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Gubernia Vyatka Gubernia Yaroslavl
First posted on February 22nd 2008, last revised on July 15th 2010

History and Administrative Division . Predecessors Kostroma Namestinkhestvo 1776-1796, previously part of Arkhangelogorod (Arkhangelsk) Gubernia 1719-1776.
Kostroma Gubernia was established in 1796. It bordered on Vologda Gubernia in the north, Yaroslavl Gubernia in the west, Vladimir Gubernia in the southwest, Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia in the southeast and Vyatka Gubernia in the east.
Kostroma Gubernia was divided in 12 districts (Uyezds) : Kostroma, Bui, Chukhloma, Galich, Kineshma, Kologriv, Makariev, Nerekhta, Soligalich, Varnavin, Vetluga and Yurievets. In 1918, Kineshma, Nerekhta and Yurievets Uyezds were ceded to Ivanovsk Gubernia, in 1922 Varnavin and Vetluga Uyezds were ceded to Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia (Wikipedia). In 1936 the remnants of Kostroma Gubernia were incorporated into newly estanlished Yaroslavl Oblast; in 1944 Kostroma Oblast was split from Yaroslavl Oblast.
The Zemstvo Laws passed in 1864 granted regional self-government on Gubernia and Uyezd level; the regional administrative bodies are refererred to as Zemstvos. The Zemstvos were abolished in the course of the October Revolution.

Population . The population in 1811 was 1,014,000, in 1840 980,200, in 1867 1,101,100, in 1885 1,315,500, in 1915 1,855,900 (Lahmeyer), almost exclusively Russian and belonging to the Russian Orthodox Church. In 1897, only capital Kostroma (41,000) exceeded a population of 10,000 inhabitants.

Economy . Kostroma Gubernia was located in the Volga river basin; within its territory there were 6 navigable rivers : the Kostroma, Neya, Unzha, Vetluga, Vioksa (all tributaries of the Volga) and the Volga. The temperatures ranged between minus 30 degrees Celsius in January and plus 32 degrees Celsius in July; average annual temperature +3 degrees Celsius. The soil is fertile. Meyers c.1890. describes 61 % of the territory covered by forest, 20 as fields, 12 % pastorage, 7 % barren. Mainly grains and potatoes were cultivated; of lesser importance animal husbandry (cattle, pigs, horses, sheep), of some importance poultry, apples and cherries grown. Fishery was of importance; minerals produced included chalk, clay, bog iron, sulphur, ochre. As most peasants were not able of living of agriculture alone, they engaged in secondary activities including barrelmaking, carpentry, toymaking, basket weaving, spinning, weaving, pottery. Factories were concentrated in the capital Kostroma, mainly textile factories (weaving, dyeing), grain mills, distilleries, tanneries (Meyers c.1890). By 1906, 39 % of the farmland belonged to private owners (i.e. estates), 31.5 % to peasant communities, 19 % to the crown, 6 % to the Imperial family (EB 1911). At Soligalich there was a spa (saline, Meyer c.1890).
The section of the Transiberian Railroad passing through Kostroma Gubernia was constructed in 1906.

Kostroma Gubernia within the RSFSR . Kostroma Gubernia ceded territory to Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia and to newly created Ivanovo Voznesensk Gubernia, and thus was reduced to a fraction of her former territory. In 1926, Kostroma Gubernia bordered on Vologda Gubernia and Severo Dvinsk Guberbia in the north, on Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia in the east, on Ivanovo Voznesensk Gubernia in the south and on Yaroslavl Gubernia in the west.

Population . The population in 1926 was 1,081,000, in 1939 1,077,000 (Lahmeyer).

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P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
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Country Profiles Current Article Kostromskaya Gubernia, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Historical Article : Government : Kostroma, from EB 1911
Articles : Kostroma, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Links General
on History
Historical Dictionary
Accounts of History
Economy & Finances European Russia, from Transsib
Russia, from Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB ; search for Kostroma
Religion Article Old Believers, from Wikipedia
Article Raskolniks, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
History of Regions Articles Yaroslavl Oblast, Kostroma Oblast, from Wikipedia
Local History Articles Kostroma, Buy, Chukhloma, Galich, Nerekhta, Soligalich, from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Russia : Kostroma Oblast
Others List of Match Factories in the Russian Empire : Kostroma Gubernia, from The Virtual Matchbox Label Museum, in Russian

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Russia, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Document Collections
Historical Maps from Wikimedia, in Russian (Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (1890-1907))
Maps : Kostroma, (Atlas Marksa, 2nd edition 1910), posted by M. Witkam
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles : Governments : Kostroma, Cities : Kostroma, from EB 1911
Articles Kostroma, Buj, Galitsch, Jurjewez-Powolskij, Kineschma, Kologriew, Makarjew, Nerechta, Soligalitsch, Tschuchloma, Warnawin, Wetluga, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Geographical Das Gouvernement Moskwa, pp.403-405 in Th. Fr. Ehrmann, Neueste Kunde vom Russischen Reiche in Europa und Asien, vol.3 of Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde, 1807, in German, GB
Das Gouvernement Kostroma, pp.132-134 in vol.1 of Das Russische Kaiserreich, seine Geographie, Statistik, Volks- und Regentengeschichte, 1847, in German, GB
W.H. Beable, Russian gazetteer and guide, being an account of the territorial divisions and a description of over 300 of the principal towns and cities of Russia, Finland and Siberia (1919), posted on Internet Archive; Kostroma pp.26-27
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives Regional Archives of the Russian Federation, posted by IISG, scroll down for Kostroma Oblast
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Kostroma Gubernia Coat of Arms, from Civic Heraldry; from Vector Images, from Wikimedia

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Kostroma
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
Country Specific
Online Journals full text online
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary B. Raymond, P. Duffy, Historical Dictionary of Russia, Methuan : Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.8 R268h

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