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Gubernia Tula Gubernia Oryol
First posted on February 20th 2008, last revised on July 22nd 2010






History and Administrative Division . Kaluga Gubernia was established in 1796. It bordered on Moscow Gubernia in the north, on Tula Gubernia in the east, on Oryol Gubernia in the south and on Smolensk Gubernia in the west.
Kaluga Gubernia was divided in 11 districts (Uyezds) : Kaluga, Borovsk, Kozelsk, Likhvin, Maloyaroslavets, Medyn, Meshchovsk, Mosalsk, Peremyshl, Tarusa and Zhizdra .
The Zemstvo Laws passed in 1864 granted regional self-government on Gubernia and Uyezd level; the regional administrative bodies are refererred to as Zemstvos. The Zemstvos were abolished in the course of the October Revolution.

Population . The population in 1811 was 987,000, in 1840 943,700, in 1867 984,300, in 1885 1,173,900, in 1914 1,497,200 (Lahmeyer). The majority belonged to the Russian Orthodox Church, then there were Old Believers, Catholics, Protestants.

Economy . In 1883, 44 % of the area was farmland, 32 % forest, 18 % pastorage. The leading agricultural products included grain, potatoes, hemp, onions, cabbage, apples, cherries. In 1884, 338 factories with a combined total of 11,048 industrial workers were counted. Leading industries included paper production, leather processing, distillery, match production, machinery production (Meyer).






Kaluga Gubernia within RSFSR . Kaluga Gubernia ceded territory to Bryansk Gubernia and annexed territory from Smolensk Gubernia. In 1926, Kaluga Gubernia bordered on Moscow Gubernia in the northeast, on Tula Gubernia in the east, on Oryol Gubernia in the south, on Bryansk Gubernia in the southwest and on Smolensk Gubernia in the northwest.

Population . The population in 1926 was 1,324,000, in 1939 1,183,000 (Lahmeyer).






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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article Kalugskaya Gubernia, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Historical Articles : Governments : Kaluga, from EB 1911
Articles : Kaluga, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Links General
on History
Organizations
Historical Dictionary
Timelines
Accounts of History
Economy & Finances List of Match Factories in the Russian Empire : Kaluga Gubernia, from The Virtual Matchbox Label Museum, in Russian
Russia, from Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB ; search for Kaluga
Ethnography
Religion Article Old Believers, from Wikipedia
Article Raskolniks, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
History of Regions
Local History Articles Kaluga, Borovsk, Kozelsk, Mosalsk, Tarusa, Zhizdra, from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Russia : Kaluga
Culture
Biographies
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Russia, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Document Collections
Historical Maps Kaluga Gubernia, from Wikimedia, in Russian
Maps : Kaluga, (Atlas Marksa, 2nd edition 1910), posted by M. Witkam
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles : Governments : Kaluga, Cities : Kaluga, from EB 1911
Articles Kaluga, Borowsk, Koselsk, Medyn, Meschtschowsk, Mossalsk, Peremyschl, Shisdra, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious
Economic
Geographical Das Gouvernement Kaluga, pp.395-398 in Th. Fr. Ehrmann, Neueste Kunde vom Russischen Reiche in Europa und Asien, vol.3 of Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde, 1807, in German, GB
Das Gouvernement Kaluga, pp.112-114 in vol.1 of Das Russische Kaiserreich, seine Geographie, Statistik, Volks- und Regentengeschichte, 1847, in German, GB
W.H. Beable, Russian gazetteer and guide, being an account of the territorial divisions and a description of over 300 of the principal towns and cities of Russia, Finland and Siberia (1919), posted on Internet Archive; Kaluga p.24
Historical
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives
Musea
Monuments
Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Kaluga Gubernia Coat of Arms, from Civic Heraldry; from Vector Images, from Wikimedia

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Kaluga
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
Country Specific
Online Journals full text online
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary B. Raymond, P. Duffy, Historical Dictionary of Russia, Methuan : Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.8 R268h