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Gubernia Nizhny-Novgorod Gubernia Perm
First posted on February 24th 2008, last revised on June 27th 2010







History and Administrative Division . Kazan became seat of a gubernia in 1708. In 1781 it became seat of a namishestvo, which in 1796 was transformed into Kazan Gubernia (Wikipedia. Kazan Gubernia bordered on Vyatka Gubernia in the north, on Ufa Gubernia in the east, on Samara and Simbirsk Gubernia in the south and on Nizhny-Novgorod Gubernia in the west.
Kazan Gubernia was divided in 12 districts (Uyezds) : Cheboksary, Chistopol, Kozmodemyansk, Laishev, Mamadyzh, Spask, Sviyazhsk, Tetyushi, Tsarevokokshaisk, Tsivylsk and Yadrin.
The Zemstvo Laws passed in 1864 granted regional self-government on Gubernia and Uyezd level; the regional administrative bodies are refererred to as Zemstvos. The Zemstvos were abolished in the course of the October Revolution.

Population . The population in 1811 was 1,049,000, in 1840 1,265,000, in 1867 1,670,300, in 1885 2,066,400, in 1915 2,900,400 (Lahmeyer). The vast majority of the population belonged to the Russian Orthodox Church; religious minorities included Muslims, Old Believers, Roman Catholics, Protestants, Armenian Christians, Jews. In 1897 Russian Orthodox Christians accounted for 69.4 %, Muslims for 28.8 %, Old Believers for 1 % of the population (EB 1911). In 1900, capital Kazan had a population of 143,000; among the other cities in Kazan Gubernia, only Chistopol (20,000) exceeded a population of 10,000.

Economy . By 1883, 35 % of the area was covered by forest, 49 % was farmland, 11 % pastorage. Agricultural products included grain and potatoes. In 1882 there were 293 factories with a combined total of 7527 industrial workers. The industries in order of importance were wheatr grinding mills, soap production, distilleries and leather production (Meyer).

Culture . Kazan was seat of a university (established in 1804) and of a Russian Orthodox archbishop.

