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Gubernia Podolia Gubernia Kherson
First posted on February 15th 2008, last revised on July 23rd 2010








History and Administrative Division . Prior to 1812 part of the Principality of Moldavia respectively Budjak (which again was part of the Ottoman Vilayet of Silistra, a province of the Ottoman Empire.
Created as Bessarabia Oblast in 1812. Following the defeat in the Crimean War, the Russian Empire ceded a stretch of land, also referred to as Bessarabia, on the left bank of the lower Pruth and Danube Rivers, with Izmail, to Moldavia (Romania); in 1878, Romania ceded the area back to the Russian Empire. Elevated to Bessarabia Gubernia in 1873, dissolved in 1917-1925. In 1918 annexed by Romania, ceded to the USSR (Moldova, Ukraine) in 1940 and again in 1944.
In c.1890, Bessarabia Gubernia was divided into 7 Uyezds - Akkerman, Bender, Bieltsy, Khotin, Kishinev, Orgeyev, Soroki (Meyer; by 1906 there were eight Uyezds, Izmail having been added (EB 1911.
The Zemstvo Constitution was introduced in Bessarabia in 1869.
See historic encyclopedias 1809-1902 on Bessarabia's Demographic History.

Population . In 1840 the population was 685,300, in 1867 1,052,000, in 1885 1,526,500, in 1914 2,657,000 (J. Lahmeyer). The population was composed of Moldavians, Russians, Serbs, Bulgarians, Greeks, Gagauz, Germans, Armenians, Tatars; by confession Romanian / Russian / Bulgarian / Serb / Greek Orthodox, Protestants, Jews, Muslims. In 1903, the Jewish population of capital Kishinev was the target of state-organized mob violence (Kishinev Pogrom), in the course of which 47 were killed, 700 houses looted; a second pogrom followed in 1905. The events triggered the emigration of part of the Jewish population.

Economy . In 1884, c.50 % of the land was pastorage, c.20 % farmland, c.20 % wasteland. The most important agricultural products include grain, maize, tobacco, pumpkins, beets. Mulberry trees and vineyards were cultivated. Animal husbandry was of importance. Salt, marble, salpetre and coal were produced. In 1879 130 factories with a combined total of 894 industrial workers were counted. See historic encyclopedias 1809-1902 on Bessarabia's Economic History.

Culture . Capital Kishinev was seat of a diocesis.






