns and cities of Russia, Finland and Siberia (1919), posted on Internet Archive; Arkhangelsk pp.18-19
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Arkhangelsk Gubernia Coat of Arms, from Civic Heraldry; from Vector Images; from Wikimedia

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Arkhangelsk
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
Country Specific
Online Journals full text online
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary B. Raymond, P. Duffy, Historical Dictionary of Russia, Methuan : Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.8 R268h

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