Spelling varieties : Casan, Kasan, Kazan, Kosan, Osan








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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article : Kazan Governorate, from Wikipedia
Article Kazanskaya Gubernia, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Historical E. Tr. Turnerelli, Kazan et ses habitants, vol.1, 1841, in French, GB
E.Tr. Turnerelli, Russia on the borders of Asia: Kazan, the ancient capital of the Tartar Khans, with an Account of the Province to which it Belongs, the Tribes and Races which form its Population etc., vol.1, 1854, GB
Eastern Russia - The Government of Kazan, pp.261-279, in R. Sears, An illustrated description of the Russian empire, 1855, GB
Links General
on History
Organizations
Historical Dictionary
Timelines
Accounts of History General
Specific Periods Articles : Volga Bulgaria, Khanate of Kazan, from Wikipedia
M.P. Romaniello, Conquest, Colonization and Orthodoxy : Muscovy and Kazan, 1552-1682, thesis 1998
Economy & Finances List of Match Factories in the Russian Empire : Kazan Gubernia, from The Virtual Matchbox Label Museum, in Russian
L. Tegoborski, Commentaries on the productive forces of Russia, vol.1, 1855, vol.2, 1856, vol.3 not found on Google Books June 28th 2010 ; numerous Kazan entries
Russia, from Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB ; search for Kazan
Ethnography Volga Tatars Articles Volga Tatars, from Wikipedia
Volga Tatars, from World Culture Encyclopedia
The Tartars (so-called) of the Khanate of Kazan, pp.137-139 in R.G. Latham, The native races of the Russian empire, 1854, GB
H.A. Munro-Butler-Johnstone, A trip up the Volga to the Fair of Nijni-Novgorod (1875), posted on Internet Archive pp.80-98 : Kazan, Tartars, Tshuvashes, Theremes, Mordvins, Votyaks
Mari (Cheremisses) Articles Mari People, from Wikipedia
The Finno-Ugric People, by Osmo Joronen; scroll down for The Mari People, by Vassili Nikolajev
Maris, from World Culture Encyclopedia
H.A. Munro-Butler-Johnstone, A trip up the Volga to the Fair of Nijni-Novgorod (1875), posted on Internet Archive pp.80-98 : Kazan, Tartars, Tshuvashes, Theremes, Mordvins, Votyaks
Mordovians (Volgaic Finns) Mordvinians, from NUPI Centre for Russian Studies, scroll down for historikk; from Institute for Bible Translation, has history; Mordovia - History, from Turanian History
Articles Volgaic Finns, from Wikipedia
H.A. Munro-Butler-Johnstone, A trip up the Volga to the Fair of Nijni-Novgorod (1875), posted on Internet Archive pp.80-98 : Kazan, Tartars, Tshuvashes, Theremes, Mordvins, Votyaks
Chuvash Chuvash, from World Culture Encyclopedia
H.A. Munro-Butler-Johnstone, A trip up the Volga to the Fair of Nijni-Novgorod (1875), posted on Internet Archive pp.80-98 : Kazan, Tartars, Tshuvashes, Theremes, Mordvins, Votyaks
Udmurt (Votyak) H.A. Munro-Butler-Johnstone, A trip up the Volga to the Fair of Nijni-Novgorod (1875), posted on Internet Archive pp.80-98 : Kazan, Tartars, Tshuvashes, Theremes, Mordvins, Votyaks
Religion Orthodox Historical Background of the Kazan Diocese, from Russian Orthodox Church, Kazan Diocese
Monasteries and Temples of Kazan Diocese, from Russian Orthodox Church, Kazan Diocese
Article : Diocese of Kazan, from OrthodoxWiki
Old Believers Article Old Believers, from Wikipedia
Article Raskolniks, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Islam History Essay, from Muslim Religious Board of the Republic of Tatarstan
Euro Islam in the Volga Region, from Kazan Institute of Federalism
Islam in Tatarstan, from Republic of Tatarstan
History of Regions
Local History Articles Kazan : History, Bolgar (Spassk, Kuybyshev), Chistopol, Laishevo, Mamadysh, from Wikipedia
History of Kazan, from Russia Info Centre
Kazan of the XIX and XXth Centuries, from Kazan State University
Kazan 1844, pp.392-394 in vol.1 of Chr.F. Henningsen, Revelations of Russia: or The Emperor Nicholas and his empire, in 1844, 1844, GB
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Russia : Tatarstan Republic
Culture Kazan 1803, p.966 in Ch.H. Timperley, A dictionary of printers and printing, 1839, GB
Biographies
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Historical Data Lists of Bishops / Archbishops / Metropolitans from Russian Orthodox Church, Kazan Diocese
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Russia, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Document Collections
Historical Maps Russian Empire - Southeast (Blackie & Son 1882), posted by FEEFHS
Map : Kazan (Atlas Marksa, 2nd edition 1910), posted by M. Witkam
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Kasan, Mordwinen, Tataren, Tscheremissen (Mari), Tschuwaschen, Jadrin, Kosmodemjansk, Laischew, Mamadysch, Spask, Swiaschsk, Tetjuschi, Tschebokssary, Tschistopol, Zarewo-Kokschaisk, Ziwilsk, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Articles : Government : Kazan, Cities : Kazan, Ethnicities : Cheremisses, Chuvashes, Mordvinians, Tatars, from EB 1911
Religious
Economic
Geographical Article Casan, p.449 in Encyclopedia metodica. Geografia moderna vol.1, 1792, in Spanish, GB
Das Gouvernement Kasan, pp.469-473 in Th. Fr. Ehrmann, Neueste Kunde vom Russischen Reiche in Europa und Asien, vol.3 of Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde, 1807, in German, GB
Government of Casan, pp.624-625 in vol.3 of J. Playfair, A System of Geography, ancient and modern, 1810, GB
Kasan, in : R. Brookes, Brookes's General gazetteer improved, 1812, GB, unpaginated
Kazan, pp.235-237 in vol.4 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography, 1829, GB
Casan, p.342 in vol.2 of G.N. Wright, A New and Comprehensive Gazetteer, 1835, GB
Government of Kasan, p.65 in vol.4 of J. Bell, A system of geography, popular and scientific, 1836, GB
Das Gouvernement Kasan, pp.229-232 in vol.1 of Das Russische Kaiserreich, seine Geographie, Statistik, Volks- und Regentengeschichte, 1847, in German, GB
W.H. Beable, Russian gazetteer and guide, being an account of the territorial divisions and a description of over 300 of the principal towns and cities of Russia, Finland and Siberia (1919), posted on Internet Archive; Kazan pp.24-25
Historical Casan, p.610 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues Govt. Kazan, pp.167-187 in vol.2 of J.D. Cochrane, A pedestrian journey through Russia and Siberian Tartary, 1829, GB
Chapter VI : on the Cheremisses, the Chuvashes, Kasan, pp.130-159 in A. Erman, Travels in Siberia, 1848, GB
Govt. Kazan, pp.333-341 in vol.1 of A. von Haxthausen, The Russian empire, its people, institutions and resources, 1854, GB
Kazan, p.231 in J. Murray, Handbook for travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland, 1868, GB
H.A. Munro-Butler-Johnstone, A trip up the Volga to the Fair of Nijni-Novgorod (1875), posted on Internet Archive pp.80-98 : Kazan, Tartars, Tshuvashes, Theremes, Mordvins, Votyaks
Institutions Archives
Musea Kazan Kremlin
Museum of History of Kazan University, from Russia the Great
Monuments The Khan's Courtyard and the Governor's Palace, from Republic of Tatarstan
Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Kazan Gubernia Coat of Arms, from Civic Heraldry; from Vector Images, from Wikimedia

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Kazan
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
Country Specific
Online Journals full text online Tatar Gazette
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary B. Raymond, P. Duffy, Historical Dictionary of Russia, Methuan : Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.8 R268h