E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
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Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
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P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article Bessarabia Governorate, from Wikipedia; Bessarabia Gubernia, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Article Bessarabia, from Encyclopedia of the Ukraine
Bessarabien, from BKGE, in German
Historical Bessarabia, pp.149-155 in vol.2 of A. von Haxthausen, The Russian empire, its people, institutions and resources, 1856, GB
Articles : Bessarabien, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Articles : Governments : Bessarabia, from EB 1911
Links General Category : Bessarabia, from Wikipedia ; Categorie : Basarabia, from Wikipedia Romanian edition ; Kategorie : Bessarabien, from Wikipedia German edition
on History Category : Governorate of Bessarabia, History of Bessarabia, from Wikipedia
Categorie : Basarabia, from Enciclopedia Romaniei, in Romanian
Organizations
Historical Dictionary Encyclopedia of Ukraine
Enciclopedia Romaniei, in Romanian
Timelines Google News Archive Search, search for Bessarabia
Accounts of History General
Specific Periods Article : Moldavian Democratic Republic, Union of Bessarabia with Romania, from Wikipedia
Charles Upson Clark, Bessarabia : Russia and Roumania on the Black Sea (1927), from Electronic Text Archive
Serge Dmitriyevich Urussov, Memoirs of a Russian Governor (1903), translated into English by Herman Rosenthal, from Electronic Text Archive; also on Internet Archive
Z.C. Arbure, Basarabia in secolul XIX , 1898, in Romanian, IA
C. Lupu, The Belonging of Basarabia to Romania and the Inter-War Romanian-Soviet Relationships as Reflected in American Diplomatic Documents
Politics & Administration Article Sfatul Tarii, Moldavian National Party, from Wikipedia
Ludmila Coada, Zemstva Institution in Bessarabia : Historical and Juridical Aspects, posted by CNAA, in Romanian
Silvia Dulschi, Parties and Political Organizations in Basarabia in the Period of 1905-1907 Revolution, posted by CNAA, in Romanian
Economy & Finances Ludwik Tegoborski, Commentaries on the productive forces of Russia vol.1, 1855, vol.2, 1856, search for Bessarabia, GB
Resources and Statistics of the Russian Empire, pp.411-805 in vol.2 of J. MacGregor, Commercial statistics, 1847, search for Bessarabia, GB
Russia, from Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB ; search for Bessarabia
Social History Sava Lucia, Daily Life in the Town Chisinau at the Beginning of the 20th Century, posted by CNAA, in Romanian
Scutelnic Valeriu, Social Evolutions in the Bessarabian Village after the Agrarian Reform (1868-1905), in Romanian
Article Kishinev Pogrom, from Wikipedia
Spring & Slaughter. Kishinev Pogrom 1903-2003
Ethnography Articles Bessarabia Germans, Bessarabian Bulgarians, Rusurja, Gagauz People, from Wikipedia
Languages of Ukraine, from Ethnologue
Detlef Brandes, A Success Story : the German Colonists in New Russia and Bessarabia, 1787-1914, from GRHC
Russification and Ethnic Consciousness of Romanians in Bessarabia, by Markus Schönherr
Wilhelm Kludt, Samuel Kludt, Die deutschen Kolonisten in Bessarabien, 1900 GenWiki Digitale Bibliothek Project 2007-
The Rumanyos of Wallachia, Moldavia, Bessarabia etc., pp.261-272 in R.G. Latham, The native races of the Russian empire, 1854, GB
Religion Article : Metropolis of Bessarabia, History of the Orthodox Church in Moldova, from Wikipedia
Article : Moldovan Orthodox Church, from OrthodoxWiki
Jewish History of Ukraine, by Daniel Romanowski
Jewish History of Moldova, from Jewish.md
Article Ukrainian Orthodox Church, from Wikipedia
History, from Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
Article Bessarabian Jews, from Wikipedia
Arnulf Baumann, Martin Luther and Bessarabia, from GRHC
Russia, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy, scroll down for Tiraspol
Armenian Gregorian Church, Kishinev, Catholic Church of Kishinev, from bessarabia.ru
History of Regions Articles Budjak : History, Gagauzia : History Pale of Settlement, from Wikipedia; Pale of Settlement, from Jewish Virtual Library
History of Gagauzia, anonymous
Local History Articles Chisinau : History, Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi : History, Soroca, Tiraspol : History, from Wikipedia
Articles Zinkiv, from Encyclopedia of Ukraine
History of the Village of Krasna, Bessarabia, from GRHC
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Moldova
Culture
Biographies Article Constantin Stere, Vasile Stroiescu, from Wikipedia
Article Anastasy (Gribanovsky) of Kishinev, Gavril Banulescu-Bodoni, from OrthodoxWiki
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Article Bessarabia in the Russian Empire, from Wikipedia; Bessarabia Gubernia, from Wikipedia Russian edition; scroll down for list of governors 1812-1917
Lists of Bishops Hierarchs of the Orthodox Church, from Orthodox Research Institute ; search for Kishinev, Chisinau, Bessarabia
Article : Archbishop of Chisinau, from Wikipedia
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Moldova, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Census of 1897 by administrative division, by language, from Demoscope, in Russian
