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Gubernia Vladimir Gubernia Kazan
First posted on February 23rd 2008, last revised on July 19th 2010








History and Administrative Division . In 1708, the territory which in 1796 was to form Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia was placed under Kazan Gubernia. In 1778, the area was placed under Ryazan Namestichestvo, in 1779 separated from it and declared Nizhny Novgorod Namestichestvo, which in 1797 was elevated into Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia. Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia bordered on Kazan and Simbirsk Gubernia in the east, on Penza and Tambov Gubernia in the south, on Ryazan Gubernia in the west, on Kostroma and Vyatka Gubernia in the north. Nizhny-Novgorod Gubernia was divided in 11 districts (Uyezds) : Ardatow, Arsamas, Balachna, Garbatow, Knjaginin, Lukojanow, Makarjew, Nizhny-Novgorod, Semenow, Sergatsch und Wasil Sursk. In 1865, the Zemstvo constitution (provincial self-government) was introduced.

Population . The population in 1811 was 1,043,000, in 1840 1,118,300, in 1867 1,259,600, in 1885 1,469,400, in 1915 2,081,400 (Lahmeyer). It was composed of Russians, Mordvinians, Volga Tatars and Mari; all but 35,000 Muslims (the Volga Tatars) were Russian Orthodox Christians or Old Believers (c. 5 %).

Economy . In 1883, 42.8 % of the area was farmland, 38.2 % forest, 10.6 % pastorage.
The population lived of agriculture (grain, potatoes, apples, vegetables), animal husbandry (cattle, sheep, pigs, horses). For the 1880es a rapid decrease in forested area was recorded (Meyer). Salt, copper, gipsum, chalk, bog iron and clay was produced. Domestic industry produced doormats, woodwork etc. The Mordvinians kept bees for the production of honey and beeswax. In 1884 338 factories employed a combined total of 7,443 industrial workers. The leading industries were grain mills, distilleries, metalworks, leather industry and petrol industry ( Meyer).
The Volga River and its tributaries, Vetluga, Kershenez, Oka, Chugunka and Sura were navigable. From c. 1550 the major fair on the middle Volga was held as Makaryev; following the fire which burnt down Makaryev in 1817, the fair was moved to Nizhny Novgorod (Meyer).

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Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia within the RSFSR . Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia annexed eastern Kostroma Gubernia. In 1928 the autonomous district of Mordovia was established (in southern NN Gubernia); in 1930 it was split from NN Gubernia and elevated to an ASSR. In 1929 Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia was renamed Nizhny Novgorod Kray, in 1936 renamed in Gorki Kray.
In her borders of 1927, Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia bordered on Severo Dvinsk Gubernia in the north, on Vyatka Gubernia, Mari ASSR, Chuvash ASSR and Simbirsk Gubernia in the east, on Penza and Ryazan Gubernia in the south, on Vladimir, Ivanovo-Voznesensk and Kostroma Gubernia in the west.

Population . 2,754,200 in 1926, 3,565,000 in 1939 (Lahmeyer).







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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article Nishegorodskaya Gubernia, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Historical Articles : Nishnij-Nowgorod, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Links General
on History
Organizations
Historical Dictionary
Timelines
Accounts of History History of Nizhny Novgorod Region
Economy & Finances List of Match Factories in the Russian Empire : Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia, from The Virtual Matchbox Label Museum, in Russian
H.A. Munro-Butler-Johnstone, A trip up the Volga to the Fair of Nijni-Novgorod (1875), posted on Internet Archive, pp.99-129 : Nijni-Novgorod, First Aspect of the Fair, pp.129-137 : Tea, Sugar and Iron, pp.137-150 " Cotton, Linen, Silks and Woollen Goods; pp.150-160 : Persian and Caucasian Goods, Wood and Flax; pp.160-181 : the Amusements of the Fair, pp.181-189 : The Government of the Fair, pp.189- General Consideration of the Future of the Fair
Russia, from Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB ; search for Nizhny-Novgorod
Ethnography Mordvinians, from NUPI Centre for Russian Studies, scroll down for historikk; from Institute for Bible Translation, has history; Mordovia - History, from Turanian History
Articles Volgaic Finns, Mari People, Volga Tatars, from Wikipedia
The Finno-Ugric People, by Osmo Joronen; scroll down for The Mari People, by Vassili Nikolajev
Maris, Volga Tatars, from World Culture Encyclopedia
Religion Article Old Believers, from Wikipedia
Article Raskolniks, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
History of Nizhny Novgorod Jewish Community
History of Regions
Local History Articles Nizhny Novgorod : History, Arzamas : History, Balakhna, Sergach, from Wikipedia
Nizhny Novgorod, from Russia Info Centre, has files on Gorodets, Arzamas, Sarov
The History of the City of Nizhny Novgorod
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Russia : Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
History of Nizhny Novgorod School of Commerce
Culture
Biographies
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Russia, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Document Collections
Historical Maps Russian Empire - Southeast (Blackie & Son 1882), posted by FEEFHS
Maps : NN Gov. (north), NN Gov. (south) (Atlas Marksa, 2nd edition 1910), posted by M. Witkam
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles : Cities : Nizhniy-Novgorod, Mordvinians, from EB 1911
Articles Nishnij-Nowgorod, Mordwinen, Tataren, Tscheremissen (Mari), Ardatow, Arsamas, Balachna, Gorbatow, Knjaginin, Lukojanow, Makarjew, Semenow, Sergatsch, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious
Economic
Geographical Das Gouvernement Nischegorod, pp.408-413 in Th. Fr. Ehrmann, Neueste Kunde vom Russischen Reiche in Europa und Asien, vol.3 of Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde, 1807, in German, GB
Das Gouvernement Nischnii-Nowgorod, pp.128-132 in vol.1 of Das Russische Kaiserreich, seine Geographie, Statistik, Volks- und Regentengeschichte, 1847, in German, GB
W.H. Beable, Russian gazetteer and guide, being an account of the territorial divisions and a description of over 300 of the principal towns and cities of Russia, Finland and Siberia (1919), posted on Internet Archive; Nijni-Novgorod p.30
Historical
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues H.A. Munro-Butler-Johnstone, A trip up the Volga to the Fair of Nijni-Novgorod (1875), posted on Internet Archive, pp.99-129 : Nijni-Novgorod, First Aspect of the Fair, pp.129-137 : Tea, Sugar and Iron, pp.137-150 " Cotton, Linen, Silks and Woollen Goods; pp.150-160 : Persian and Caucasian Goods, Wood and Flax; pp.160-181 : the Amusements of the Fair, pp.181-189 : The Government of the Fair, pp.189- General Consideration of the Future of the Fair
Institutions Archives
Musea
Monuments
Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia Coat of Arms, from Civic Heraldry; from Vector Images, from Wikimedia

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Nizhny-Novgorod
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
Country Specific
Online Journals full text online
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary B. Raymond, P. Duffy, Historical Dictionary of Russia, Methuan : Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.8 R268h