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First posted on February 12th 2008, last revised on July 28th 2010

History and Administrative Division . The territory of the Government of Grodno was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania / of Poland-Lithuania until 1793/1795. It was an administrative unit (government) of the Russian Empire until the Russian Revolution, following which it formed part of Poland; from 1939 to 1941 and since 1944 the larger part of it is part of Belarus (until 1991 itself being part of the USSR).
Following the Third Polish Partition in 1795, Slonim Gubernia was founded, consisting of 8 uyezds : Brest, Volkovysk, Grodno, Kobrin, Lida, Novogrudok, Pruzhany, and Slonim uezd. In 1797, Slonim and Vilna Gubernia were merged to form the Lithuanian Gubernia, centered on Vilna. In 1801, Lithuanian Gubernia was divided, Slonim Gubernia reestablished; in 1802 Slonim Gubernia was renamed Grodno Gubernia. In 1807 the separate Bialystok region (uyezds Bialystok, Byelsk, Sokolka) was established; in 1843 Bialystok region was dissolved, Bialystok, Byelsk and Sokolka uyezds annexed into Grodno Gubernia, while the latter ceded Novogrudok Uyezd to Minsk Gubernia, Lida Uyezd to Vilna Gubernia.
Grodno Gubernia bordered on Congress Poland in the west, on Vilna Gubernia in the north, on Minsk Gubernia in the east, on Volhynia Gubernia in the south. From 1843 to 1917, Grodno Gubernia was composed of 9 uyezds (districts) : Bialystok, Byelsk, Brest-Litovsk, Grodno, Kobrin, Pruzhany, Slonim, Sokolka, Volkovysk.
The Zemstvo constitution was introduced in 1911.

Population . In 1906 the population was 1,826,600, predominantly Belarussians, followed by Jews, Poles, Lithuanians, Germans. About 60 % were Russian Orthodox, c.26 % Roman Catholic, c.12 % Jews, followed by smaller numbers of Protestants and Muslims.
Area and population were ffected by Napoleon's invasion of Russia 1812-1813, by the Polish Rebellion of 1830-1831, by the Polish Rebellion of 1863-1864, and by World War I.

Economy . 39.6 % of the area was farmland, 26 % covered by forest, 20 % pastorage, the remainder swamp. Grain, potatoes and tobacco were cultivated. After Moscow Gubernia Grodno Gubernia had the second largest wool processing industry in the Russian Empire. In 1882 there were 847 factories with a combined workforce of 10,177 industrial workers. Further industries of importance included tobacco processing and distillery.

Culture . The Julian Calendar was reintroduced in 1800.

Historical Atlas, Belarus , Poland

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
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Country Profiles Current Articles : Grodnenskaya Gubernia, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Historical Articles : Governments : Grodno, from EB 1911
Articles : Grodno, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Links General
on History Grodno Gubernia, from JewishGen Belarus
Historical Dictionary
Timelines Republic of Belarus Timeline
Accounts of History
Economy & Finances List of Match Factories in the Russian Empire : Grodno Gubernia, from The Virtual Matchbox Label Museum, in Russian
Russia, from Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB ; search for Grodno
Ethnography Languages of Belarus, from Ethnologue
Religion Via Crucis. 450 Years of Protestantism in Belarus, in English / Belarussian / Russian
History of the (Greek Catholic) Byelorussian Church, from Eastern Catholic Pastoral Association of Southern California
Jewish Belarus
The Jewish Virtual History Tour : Belarus
Shtetls of Belarus, click Gubernia Grodno, 607 entries; posted by JewishGen
History of Regions Article Pale of Settlement, from Wikipedia; Pale of Settlement, from Jewish Virtual Library
Administrative-Territorial Division of Belarus : 18th to 20th Centuries, from Archives of Belarus
Local History Articles Hrodna : History, Brest : History, Slonim : History, from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Belarus, Hrodna, Brest

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Belarus, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Document Collections Russia - Belarus - Ukraine - Uzbekistan Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Historical Maps Government Grodno etc. 1882, from FEEFHS (Blackie & Sons 1882)
Belarus at the end of the XIXth Century, from Belarus Guide, in Russian
Map : Royaume du Pologne, (shows Grodno Gubernia; Heck, Atlas Geographique et Historique 1835), posted by M. Witkam
Maps : N Grodno, S Grodno, (Atlas Marksa, 2nd edition 1910), posted by M. Witkam
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles : Governments : Minsk, Grodno, Byelostok, Brest-Litovsk, Slonim, from EB 1911
Articles Weissrussen, Weissrussland, Grodno (City), Bialystok, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Grodno, Bielostok, Brest-Litovsk, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 edition
Geographical Das Gouvernement Grodno, pp.494-496 in Th. Fr. Ehrmann, Neueste Kunde vom Russischen Reiche in Europa und Asien, vol.3 of Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde, 1807, in German, GB
Das Gouvernement Grodno, pp.285-287 in vol.1 of Das Russische Kaiserreich, seine Geographie, Statistik, Volks- und Regentengeschichte, 1847, in German, GB
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives Archives of Belarus
Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Belarus, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages; 31 entries
Libraries Libraries in Belarus, from LibDex, 5 entries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Grodno EBSEES (European Bibliography of Slavic and Eastern European Studies), search for Grodno
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
Country Specific Electronic Library of Ukrainian Literature
Online Journals full text online
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary Jan Zaprudnik, Historical Dictionary of Belarus, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1998

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