Documents Historic Newspaper Articles
Historic Annual Entries Annual Register vol.13 1770, 1771, pp.14-25, vol.65 1823, 1824, p.236, GB
Image Databanks Old Photos from Family Albums, from bessarabia.ru
Document Collections Weaving in Bessarabia (1889/1912), from Richard E. Wright Research Reports
Korolenko Describes the Kishinev Pogrom of 1903, posted by Nicholas C.J. Pappas
Berichte und Gesuche, welche an die Staatsregierung in Angelegenheiten der deutschen Landgemeinden in Suedrussland gerichtet wurden, Samuel Kludt (1882) 1898 GenWiki Digitale Bibliothek Project 2007-
The Roumanian Occupation of Bessarabia 1919-1920. Documents, posted on Internet Archive
Russian Liberation Committee, The Case for Bessarabia. A Collection of Documents on the Russian Occupation (c. 1919), posted on Internet Archive
Bessarabia, pp.202-203 in vol.6 of The Portfolio, or a collection of State papers, 1837, GB
Archival Deposits List of Archive Deposits, Moldovan National Archives, from bessarabia.ru
Guide to the Hoover Institution archives, 1980, GB, position 1512 : Correspondence of A.N. Krupenski
Guide to the Hanna Collection and related archival materials at the Hoover Institution Archives, 1982, GB, position 313 : Correspondence of A.N. Krupenski
Russia - Belarus - Ukraine - Uzbekistan Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Historical Maps Government Bessarabia etc. 1882, from FEEFHS (Blackie & Sons 1882)
Bessarabia Gubernia (undated, c.1900), posted by Wikimedia
Maps : Bessarabia, (Atlas Marksa, 2nd edition 1910), posted by M. Witkam
Map : Russian Bessarabia 1883, from Wikipedia German edition
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Bessarabien, Ismail, from Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809, in German
Bessarabia, p.72 in vol.4 of The London encyclopaedia, 1829, GB
Bessarabia, p.489 in vol.3 of The Edinburgh encyclopaedia, 1830, GB
Articles Bessarabien, Akjerman, Bender, Chotin, Soroki, Kischinew, Ismail, Budschak, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Articles : Governments : Bessarabia, Cities : Akkerman, Izmail, Khotin, Kishinev, Soroki, from EB 1911
Religious Articles Bessarabia, Akkerman, Kishinef, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 edition
Economic Government of Bessarabia, pp.223-228 in vol.1 of H.A. Scammell Dearborn, A memoir on the commerce and navigation of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azof, 1819, GB
Geographical Bessarabia, pp.126-127 in vol.4 of T.G. Smollett, The present state of all nations, 1769, GB
Bessarabia, p.178 in The London general gazetteer, or Geographical dictionary, 1825, GB
Bessarabia pp.208-211 in vol.4 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1829, GB
Bessarabia, p.110 in vol.1 of J. Bell, A system of geography, popular and scientific, 1836, GB
Dniestr, Akkerman, pp.290-291 in J.W. Norie, New sailing directions for the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic or Gulf of Venice, Grecian Archipelago, and the Seas of Marmara and Azov, 2nd ed. 1841, GB
Das Gouvernement Bessarabien, pp.269-272 in vol.1 of Das Russische Kaiserreich, seine Geographie, Statistik, Volks- und Regentengeschichte, 1847, in German, GB
Articles Bessarabien, Akkermann, Bender, Orgejew, Kischinew, from Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish
W.H. Beable, Russian gazetteer and guide, being an account of the territorial divisions and a description of over 300 of the principal towns and cities of Russia, Finland and Siberia (1919), posted on IA; Bessarabia pp.19-20
Ethnographic R.G. Latham, The nationalities of Europe, 1863, GB ; search for Bessarabia
Historical Bessarabia, pp.514-520 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues Bessarabia, pp.111-122 in Ch.B. Elliott, Travels in the three great empires of Austria, Russia and Turkey, 1838, GB
Journey through Bessarabia, pp.177-186 in E. Spencer, Travels in Circassia, Krim-Tartary &c, 1838, GB
Bessarabia, pp.339-342 in L. Oliphant, The Russian shores of the Black sea in the autumn of 1852, 1854, GB
Institutions Archives Archives of Ukraine
Musea National Museum of History in Chisinau, National Museum of Ethnography and Natural History, from World of Moldova
The Farmers Museum in Friedenstal, from GRHC
Monuments The Monuments of Kishinev, from Kishinev.info
Libraries Article : National Library of Moldova, from Wikipedia
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Bessarabia Gubernia Coat of Arms, from Civic Heraldry; from Vector Images

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Bessarabia EBSEES (European Bibliography of Slavic and Eastern European Studies), search for Bessarabien
Russian Period 1812-1917, from Moldovan Bibliographic Database
Jews in Russia - Kishinev Pogrom 1903, composed by Iosif Waisman
Bessarabian Newsletter Index, Bessarabian Newsletter Archive (since 1997), from GRHS
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
Country Specific Electronic Library of Ukrainian Literature
Online Journals full text online
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionary Kohut, Zenon E., Historical Dictionary of Ukraine, Rowman & Littlefield 2005, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.7 K79h