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Saratov Gubernia Samara
First posted on August 2nd 2010

History and Administrative Division . From 1485 to 1554 Astrakhan was the capital of the (Kipchak Tatar) Khanate of Astrakhan. In 1554 and again in 1557 it was conquered and annexed by the Russian Empire. An attempt to throw off Russian rule with the aid of an Ottoman army failed in 1569.
Astrakhan was a center of rebellions in 1670 (Stenka Razin) and in 1705 (Raskolniks).
When established in the 18th century, Astrakhan Gubernia was larger, including the Lower Middle Volga Basin and the Russian Northern Caucasus. Astrakhan Gubernia was home to a Cossack Host, and to the Volga Kalmyks who long served as Russian auxiliary forces. In 1771 a rapacious Russian official caused a Kalmyk exodus.
In the early 19th century Astrakhan Gubernia got the borders it would maintain until the end of the century. It bordered on Saratov Gubernia and Samara Gubernia in the North, on the territory of the Ural (Yaik) Cossacks in the East, on the territory of the Don Cossacks in the West, on Stavropol Gubernia in the South.
The population was composed of Russians, Ukrainians, Tatars, Kalmyks, Kirghis, Armenians, Chuvash, Georgians, Persians, Indians, Bukharans, Khiva Turkmen, Kizilbash, Greeks and Germans (settlements along the Volga).
Astrakhan Gubernia was divided in 5 Uyezds (districts) : Astrakhan, Krasniyar, Yenotayevsk, Chernitar, Tsarev.
Following the Russian Revolution, Astrakhan Gubernia became part of the RSFSR; part of it became part of Kalmyk ASSR (within the RSFSR).

Spelling alternatives : Astracan, Astrachan, Astrakhan

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Country Profiles Current Article Astrakhanskaya Gubernia, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Historical Articles : Governments : Astrakhan, from EB 1911
Articles : Astrachan, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Links General
on History
Historical Dictionary N S. Vsevolojsky, Dictionnaire geographique-historique de l'empire de Russie , 1813, in French, GB
Timelines Google News Archive Search, search for Astrachan
Accounts of History
Economy & Finances Russia, from Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB ; search for Astrakhan
History of Regions
Local History Articles Astrakhan : History, Elista : History, from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Russia, Astrakhan Oblast, Kalmykia Republic

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Russia, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Document Collections
Archive Deposits P.B. Brown, The holdings of the Astrakhan' Regional State Archive , Cahiers du Monde Russe, 1994, posted by Persee
Historical Maps Volga and Don River Basin etc. 1882, from FEEFHS (Blackie & Sons 1882)
Southeastern Russia, from Flemming's Kriegs-Handatlas 1854 (on the Crimean War), posted by M. Witkam; has pre-1851 borders of Saratov Gubernia
Map : Astrakhan Gubernia, posted by Wikipedia, map in Russian
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article : Astracan, p.433 in vol.1 of Encyclopaedia Britannica 1773, GB
Article : Kalmucs, pp.422-426 in vol.9 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1797, GB
Article : Astracan, pp.634-635 in vol.2, Kalmucs, pp.443-445 in vol.12 of Encyclopaedia Perthensis, 1816, GB
Article : Astracan, pp.7-9 in vol.3, Kalmucs, pp.419-423 in vol.11 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1823, GB
Article : Kalmucs, pp.298-301 in vol.12 of The London Encyclopaedia, 1829, GB
Article : Astrachan, pp.429-430 in vol.1 of Encyclopaedia Americana, 1829, GB
Articles Astrachan, Kalmücken, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Governments : Astrakhan, Cities : Astrakhan, Peoples : Kalmuck, from EB 1911
Geographical Das Land Astrachan, pp.95-110, 121-129 in vol.1 of J.Chr. Borheck, Erdbeschreibung von Asien, 1792, in German, GB
The Khanate of Astrakhan, pp.359-360 in vol.1 of W. Tooke, View of the Russian empire: during the reign of Catharine, the Great, 1801, GB
Russia, pp.156-388 in vol.1 of J. Smith, A system of modern geography, 1810, GB ; search for Astracan
Kingdom of Astrakhan, p.67 in vol.4 of J. Bell, A system of geography, popular and scientific, 1836, GB
Das Gouvernement Astrachan, pp.242-247 in vol.1 of Das Russische Kaiserreich, seine Geographie, Statistik, Volks- und Regentengeschichte, 1847, in German, GB
The City of Astrakhan, pp.249-250 in R. Sears, An illustrated description of the Russian empire, 1855, GB
Articles Astrachan, from Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish
W.H. Beable, Russian gazetteer and guide, being an account of the territorial divisions and a description of over 300 of the principal towns and cities of Russia, Finland and Siberia (1919), posted on IA; Astrakhan p.19
Ethnographical Indian Merchants of Astrakhan, pp.215-217 in R. Philips, A geographical view of the world, embracing the manners, customs, and pursuits of every nation, 1838, GB
Historical The Kingdom of Astracan, pp.405-406 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
The History of Russia : The Government of Astracan, pp.58-60 in vol.35 of G. Sale a.o., An universal history: from the earliest accounts to the present time, 1762, GB
The Kingdom of Astracan, pp.9-10 in vol.2 of J. Williams, The rise, progress, and present state of the northern governments. 1777, GB
The Kingdom of Astracan, p.36 in vol.37 of The modern part of An universal history, 1783, GB
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues B. von Bergmann, Benjamin Bergmann's Nomadische Streifereien unter den Kalmüken in den Jahren 1802 und 1803, vol.1, 1804, vol.2, 1804, vol.3, 1804, vol.4, 1805, in German, GB
J. von Klaproth, Travels in the Caucasus and Georgia: performed in the years 1807 and 1808, 1814, GB
J. von Klaproth, Voyage dans les steps d'Astrakhan et du Caucase vol.1, vol.2, 1829, in French, GB
W. Glenn, Journal of a tour from Astrachan to Karass, 1823, GB
H.A. Zwick, Calmuc Tartary : or, A journey from Sarepta to several Calmuc hordes of the Astracan Government, from May 23 to August 21 1823, 1831, GB
C.E. von Eichwald, Reise auf dem Caspischen Meere und in den Caucasus, vol.1.2, 1837, GB
X. and A. Hommaire de Hell, Travels in the steppes of the Caspian Sea, the Crimea, the Caucasus, &c, 1847, GB
Ch.H. Scott, The Baltic, the Black Sea, and the Crimea: comprising travels in Russia, 1854, GB
H.A. Munro-Butler-Johnstone, A trip up the Volga to the Fair of Nijni-Novgorod (1875), posted on Internet Archive pp.24-51 : Astrakhan, Kirghis and Kalmucks
Institutions Archives P.B. Brown, The holdings of the Astrakhan' Regional State Archive , Cahiers du Monde Russe, 1994, posted by Persee
Musea Velimir Khlebnikov Museum in Astrakhan
Astrakhan State Gallery B.M. Kustodiev
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Saratov Gubernia Coat of Arms, from Wikipedia

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Saratov
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
Country Specific
Online Journals full text online
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary B. Raymond, P. Duffy, Historical Dictionary of Russia, Methuan : Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.8 R268h

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